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THE UNITED PRESBYTEJjgtelON LIBRARY 
475 Riverside QnC New York 27, N. Y. 



V 









PHBSBYTEFJ.AN HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

425 LOMBARD STREET 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 19147 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/churchat21pres 



THE CHURCH 



AT HOME AND ABROAD 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY 



BY ORDER OF 

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



Volume XXI 



PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF PUBLICATION AND SABBATH-SCHOOL WORK, 

No. 1334 Chestnut Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

1897 



M UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MISSION LIBRARY 
475 Riverside Drive, New York 11 a v 

INDEX TO VOLUarXXj 



Abbeville, B. C, 

Abyssinia, Italy and. . 

Abyssinian Chinch, . 

Africa, .... 

Africa, Batanga, 

Africa, Death of Mr. Marling, 

Africa, Dwarfs, 

Africa, Foundation Work in, 

Africa, Gospels in a New Tongu 

Africa, Letter from,. 

Africa, Miss Nassau's Work 

Africa, Opening of, 

Africa, Preaching Gospel in, 

Africa, 1 'nderpest in, 

Aged Coi. ibutor, 

Aid Appre ited, 

Alabama, Letter from, 

Alaska, Churches and Medical Work 

Alaska, Letters from, . . 24, 209 

Alaskan Missionaries, 

Alaska, Reindeer in, 

Albert Lea College, Albert Lea, Minn., 

Ambitious Disciples Corrected, 

American Board, .... 

American College in Relation to Religion 

Among the Nestorians, 

Anderson, Rev. Isaac, D.D., 

Appalling Spiritual Need in Nevada, 

Appeal lor Clothing, 

Appeals from Foreign Churches. 

Arbitration Treaty, 

Arizona, Letters Irom, 

Arkansas, Letter from, 

At the Inauguration, 

Baron de Hirsch Fund, 

Barrows. Dr., in Calcutta, . 

Beatty. Mrs. Mary, 

Benevolent Gifts, 

Bible and Foreign Missions, 

Biblical Argument for Foreign Missions, . 

Bible in the World, 

Bible Study, 

Blowing His Own Horn, .... 

Board of Education, 

Book Notices, ... 71, 228, 307 
Booth, Wm. A., Reminiscences of, . 

Boxes Wanted, 

Boys' Brigade, 

Brazil, Dedication at Rio Janeiro, 
Bridge of Sighs, Cambridge University, 

Eng., .... 
Brief Message from Illinois, 
Brown, Dr., Letter from, . 
Building within Their Means, 
Burden of Souls, 
Busy Men, 

California, Letters from, . . 23,99, 

California, Presbyterianism in, . 165,246, 
Called Home, 

Care of Candidates in Early Times, 
Causes of Debt, 



159 
210, 



238, 



135 

82 
316 
113 
104 
32 
105 
431 
33 
268 
104 
30 
114 
81 
90 
172 
24 
205 
292 
222 
2 2 - 2 
203 
163 
30 
445 
42 
243 
132 
53 
259 
393 
339 
25 
159 
315 
394 
239 
82 
36 
38 
32 
210 
360 
314 
469 
455 
365 
62 
29 

445 
202 
256 
212 
133 
328 
339 
329 
54 
368 
341 



Central America, 

Central China Mi-sion, 

Chamberlain, Rev. Jacob, 

Chapel Preaching, 

Character of Christ, . 

Cheerful Givers, 

Children in the Streets, 

Children's Day and the S. S. Ai 

Children of the South, 

Children's Day, 1897, 

Children's Day Picture, 

Children's Institute, 

Chile — A Dyins Convert. 

Chile, History of Two Bibles, 

Chile, New President in, . 

China, .... 

China Awakening, 

China, Central Mission Meeting 

China, Chapel Preaching, 

China, Chefoo, 

China, Church Membership in C< 

sion, .... 
China, Converted Teacher, 
China, Country Work, 
China. Endeavor Societies. 
China, Friendliness, . 
China, Itinerating, 
China, Letters from, . 
China, Li Hung Chang again. 
China, Missionary Spirit of Xat 



nveraary 



ntral Mis 



267, :! 



103, 



PAGE 

174 
217 
118 
142 
327 
408 
275 

52 
200 
132 

63 
341 

29 
3 
111 
253 
109 
118 
105 



105 
421 

174 
255 
421 
434 
8, 438 
253 
e Christians, 
254 
103 
433 

68 
315 
254 
255 

32 
253 



China Mission Handbook, . 

China, Multiplied Activities, 

China, Robert Morrison, . 

China, Russia in, 

China, Second Church at Nanking, 

China, Shanghai, 

China, Shanghai Mission Press, 

China, Student Volunteer Movement 

China, Thanksgiving Service, - 

China, Trials and Triumphs, 

China, Wei Hien Hospital, 

China, Wonderful Progress, 

Christian College, . 

Christian Endeavor in Binghamton, X. Y 

Christian Endeavor in Madison, 

Christian Envoy, 

Christianity's Message to Woman, 

Christianity's World-wide Mission, 

Christian Statesman, . 

Christian Training Course, 65, 148, 221, 300, 

Christ's World-wide Spirit, 

Church Asked for, 

••Church Erection. A Pleasing Sound." . 
Church Erection. Should it be the "First 

to Sutler?" 

Church Erection, When Does the Year 



255 

434 

2!) 

103 

279 

62 

(il 

394 

344 

40 

223 

463 

41 

52 

17 -J 

130 



Circular Letter from Secretaries. 
Cities 



End? 
272 
83 
. 289 



in 



£30 <? 



IV 



INDEX. 



Claims of the Day, 274 

Cleveland, Ex-Presideiit 237 

Coan, Titus, 464 

Colorado, Letters from. . . , 25, 99 

College Training for Divinity Students. . 49 

Colombia, Trials and Triumphs, . . 434 

Comparison, 124 

Contending with Ignorance and Prejudice, 54 

Cost of Administration, .... 187 

Cunningham. Mrs. Anne Sinclair, . . 239 

Curfew for City Children, .... 4 

Current Events and the Kingdom, 3, 81, 

159, 237, 315 

Current Literature in Korea, 

David Livingstone, 

Day with Red Men, 

Delightful Surprise, 

Divers Temptations, 

Division of Work among the Secretaries, 

Doak, Rev. Samuel, Founder of Washing- 
ton College, Tenn., .... 

Does It Pay ? 

Dr. Cattell's Successor, .... 

Dulles, Mr., Resignation of, 

Editorial Correspondence, .... 

Education in Missions, .... 

Effects of Financial Depression, 

Egypt, Bible in 

1897 and the Young People of the Presby- 
terian Church, 

Elements of Manhood in Eloquence, 

Equipment of Missionaries, 

Evangelical Churches, Increase of Mem- 
bership, 205 

Evangelistic Work; . 

Exceptional Cases, 

Faithful Disciple, 

Feast for the Dead, 

Fifteen Days with Peter, 

Foreign Board, Measures Adopted, . 

Foreign Missionaries, Our, 

Foreign Mission Boards, Conference of, . 

Foreign Mission Letters : 

Africa, 

China, 267, 358 

India 

Korea, 

Laos, 

Mexico, 

Persia, ... 42, 264, 355, 358, 437 

Siam, 45 

Syria, 358 

Foreign Missions, Board's Administration, 

Foreign Missions, Special Prayer in Board, 

Foreign Students in America, . 

For Example, .... 

Foundation Work in Africa, 

Four Birthday Messages, . 

Freedmen, Our Letter File, 

Friendliness toward Missionaries 

Gain in Educational Work, 

Gain of Missionaries, . 

Gathering in Spiritual Results, . 

General Assembly of 1897, 

Gleaner, A,! 

God's Workmen, 

Gospel for the Destitute, 

Gracious Habits, 

Grant, General, . 



393 
394 
380 
94 
133 
241 
188 

403 

54 

14 

342 

421 

144 

328 

3 

60 

8 

425 

206 
140 
55 
341 
292 
374 
251 
423 
254 

268 
438 
267 
46 
192 
357 



438 
177 
251 
260 
296 
431 
215 

57 
422 
422 

64 

53 
317 
214 
283 
287 

62 
394 



Greece, 239, 393 

Guatemala, New Outstation, . . . 255 

Haskell Lectures, 394 

Hawaiian Islands, Titus Coan . . . 464 
Healing, Teaching, Preaching in Teheran, 435 

He Careth 197 

History of the Board of Foreign Missions, 189 
Holland, Queen of, . . . . . . 3 

Holy Spirit and Foreign Missions, . . 39 
Home Mission Appointments, 27, 102, 212, 

294, 340 



Home Missionary Hardships 
Home Missionary Heroes, . 
Home Missionary's Wife's Offeri 
Home Mission Board Debt, 
Home Mission Debts, . 
Home Mission Executive, . 
Home Mission Letters : 

Alabama, 

Alaska, 

Arizona, 

Arkansas, 

California, . 

Colorado, 

Idaho, .... 

Indian Territory, . 

Kansas, 

Maine, .... 

Michigan, 

Minnesota, . 

Missouri, 

Montana, 

Nebraska, 

New Mexico, 

New York, . 

North Dakota, 

Pennsylvania, 

South Dakota, 

Utah 

Washington, 
Home Mission Offering of Sabb 

Class, .... 
Home Mission Reminiscences, 
Home Mission Retrenchment, 
Home Missions, Greatness of the Work, . 
Letter from Board, . 
New Treasurer, 
Pastoral Letter of General 



. 15 

. 149 

. 89 

. 85 

. 327 

. 412 

. 24 

24, 209, 292 

. 210, 339 

. 25 

25, 99, 339 

25, 99 

26, 339 

. 26 

. 210 

. 27 

. 340 

27, 100, 210 

. 99 

. 293 

. 100, 291 

- 210, 291 

. 100 

. 101, 291 

. 340 

. 101, 211 

211, 292 

. 292 



102, 



alh-school 



15 
333 

285 
406 
16 
15 

23 



Home Missions, 
Home Missions, 
Home Missions, 
Assembly, 

Hope Hall 159 

House-to-House Visitation, . . .116 

How a Church Was Built Fifty Years Ago, 171 
How a Field is Developed, . . . 131 

Huguenot Seminary, 297 

Idaho, Letters from, .... 26, 339 



Ideal Newspaper, 

Immigration in Germany, .... 

Immigration, Restriction of, 

Increasing Influence of Medical Work, 

India, Christian Girls' Boarding School at 

Dehra, 

India, Dr. Barrows in Calcutta, . 238, 

India, Famine in, 4, 104, 

India, Influence of Unbelievers , 
India, Leaven of Christianity, . 
India, Letters from, .... 267, 
India, Lights and Shades, .... 
India, Mission Meeting at Fatehgarh, 
India, Native Ministry, .... 



160 

81 

3 

422 

455 
394 
422 
263 
173 
374 
434 
103 
104 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

India, Progress for Woman in, . . . 316 

India, Relief for Distress, .... 160 

India, Relief Ships for, .... 315 

India, Street Preaching, .... Hi? 

India, Young Men in, .... 4 

Indian Citizens, 393 

Indians 90 

Indians in Arizona, 205 

Indians in New York, . . . .206 

Indian Territory, Letter from, ... 26 

In Memoriam, 284 

International Missionary Union, . . 317 

In the Snowy State, 160 

Iowa as a Sabbath-school Mission Field, 132 

Iowa, Ministerial Relief in Synod, . . 13 

Italian Y. P. S. C. E., .... 61 

Italy and Abyssinia 82 

Itinerating, 107 

Japan, ....... 109 

Japan, Bible Study under Difficulties, . 29 

Japan, Death of Dr. McCauley, . . 342 

Japan, Home Missions in, ... 31 

Japan, Missionary Army, .... 109 

Japan, Mr. Mott in, 370 

Jeweled Forest, 164 

Judson, Adoniram, 302 

Juniors, Lessons for, ..... 458 

Junior Superintendents, To, . . . 216 

Kansas. Letter from, 210 

Kline, Rev. J. G., 285 

Knowing God, 214 

Korea, .... 105, 108, 111, 120 

Korea, A Christian Statesman, . . . 223 

Korea, An Impressive Funeral, . . 341 

Korea, Church Work in Pyeng Yang, . 29 

Korea, Current Literature, . . . 394 
Korea. Incidents. . A 254, 255 

Korea, Letter from, 46 

Korean Catechumens, . . .421 

Korean Churches, 175 

Korean Reporters, 104 

Korean Students, 175 

Korea's Pressing Need, .... 4 

Korea, Surgery under Difficulties, . . 174 
Korea, Two Score Men and Two Score 

Women, 174 

Labor Pensions, 81 

Laos, Celebration of King's Birthday, . 105 

' Laos, Letter from, 192 

Laos, Nan Som, 341 

Laos Prisoner, 341 

Laos, Walking to Church, . . . 109 

Large Gift, 159 

Lend to the Lord, 288 

Life among the Lowlv in the Southland, . 321 

Little Child Leading," .... 328 

Local vs., General Claims, .... 439 

Lyon, Rev. David C, .... 150 

Madagascar, Affairs in, .... 315 
Madagascar. Churches in, . . . .31 

Magazines, With the, .... 72 

Maine, Letter from, 27 

Marsden, Edward 155 

Martin, W. A. P., D.D.. LL.D.. . . 145 
Mary Holmes Seminary, Pres. Ch., West 

Point. Miss 442 

McBeth, Miss Sue L 17 

McKinley, President. .... v j:i7 

Medical Missionaries. .... 270 



Melanethon, Philip 8 

Membership of the Board, 

Metlakahtla, Old and New, 

Mexico, A Model Governor, 

Mexico. Bible Lighting the Way to Chri>t 

Mexico. Board of Home Missions, 

Mexico, Conference of Workers, 

Mexico, Letter from, .... 

Mexico, President of. 

Mexico, San Luis Potosi, . 

Mexico, San Pedro Church, 

Miami, Florida, .... 

Michigan, Letter from, 

Michigan, Plans of Synod, 

Midday Prayer, 

Ministerial Necrology, 74 



369 
186 
399 

223 

173 
341 
252 

357 

3 

log 

2'.) 
286 
340 
21 >5 
L76 
151, 2:51), 308, 386, 
470 

Ministerial Relief, 127 

Ministerial Relief, Dr. Cattell's Successor, 14 

Ministerial Relief in Synod of Iowa, 

Ministers' House at Perth Amboy 

Minnesota, Letters from, . 

Minnesota, Possibilities of, 

Missionaries, Equipment of, 

Missionary Administration, 

Missionary Calendar, 41, 105, 175, 255, 342 

Missionary Conference at Lincoln Univer 
sity, . 

Missionary Qualifications, . 

Missionary Standard of Living, 

Mission Bands, Sunday school, 

Missons at Home and Abroad. 

Missouri, Letter from, 

Model Committeeman, 

Model Governor, 

Model Home Mission Church, 

Moffat, Robert, . 

Montana Experiences, 

Montana, Letter from, 

More about Rib Hill, . 

Mormon Authority Resisted, 

Mormon Converts, 

Mormonism, Two Functions of, 

Mormons, The, . 

Morrison, Robert, 

Motives for Foreign Missions, 

Mutual Forbearance, 

National Characteristic, 

Native Christians of Persia, 

Native Churches, 

Nebraska, Letters from, 

Needed Charity, A, . 

Negro Elocpjence, 

Nestorians, Among the, 

Nevada, the Snowy State. 

Never Heard a Sermon, 

New Mexico, Letters from, 

News Worth Telling, 

New West, The, 

New Work on Old Foundations 

New York City, Protestant Chu 

New York Indians, 

New York, Letter from, 

North Dakota. Letters from. 

Occidental College, 

Old and New Metlakahtla, 

Old Dwight Mission, 

Older States, 

Old Spanish Bibles, 



dies 



100 



10 



364 

27, 100, 210 
150 
425 
177 
422 

194 

428 

426 

458 

86 

99 

89 

223 

89 

141 

287 

293 

276 

205 

327 

327 

337 

68 

3 5 

398 

393 

261 

258 

2lil 

315 

443 

42 

160 

327 

291 

316 

20 

52 

205 

206 

100 

21)1 

441 

:;-.>'.» 

89 

20 7 

123 



VI 



INDEX. 



Olin, Harvey C, Treasurer Board of Home 

Missions. 
One Week's Work for the Master, 
Only Instrumentality Possible, 
Order of the Iron Cross, . 

Our Debt, 

Our Foreign Missionaries, 

Our Foreign Missionary Women, 

Our Magnanimous Heavenly Father 

Our Make Up, .... 

Our Refunded Account, 

Pastoral Letter of General Assembly on 

Home Missions, . 
Peace with England, 
Pendleton Academy, 
Pennsylvania, Letter from, 
Permanence of Pastoral Relation, 
Persia, Among the Nestorians, 
Persia, Dr. Cochran, 
Persia, Healing, Teaching, Preaching in 

Teheran, 

Persia, Letters from, . 42, 264, 355, 358 

Persia, Mr. Speer's Illness, 5, 33, 84, 161 

Persia, Multiplied Activities, 

Persian Politics, 

Persia, Oroomiah Churches, 

Persia, Our Missionaries at Mosul, 

Persia, Requisites for Village Touriu 

Persia, Summer Outing in, 

Persia, Turkish Refugees, . . 103, 

Persia, Woman's Work for Woman, 

Pilgrimage to Mecca, 

Pillow. A, 

Pioneering. .... 

Pleasant Words from Readers, . 

Practical Effect, 

Preaching Gospel in Darkest Africa, 

Presbyterian Characteristics, 

Presbyterian Endeavorers, 66, 146, 224, 301, 

Presbyterianism in California, . 165, 246, 
Presbyterian Sabbath-school Missions in 

the Church, 

Princeton Collegiate Institute, . 
Puyallup Indian Reservation, . 
Questions for Meetings, 73, 151, 227, 305, 

Randolph, Anson D. F., . 

Rankin, Melinda, 

Read the Bible Every Day, 

Receipts, ... 75, 153, 231, 309 

Red Cross in Cuba, 

Reformed Church of Hungary, 

Reindeer in Alaska, 

Relief for Armenian Orphans, . 
Representative Missionaries, 
Reminiscences of Girlhood in Turkey, 
Requisites for Village Touring, 

Revival of Religion, 

Revivals, 

Richmond, Va., Board's Work in, 
Riggs, Stephen R., D.D., LL.D., 

Russia in China, 

Sabbath Afternoons, 

Sabbath-school Extension in St. Louis. 
Sabbath-school Lessons, .... 
S. S. Missionary Notes, .... 
Salmon River Schoolhouse, 
School in a Sorghum Mill, .... 



PAGE 
15 

275 
54 
282 
365 
423 
350 
240 
161 
195 

23 

82 

277 

340 

7 

42 

29 

435 

437 
174 
433 
238 
175 

34 
354 
323 
173 
345 
3L5 

19 
170 
152 
440 
114 
375 
378, 
460 
329 

448 
47 
93 
385, 
467 
5 
218 
373 
388 
159 
137 
222 
159 
421 
325 
354 
397 
108 
230 
149 
315 
225 
202 
104 
134 
448 
52 



5, 33, 84, 161, 
355, 



226, 306, 



Senate, Our New, 

Siam and Laos, . 

Siam, Bangkok, . 

Siam, Day school at Paknam, 

Siam, Death of Mrs. Eakin, 

Siam, Divers Temptations, 

Siam, Elders, 

Siam, For Example, . 

Siam, Itinerating Experiences 

Siam, Letter from, 

Siam Mission, Jubilee of, . 

Siam's Jubilee, . 

Siam, Peguan Missionaries, 

Siam, Special Services, 

Simultaneous Foreign Mission Meetings, 

Small College, 

Snap Shots, 

South Dakota, Letters from, . . 101, 

Southern Negro Education, 

Spanish Confession of Faith, 

Spanish - speaking People, Our Work 

Among, 
Special Object Department, 
Speer, Robert E., Illness of, 
Speer, Robert E., Letters from, 42, 264 
StanibulofFs Murderers, 
Street Preaching, 
Student Volunteer Movement 
Suggestions for Study, 
Summer Outing in Persia, . 
Synodical Missionaries, Change of, 
Syria, Arabic Motto Worshiped, 
Syria, Bloody Affrays, 
Syria, House- to-House Visitation, 
Syria, Letters from, .... 358 

Syria, Schools, 

Systematic Praying, .... 
Ten Days in Ohio, .... 
Texas, Annual Report of Synodical Mis 

sionary, 

"That Black List," .... 
Theocracy vs. Republicanism, . 
The Tie that Binds, .... 

Three Scenes, 

Training of Sabbath-school Missionaries 

Treasury of the Foreign Board, . 

Triumphs in Missouri, 

Trusts and Monopolies, 

Trustworthy Character. 

Turkey, Aintab, . 

Turkey, Mosul, . 

Turkey, Reforms in, . 

Tuskegee Conference, 

Twentieth Century, . 

Twenty Questions, 73, 150, 226, 306, 386 

Two Alaskan Missionaries, 

Two Functions of Mormon 

Typical, Yet "Exceptional 

Utah, Letters from, 

Utah's Statehood, 

Value of Human Life, 

Vastness of the Field, 

Venezuela, Missionary Wo 

Vigorous Society, 

Washington, A Trip Through, 

Washington, Indians at Synod, 

Washington, Letter from, . 

Washington, Report of Synod's Missionary 

Committee, 



sm, . 

" Cases, . 
. 102, 



k in. 



21 



238 
112 
109 
255 

88 
241 
255 
296 
433 

45 
341 
432 
216 
174 

32 
279 
433 
211 
198 
205 

121 
187 
174 
435 

81 
107 
252 
385 
323 

15 
175 
105 
116 
438 

32 

84 
318 

95 
196 
328 
216 
125 
361 
183 
199 
3 
396 

85 
421 
173 
239 

81 
468 
222 
327 

56 
292 
328 

81 
109 
253 
372 

89 

15 
292 

96 



INDEX, 



VJf 



What God Expects, . 
What Juniors Can Do, 
Where the Debt Comes In, 
Wholesome Words, . 
Why We Are Presbyterians, 
Williamson, Rev. Thomas S. 
Woman's Organizations, . 
Woman's Work, . 



Adams, Rev. R. N., 
A. E. A., 

Agnew, Rev. B. L., 
Anderson, Rev. J. E., 
Austin, Rev. Alonzo E., 
Austin, Rev. Alvin C, 
Babcock, Rev. Maltbie D. 
Bannerman, Rev. W. S., 
Bartlett, Mrs. F. G., 
Bliss, Rev. Edwin M., 
Blohm, Rev. F. W., 
Boyd, Rev. R. P., 
Brown, Rev. Arthur J., 
Buell, W. C, 
Burbank, Rev. L. T., 
Burgess, Pres. B. A., 
Burch, Rev. Augustus, 
Carter, Mrs. H. D., 
Cavvichio, P. A., 
Chalfant, Rev. F. II., 
Clemenson, Rev. Newton E 
Clement, Hon. S. M., 
Coan, Rev. F. G., 
Condit, Rev. J. H., . 
Cook, Rev. Charles H., 
Cooter, Rev. J. T., . 
Corbett, Rev. Hunter, 
Cort, Miss Mary L., 
Corkey, Rev. J. Sloan, 
Cottingham, Mrs. R. A., 
Coult, Miss Lizzie, 
Cummings, Miss Anna M., 
Curtis, Rev. S. W., . 
Dale, Mrs. Gerald F., Jr., 
Danskin, Rev. Alexander, 
Davies, Rev. John R., 
Dennen, Rev. Stephen R., 
Dennis, Mrs. James S., 
Dobson, Rev. Leonidas, 
Duncan, Rev. Calvin A., 
Dunlap, Rev. Eugene P., 
Eakin, Rev. J. A., 
Eckels, Rev. Mervin J., 
Eddy, Dr* Mary Pierson, 
Edwards, Rev. George, 
Edwards, Rev. J. H., 
Egbert, Rev. J. P., . 
Ellinvvood, Rev. F. F., 
Esselstyn, Rev. Louis F., 
Forman, Rev. John N., 
Ganse, Rev. Hervey D., 
Gertsch, Rev. A., 
Ghormley, Rev. D. O., 
Gilbert, Rev. H. M., . 
Gilchrist, Rev. J. J., . 
Gill, Rev. C. O.. 
Gillespie, Rev. John, 
Good, Rev. James I., . 



I) 



D. 



PAGE 




PAGE 


. 372 


Woman's Work for Woman in Persia 


, . 345 


. 225 


Work, Difficulties and Success of the 




. 359 


man Pastor, 


. 102 


. 89 


Working Rooms of Board of Education, . 193 


. 215 


World's Missionary Conference, 


. 159 


. 149 


Worth Reading, ' 150, 229, 308, 384 


. 348 


Young People's Christian Endeavor Nol 


. 344 


•V.i. 1 39, 21 


;. 295, 371 


WRITERS. 




. 27 


Gould, Rev. J. Loomis 


. 2i)0 


. 283 


Grili, Rev. Filippo 


99 


. 127 


Guille, Rev. B. F 


. 24 


. 99 


Hall, Rev. John 


. 288 


. 292 


Harbaugh, Rev. II. W., . 


. 2'. H 


. 24 


Heberton, Rev. W. W., 


. 13 


. 39 


Hickman. Rev. F. D., . 


. 268 


. 114 


Holmes, Rev. Mead, . . . . 


. 320 


. 198 


Holt, Rev. W. S., 


. 118 


. 425 


Hormel, Rev. W. H., 


. 100 


. 292 


James, Hon. Darwin R., . 


. 177 


. 26 


Jessup, Rev. H. H., . 


. 358 


. 256 


Jewett, Miss Mary, 


345, 437 


. 99 


Johnston, Miss Julia H., . 


. 458 


. 25 


Kearn, Rev. S. R 


. 25 


. 279 


Kelley, Rev. T. V., . . 


. 100 


. 162 


Knapp, Rev. Nathan B., . 


. 101 


. 325 


La Pointe, Rev. Pierre, 


. 101 


. 61 


Laughlin, Mrs. J. A., 


. 267 


. 426 


Laughlin, Rev. J. A., . . . 


. 358 


. 211 


Little, Rev. H. S., 


. 95 


. 183 


Lora, Rev. V 


. 291 


. 358 


Mack, Clark A., 


. 275 


25, 292 


Marsden, Edward, 


. 399 


. 339 


Marshall, Rev. Thomas, 


. 872 


. 403 


Mathison, Rev. G. G., 


27, 210 


. 109 


Matthieson, Rev. Matthias, 


. 210 


. 432 


McBeth, Miss Kate, . 


. 17 


. 101 


McGilvary, Rev. Daniel, . 


. 192 


321 


McKay, Rev. Kenneth, 


. 27 


. 216 


McKinlay, Rev. George A., 


. 277 


. 297 


McKittrick, Rev. W. J., . 


. 872 


. 291 


McNair, Rev. William W.. 


. 340 


. 116 


Merwin, Rev. A. Moss, 


. 339 


. 340 


Minton, Rev. Henry Collin, . Id 


5. 246, 329 


. 38 


.Montgomery, Rev. David W.. . 


. 291 


. 25 


Moyer, Rev. Samuel B., . 


. ion 


. 350 


Myers, Miss Kate L., . 


. 374 


. 27 


Oliver, Rev. Charles A., 


. 140 


. 243 


Pamment, Rev. John M., . 


. 93 


. 45 


Parkhill, Pres. J. W 


. 441 


41, 296 


Parkhurst, Rev. C. H 


41 


. 402 


Parsons, Rev. Benjamin, . 


. 292 


. 438 


Perkins, Mrs. S. C, . 


. 348 


. 293 


Perkins, Rev. Silas, . 


. 339 


. 412 


Peterson, Rev. W. S., 


. 211 


. 40 


Phraner, Rev. Wilson. 


33 


. 189 


Rankin, Rev. II. AY.. 


. 26 


. 261 


Rawlins. Rev. J. E 


. 280 


. 107 


Rhea, Mrs. Sarah J., . 


. 344 


. 125 


Richmond, Rev. J. M., 


47 


. 211 


Roberts, Rev. Wm. Henry, 


. 375 


96 


Robinson, Mrs. Albert B., 68, 2 IS. 3( 


)2. 380, 4C» I 


. 210 


Robinson, Rev. Jay Forbes. 


. 101 


. 210 


Rodriguez, Rev. A. J., 


. 26 


. 438 


Ross, Rev. J. Chalmers, 


. 211 


. 428 


Rouillard. Samuel, 


. 101 


. 137 


Russell, Miss Grace C, 


. 354 



VIII 



INDEX. 



Sample, Rev. R. F., . 
Sexton, Rev. T. L., . 
Shedd, Mrs. Sarah J., 
Sheets, Miss Anna May, 
Sherman, Miss Jennie H., 
Siler, Rev. G. W., 
Speer, Robert E., 
Stewart, Rev. D. J., . 
Stone, Rev. M. A., 
Stowell, Mrs. A. W., . 
Stryker, Pres. M. W., 
Terrill, Charlotte M., . 



PAGE 

. 406 

. 100 

. 323 

. 209 

. 267 

. 267 

42, 264, 354, 435 

. 357 

. 202 

. 89 

. 279 

. 239 



Thompson, Rev. H. A., 
Trippe, Mrs. Sarah L., 
Tucker, Rev. H. A., . 
Underwood, Rev. H. G., . 
Van Dyke, Rev. Henry J. , 
Walker, Miss Belle, . 
Weeks, Rev. Thomas J., . 
Whittemore, Rev. I. T., 
Williamson, Rev. John P., 
Withrow, Rev. John Lindsay, 
Young, Miss Ella, 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Agnew, Rev. B. L., D.D., 

Albert Lea College, .... 203 

Alexander, Rev. William, D.D., 

All Aboard, 

Anderson, Rev. Isaac, D.D., 
Armenian Girls, Harpoot, Turkey, . 
Armenian Woman, with Child in Cradle, 
Beggars in Peking, .... 
Boy Jesus in the Temple, . 
Bridge of Sighs, Cambridge University 

England, 

Brier, Rev. W. W., . 
Burrowes, Rev. George, D.D., 
Cemetery at Mt, Seir, Oroomiah, Persia, 
Chamberlain, Rev. Jacob, D.D., M. D., 
Children's Institute, Illustrations, 
Church in Benito, Africa, 

Coan, Titus, 

College Aveuue, Princeton, Ky., 

Cover of B.ible Presented to the Empres 

Dowager, 

Dickson. Rev Cyrus, D.D., 

Doak, Dr. oamuel, .... 

Eaton, Oliver D., 

Ethel Presb^yterian Church, Missouri, 

First Colored Church, Richmond, Va., 

First Presbyterian Church, Benicia, Cal., 

Fort Lapwai, Nez Perce Station, Iowa, 

Go, 

Good, Rev. A. C, Ph.D., 

Harbor and Landing, Sitka, Alaska. 

Hatfield, Rev. Edwin F., D.D., 

Harmon, Rev. S. S., 

Home Bible Class, 

Indians in Chile, 

Interior of Mr. Wilson's House (Lakawn 

Laos), 
Irving, Rev. David, D.D., 
Italian Children, 
Japanese Women, 
John Day's School, 
Kendall. Rev. Henry, D.D., 
Louw, Rev. Andrew and Mrs., 
Lowrie, Rev. John C, D.D., LL.D. 
Magdalen College, Oxford, England 
Marsden, Edward, 
Martin, W. A. P., D.D., LL.D., 
Mary Holmes Seminary, 
McBeth, Miss Sue L., 
McDowell, Rev. W. A.. D.D., 
McFarland, Mrs. A. R., 
McAVhorter. Dr.. 
Melancthon, Philip, . 
Metlakahtla, Beginning of New, 
Mission House at Aniwa, . 



D.D. 



127 Mitchell, Rev. Arthur, 

204 Moffat, Robert, . . ' . 

331 Mr. Yun, Korean Minister of Education, 

112 Mosul Christians, 

243 Mt, St. Elias, Alaska, .... 

373 Muir Inlet, Alaska, 

353 Murray, Rev. Andrew 

257 Musgrave, Rev. Geo. W., D.D , 

142 Native Children in Courtyard, . 

Native Pastors, Mexico, . 

445 Native Pastors, North Laos, 

246 Nevius, Rev. John L., D.D 

330 New Mexico Home Missionaries, 

427 Newton, Rev. John, D.D., 

217 Occidental College, 

63 Olin, Harvey C, Treasurer, 

80 On the Way to Emmaus, .... 

464 Page of Bible Presented to^Empress Dow 

47 ager, 

Parkhill, Pres. J. W., 

36 Patton, John G., 

417 Pendleton Academy, . 

403 Pesaturo, Rev. Francesco, 

457 Powell, S. D., Treasurer, 

199 Preparing for a Country Trip — China, 

280 Presbyterian Building, 53 Fifth Ave., 

165 Presbyterian Building, 156 Fifth Ave., 

17 Princeton Collegiate Institute, Students, . 

113 Randolph, Anson D. F., . 

431 Rankin, William 

158 Residence of Rev. Jonathan Wilson, 

411 Lakawn, 

247 Residence of Rev. Wm. C. 
343 Efulen, Africa, . 
251 San Francisco Theological Sem. 

Scott, Rev. W. A., D.D., . 

425 Session of Second Pres. Ch. 
183 S C 

62 Sbedd, Rev.' John H.,'d.D., .' 

347 Storrs, Rev. Richard S., D. I)., . 

362 Teachers and Students, Lane Seminary, . 

405 The Pack-trail was Connected with the 
299 Ferry Boat, 

181 They Made Quite a Congregation, 

49 View at Rib Hill, 

445 Walsworth, Rev. E. B., . 

145 Wells, Rev. John D., D.D., 

320 Willard, Mrs. Eugene S., . 

19 Williams, Rev. Albert, 

414 Wilson, Rev. J. Leightou, D. 

222 Woodbridge, Rev. Sylvester, 

368 Wood Seller— India, . 

269 Woods, Rev. James, . 

399 Working Rooms of Board of Education, 

71 Village Preac_ing — India, 



Johnston, 



Abbeville, 



D.D. 



210 

206 

26 

46 

187 

102 

333 

164 

101 

60 

203 



176 
141 
223 
264 
93 
88 
297 
413 
144 
236 
256 
430 
121 
429 
442 
327 
142 

37 
441 

64 
277 

61 
418 
110 
407 
409 

48 

5 

184 

424 

423 

329 
249 

135 

437 
9 

319 

363 

448 
274 
248 
182 
222 
168 
181 
167 
35 1 
169 
193 
106 



The Church at Home and Abroad. 

JANUARY, 1897. 



Contents 



Current Events and the Kingdom, 
News from Mr. Speer, 
Anson D, F. Randolph, 
Permanence of Pastoral Relation, 
Elements of Manhood in Eloquence, 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF, 13 

Dr. Cattell's Successor, - 14 

HOME MISSIONS. 

Notes.— Our Country's Opportunity for Young Men— Oregon's Synodical Missionary— Thanks- 
giving Offering of Eight Girls— Thirty Christian Indians at Synod of Oregon— Hardships 
of this Winter— The New Treasurer, Mr. Harvey C Olin— Commendation of Assistant 

Treasurer, Mr. Varian Banks 15 

Address of the Board to Ministers, Elders, and Members of the Church, 16 

Miss Sue L. McBeth, Miss Kate McBeth, 17 

A Pillow, . . , 19 

Concert of Prayer.— The New West, 21 

Pastoral Letter of General Assembly, 23 

Letters. — Alabama, Rev. B. F. Guille— Alaska, Rev. A. C. Austin, Rev. J H. Condit — Arkansas, 
Rev. 8 R Keam— California, Rev. S R. Dennen— Colorado, Rev. L. T. Burbank, Rev. H. 
W Rankin, Rev. A. J. Rodriguez— Idaho, Rev R. P. Boyd— Indian Territory, Rev. H. A. 
Tucker, Rev. L. Dobson— Maine, Rev. Kenneth M cKay— Minnesota, Rev. R. N. Adams, 
B.B., Superintendent, Rev. O. Mathison— Appointments, 24-28 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

Fresh Facts.— Wei Hien Hospital— Dr. Cochran a Power— Pyeng Yang Church Work— Dedi- 
cation at Rio Janeiro— Bible Study Under Difficulties — History of Two Bibles— San 
Pedro Church— A. B. C. F. M.— Opening of Africa— Churches in Madagascar— Home Mis- 
sions in Japan — Shanghai Mission Press— Simultaneous Missionary Meetings — Mission- 
aries at Mosul— Schools in Beirut — Death of Mr. Marling — Bible in the World— Gospels in 

New Tongue— Dr. Marshall on Pacific Coast— Illness of Mr. Speer in Persia, . . . 29-33 

Motives for Foreign Missions, Rev. Wilson Phraner, B.D., 33 

Concert of Prayer.— The Bible and Foreign Missions, 36 

Biblical Argument for Foreign Missions, Rev. John R. Davies, D.D., 38 

Holy Spirit and Foreign Missions, Rev. M. D. Babcock, D.D., 39 

Christianity's World-wide Mission, J. P. Egbert, D.D., 40 

Christ's World-wide Spirit, 0. E. Parkhurst, B.B., 41 

Missionary Calendar, 41 

Among the Nestorians, Robert E. Speer, 42 

Letters.— Siam, Rev. E. P. Dunlap, B.D.— Korea, Rev. H. 0. Underwood, B.B., ... 45 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES.— Princeton Collegiate Institute, Rev. J. M. Richmond, D.D., 47, 48 

EDUCATION.— College Training for Divinity Students, 49-51 

PUBLICATION AND SABBATH-SCHOOL WORK.— Children of the South— School in Sor- 
ghum Mill— Church Asked for — New Work on Old Foundations— Pioneer Work in Mis- 
souri— Gathering in Spiritual Results — Appeal for Clothing — Called Home— Contending 
with Ignorance and Prejudice— Does it Pay ? — Only Instrumentality Possible, . . . 52-54 
CHURCH ERECTION.— Exceptional Cases— Typical yet "Exceptional'"' Cases, . . . 55,56 

FREEDMEN.— Our Letter File, 57, 58 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR.— Notes— Catechism for January— 1897 and 
the Young People of the Presbyterian Church, Rev John Lindsay Wit/trow, D.D , LL.B. 
—Christian Endeavor in Madison, Wis., Mary Elizabeth Young— An Italian Y. P. S C. E., 
P A. Cavicchio— Christian Endeavor in Binghamton, N Y.— Gracious Habits— The 
Boys' Brigade — The Children's Institute— John G. Paton— A "Game of Missionaries" — 
Christian Training Course — Presbyterian Endeavorers — Robert Morrison, Mrs. Albert B. 

Robi -son— Twenty Questions on the Bible and Foreign Missions, 59-70 

Book Notices 71, 72 Ministerial Necrology, 75 

With the Magazines, 73 Summary of Receipts 75,76 

Questions, 74 Officers and Agencies, 77, 7 8 



Errata.— Page 28, last line of left-hand column, for "son of Rahab" read "seer; to Rahab." Same 
page, second column, third line, for " boy" read " being." 



1897 — 

Church at Home and Abroad. 

TWEliVE SUCH NUMBERS AS THIS. 

ONE eVe^v month. 

EACH NUMBER BETTER THAN THE PRECEDING 
IF WE CAN MAI^E IT SO. 



ALL FOR OIsTE DOLLAB. 



Where else so much reliable information about Christian Work 
and wholesome incentive to it? 



Subscriptions may begin with any number. Send the dollar and 
your address to 

JOHN H. SCRIBNER, Business Superintendent, 
1334 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



The~General Assembly's Committee. 

JOHN S. MACINTOSH, D.D m Chairman, 

133 4 Chestnut tit., Philadelphia. 

CHARLES A. DICKEY, D.D., HENRY T. McEWEN.D.D., 

WARNER VAN NORDEN, STEPHEN W. DANA, D.D., 

Hon. ROBERT N. WILLSON, CHARLES L. THOMPSON, D.D. 

JOHN H. DEY, Esq., F. F. ELLINWOOD, D.D . 

STEALY B. ROSSITER, D.D., WILLIAM C. ROBERTS, D.D. 



THE CHURCH 



AT HOME AND ABROAD, 



January, iso7. 



CURRENT EVENTS AND THE KINGDOM. 



The Queen of Holland. — Queen 
Wilhelmina has recently, on confession of 
her faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, been 
received as a member of the Reformed 
Church of the Netherlands. 

The Bible in Egypt. — The American 
Bible Society reports that during the last 
decade it has circulated 116,474 copies of 
the Bible in Egypt. This is a large in- 
crease over the number the Society was 
sending to that land thirty years ago. 

The President of flexico. — On the first 
of December, General Porfirio Diaz, en- 
tered upon his fifth term as president of the 
Republic of Mexico. In 1876 he became 
president by force of arms, displacing 
Lerdo de Tejada. He was succeeded by 
General Gonzalez in 1880: but in 1884 
was elected to a second term. This honor 
was conferred upon him also in 1888, in 
1892 and in 1896. President Diaz is now 
sixty-six years of age. It is believed that 
the peace and prosperity enjoyed by " our 
next-door neighbor " are largely due to his 
wisdom and firmness. 

New President in Chile. — Chile re- 
cently passed through a presidential elec- 
tion, and the successful candidate has 
been already inaugurated. He seems to 
represent a reactionary tendency as against 
the liberal party in Chile, which means 
larger influence for the clerical party; yet 
parties are so nearly balanced in this 
republic that there is reason to hope the 
Romish hierarchy will not gain too strong 
an ascendency, calculated to check the 
growth of evangelical truth. The Bible has 



been largely circulated throughout the coun- 
try, and is gaining increasing influence 
among all classes. The present outlook for 
missionary effort is full of encouragement. 

Trusts and Monopolies. — President 
Cleveland, in his annual message, considers 
briefly " the existence of trusts and other 
huge aggregations of capital, the object of 
which is to secure the monopoly of some 
particular branch of trade, industry, or 
commerce, and to stifle wholesome competi- 
tion." Speaking of the ground on which 
they are usually defended, that they reduce 
prices and thus benefit the public, he says : 
"A reduction of prices to the people is not 
one of the real objects of these organiza- 
tions." The tendency of trusts and mon- 
opolies is " to crush out individual inde- 
pendence and to hinder or prevent the free 
use of human faculties and the full develop- 
ment of human character." 

Restriction of Immigration. — The Im- 
migration Restriction League, says the 
Evangelist, aims to eliminate some of the 
worst evils of unrestricted immigration. 
What most of the advocates of further 
restriction want, and what the Lodge- 
Corliss bill, shortly to come before the 
Senate, aims to accomplish, is not the ex- 
clusion of foreigners generally, but of those 
who are ignorant alike of their own lan- 
guage, of an occupation, and of the stand- 
ards of living and character which distin- 
guish American people. There can be no 
question that the dangers that threaten our 
nation are intensified a hundredfold by the 
power of illiteracy and degradation in the 
conduct of the national affairs. 

3 



CURRENT EVENTS AND THE KINGDOM. 



L-. 



Famine in India. — The condition of 
the people in some parts of India is distress- 
ing in the extreme. A report from Alla- 
habad speaks of men and women who were 
living skeletons wandering through the streets 
crying for food. In one place were found 
137 little children, whose parents had died 
or deserted them, picking up grain in the 
market-place, and eating it raw. Poor 
people sweep up the dust from the dried-up 
grass on the roadside and winnow it for the 
sake of the few grass seeds they may find. 
Everything that can sustain life is eaten — 
the seeds of weeds, the roots of grass, bark 
of trees, and the stones of the mangoe fruit. 
Parents are selling their children to get 
food. While much has been done to avert 
the threatened calamity, more than 70,- 
000,000 people are already suffering. 

Young ilen in India. — Mr. J. R. Mott, 
who last summer held conferences in five of 
the great cities of India, in the interest of 
the Student Volunteer Movement, was 
deeply impressed by what he saw in one of 
the theological seminaries. That many of 
the best students came from the lowest 
castes of India was to him convincing 
evidence of the uplifting power of the 
gospel. Training such men, and sending 
them back to work among the common 
people, is in direct line with the teaching 
and practice of Christ. Nothing could be 
more important, he said, than training 
leaders for the forces of God to carry the 
gospel to the millions in the valley of the 
Ganges. That the Christian young men of 
the land of the Veda are recognizing their 
responsibility for the evangelization of their 
countrymen, is an encouraging sign of the 
times. 

Curfew for City Children.— The Cur- 
few Ordinance, requiring children to be at 
their homes after nightfall, has now been 
adopted by two hundred cities, and city 
officials, parents, school-teachers and chiefs 
of police are emphatic in their praise of its 
efficacy. Mrs. John D. Townsend, who 
makes this statement in the North American 
Review, believes that, while prevention of 
crime is better than its punishment, it is 
best to begin with care for children, and 
also that the associations of the streets in the 
night hours are productive of crime. The 
mayor of one Western city testifies: In the 
two years we have had the curfew we have 



sent no children to the Reform School, 
whereas before that we sent quite a number. 
The chief of police of another says: After 
the curfew was in force a few weeks, arrests 
for disorderly conduct and truancy fell off 
fully seventy-five per cent. 

Korea's Pressing Need. — Mrs. Isabella 
Bird Bishop, in a stirring appeal for prompt 
and large reinforcements to the work in 
Korea, writes: " The Pyeng Yang work 
which I saw last winter, and which is still 
going on in much the same way, is the most 
impressive mission work I have seen in any 
part of the world. The Spirit of God still 
moves on the earth, and the old truths of 
sin, judgment to come, of the divine justice 
and love, of the atonement, and of the 
necessity of holiness, have the same power as 
in the apostolic days to transform the lives 
of men. Not in Pyeng Yang only, but 
here in the capital, the seed sown so long 
in tears is promising to yield a harvest, if 
the reapers come. 

" Now a door is opened wide in Korea — 
how wide only those can know who are on 
the spot. Very many are prepared to re- 
nounce devil worship and to worship the 
true God if only they are taught how; and 
large numbers more who have heard and 
received the gospel are earnestly craving to 
be instructed in its rules of holy living. 
How widely the desire is spread and how 
great the movement is, Mr. Moffett will tell 
you far better than I can. 

" The methods of the missionaries are 
admirable in the training of the Christians 
to self-help. They are helping themselves 
to the limit of their means. Also admira- 
ble are the methods used for fitting the 
Koreans to carry the gospel intelligently to 
their brethren. This work alone, requires 
four times the number of men already in 
the field to carry it on! Yet on it, perhaps, 
more than on any other agency, hang our 
hopes for the advancement of Christ's king- 
dom in Korea. 

" I came to Korea a fortnight earlier 
than I had intended to in order to attend 
the Presbyterian annual meeting, and I am 
very thankful that I did so, for I have not 
elsewhere seen such an earnest, cheerful, 
whole-hearted body of men and women, 
with so completely one aim in view, and so 
much in harmony as to the way of carrying 
it out." 



1897.] 



ANSON D. P. RANDOLPH. 



Our Home Mission pages are the most 
interesting we have had for a long time. 
Our Editorial Correspondent has been 
almost crushed under the Home Mission 
debt and the consequent distress. But 
he girds himself with new strength for the 
new year. Read his New West (p. 20) 
and see if it does not almost justify the 
spread-eagle scream, at the top of p. 16. 

See in the article of Miss McBeth (p. 17) 
what Christian womanhood is capable of. 

Mr. Carnegie is reported to have offered 
a thousand dollars to any one who will 
read aloud one of the stories in " Beside the 
Bonnie Briar Bush" without crying. If 
Mr. Carnegie will read the story of A 
Pillow, beginning on our p. 19, we doubt if 
he can help crying and also giving a thou- 
sand dollars to Mr. Treasurer Olin. 

But we cannot look to Mr. Carnegie. We, 
our own Presbyterian selves, must give the 
needed thousands. Not tears but dollars. 

" Mild Typhoid — steadily improving," 
are the words received by cable from Mrs. 
Speer at Hamadan, on the eighth of Decem- 



ber, and reaching us from New York on the 
ninth. The note reporting Mr. Speer's 
illness, on page 33, is in the part of our 
magazine which had gone to press before 
the dispatch printed above was receive]. 
It will be more than another w T eek before 
this number will have been filled and fin- 
ished and mailed to its readers. 

"Convalescing" is the joyful word 
which the cable brings to New York on the 
fifteenth of December — Mrs. Speer's second 
weekly telegram. Rarely is one word 
freighted with so much joy to be conveyed 
to so many hearts. 

We may now cheerfully hope that our 
brother is already continuing his important 
and interesting journey. Affectionate 
prayer will not cease, in any longitude, that 
he may be enabled to continue it through 
the wide circuit of the Asiatic missions, and 
bring home from them greatly increased 
knowledge and power for the work which 
the Church has entrusted to him. Nor will 
it be forgotten that Mrs. Speer has been and 
continues to be the faithful sharer of all her 
husband's exposures. 



ANSON D. F. RANDOLPH. 



On Tuesday evening, November 24, 
1896, a meeting was held in the lecture- 
room of the Fourth Avenue Presbyterian 
C^iurch, in New York, in affectionate com- 
memoration of that good man. Among the 
speakers were two who had been his pastors, 
Rev. Dr. Thomas Hastings, many years 
ago, and Rev. Dr. Davies, at the end of his 
life; one well known writer of good books, 
Rev. Edward Eggleston, D.D. ; two hon- 
ored publishers, Messrs. G. H. Putnam and 
R. R. Bowker ; also Rev. Dr. Hunt, Secre- 
tarv of the American Bible Society, and 
Rev. H. M. Field, D.D., Editor of the 
New York Evangelist. 

On account of Mr. Randolph's important 
official connection with The Church at 
Home and Abroad, its editor was invited 
to participate in those pleasant commemora- 
tive exercises. He gratefully accepted the 
invitation and he had nothing to say there 
which he is not quite as willing to say to all 
our readers, confident that many of them in 
more lands than one share his grateful affec- 
tion for Mr. Randolph. He spoke as follows : 




Probably almost all of those who now de- 
light to honor Anson D. F. Randolph first 
saw his name, as publisher, on the title-page 
of some good book. These, together with 
w T riters of those books, of every one of 
whom he made a personal friend, are a very 



6 



ANSON D. F. RANDOLPH. 



[January, 



great multitude, and they are in every part 
of this and in many other lands. We are 
met together to-night as representatives of 
that great constituency. 

I understand that our friend's lifelong 
labor did not greatly enrich him in " corrup- 
tible things as silver and gold" ; but, where 
he now is, where he ' ' rests from his labors 
and his works follow him," he cannot regret 
that his investments were chiefly made 
" where neither moth nor rust doth con- 
Nor can I believe that, in that 



sume. 



light, he sees one book that he published 
and wishes that he had not. 

It is pleasant to associate Mr. Randolph 
with this holy house and with that good 
great man of whose ministry here he was so 
faithful and strong a helper. This is pecu- 
liarly so to me because both Mr. Randolph 
and Dr. Crosbv were members of the com- 
mittee appointed by our General Assembly 
to establish a monthly magazine in the inter- 
est of our Church's vast and various work 
at home and abroad, and who called me to 
be its editor. I am sure of the hearty con- 
currence of the other faithful men who for 
tea years have given their united wisdom 
and energy and patient care to that enter- 
prise, when I say that no others have thus 
labored more faithfully or more helpfully 
than that noble pair of brothers. 

It was in the early morning of that 
Brooklyn pastorate, upon the golden glory of 
whose evening all Christendom is now gazing 
with reverent joy, that that young man elo- 
quent delivered an address in this city, at 
the anniversary of the American Bible 
Society, some sentences of which I have 
ever since kept in that chamber of my mem- 
ory in which I keep things of beauty that 
are " a joy forever ' ' — that kind of joy which 
is also strength. One of them illustrated 
the power of the Bible in the literature and 
speech of any people into whose language it 
is translated. 

He said: "Have you not observed of 
our great senatorial orator, when he rises to 
the utmost height of his eloquence, the very 
pitch of his power, how he reverts to the 
simple Biblical phrase, and with that shakes 
the hearts of his hearers ? " In another he 
spoke of those brief and clear announce- 
ments of fundamental truth which we find 
here and there in the Bible, which at first 
seem isolated statements, but which deeper 
study show3 to be inseparable from the 



whole system of truth. So, one sometimes 
finds upon the side of a hill, what seems 
to him a boulder partly covered by the turf, 
but when he tries to dig or push it from its 
place, he discovers that it is the top of " a 
granite shaft going down to the central 
foundations of the earth." 

In the beautiful city of Auburn, in a 
small park adjacent to his own garden, 
stands a statue of New York's great states- 
man, Seward, not seated as yonder in 
Madison Square, holding the pen which was 
not less mighty than the sword of Grant, 
but standing erect, in oratorical attitude, 
where he had so often stood in life discours- 
ing political and ethical wisdom to his 
eagerly listening neighbors. Graven in the 
granite pedestal is his memorable utterance 
appealing to the Constitution of his country 
in protest against the proposed violation of 
a solemn national covenant, and also to " a 
higher law than the Constitution" which 
would be as signally outraged by the pro- 
posed legislation. 

Oa another face of that pedestal it was 
wisely deemed most suitable to engrave those 
lines which had been written by Mr. Ran- 
dolph at the close of Mr. Seward's official 
service of our National Government : 

" How, through the years in silence thou hast borne 
The cruel doubt, the slanders of debate — 
The assassin's knife, and keener blade of scorn 

Wielded by party in its narrow hate ! 
How could' st thou pause each step to vindicate 

Of thy surpassing work? Lo ! it is done : 
Freedom enshrined in our regenerate state, 
And they who were divided made as one ! " 

No one better than Mr. Randolph ap- 
preciated that " surpassing work," or the 
surpassing wisdom of that memorable procla- 
mation of the highest law. Partisan hos- 
tility mistook it for a round boulder of 
fanaticism that could easily be pushed from 
its place and rolled down the steep of politi- 
cal fortune. 

Deluded men! It is one of those old 
Bible rocks. The small top of it is uncov- 
ered upon the surface of time, but it goes down, 
an unbroken shaft, to the centre of eternity. 

Fellow T - citizens of wise Randolph, he- 
roic Crosby and illustrious Seward, citi- 
zens of Greater New York, or great Man- 
hattan — whatever name you decide to give 
to the majestic municipality you are prepar- 
ing to build — build it on that Bible rock of 
eternal adamant, and " the gates of hell 
shall not prevail against it." 



1897.] 



PERMANENCE OF THE PASTORAL RELATION. 



PERMANENCE OF THE PASTORAL RELATION. 



The recent celebration, in Brooklyn, of 
the semi-centennial of Rev. R. 8. Storrs, 
D.D., pastor of the Church of the Pil- 
grims, suggests some reflections upon the 
value of such steady and prolonged continu- 
ance of the pastoral relation. The Congre- 
gational and the Presbyterian view of this 
relation are alike in all essential particulars, 
though fulfilled in each denomination by 
methods corresponding to its general polity. 

In neither denomination is the pastoral 
relation indissoluble. Both recognize provi- 
dential occasions other than death or crime 
for dissolving it. But all its provisions look 
to stability, and to as long continuance as 
the providence of God will permit. Pastor 
and people take their mutual vows, not 
merely as honest stipulators to a contract, 
for a specified time, but rather as giving 
themselves to each other, in a holy union, 
not to be limited in duration, except by the 
providence of God, manifesting the will of 
God by indications the conclusiveness of 
which shall be judged, not by the parties, 
but by the same body of Christian breth- 
ren, representing the churches of the vicin- 
ity, with whose approval the relation was 
constituted. 

The pastoral relation, according to this 
idea of it, has great advantages. These 
arise, in a great degree, from the sense of 
stability, the presumption of permanence, 
which belong to it. On the part of the 
pastor, while this security is not strong 
enough to afford much encouragement to 
indolence, or to negligence, or to despotic 
behavior, it does encourage and invite 
liberal and comprehensive plans for study 
and for labor. It tends to steadfastness and 
perseverance ; to prudence and forbearance ; 
to thoughtful and prayerful consulting 
for the permanent interests of the church 
and of the community, and to the con- 
tinuous growth of influence. It permits 
the pastor to hope that infants whom 
he has baptized may be brought up under 
his ministry, in the Christian nurture which 
it is a prominent object of his ministry to 
aid and promote; that families constituted 
by marriage vows which he administers will 
have their family history under his pastoral 
care; that parish enterprises which he sug- 
gests and begins may be completed under 
his supervision ; that courses of religious in- 



struction may be carried through; that thus 
he may have the opportunity tor continuous 
labor, so favorable to ripe results. 

To the people the advantage is no less. 
Their hearts rest, with equal comfort, in 
the expectation of permanent enjoyment of 
a happy and sacred relation. They pray, 
with submission, yet with pleasant hope, for 
its long (if God please), its lifelong continu- 
ance. To them, as to him, it grows more 
precious with every year's experience. The 
form and the voice, grown familiar in the 
pulpit; the characteristic idioms in discourse 
and prayer; the accustomed modes of pas- 
toral intercourse and address; the various 
ministrations of pastoral love, in their sanc- 
tuary and in their homes — these and in- 
numerable other features of this happy 
relation make it unutterably precious to the 
people, and give it incalculable power for 
their edification. The continuous ministry 
of a pastor is God's most favored instru- 
mentality for the edification of his Church. 
Other instrumentality may produce more 
striking sudden effects; other instrumen- 
tality, as auxiliary and supplementary, may 
be of great value — perhaps even necessary 
sometimes — to render this most effective : 
but no other agency whatever can be in 
place of this, as the reliable means of steady 
and permanent upbuilding of the Church. 

A ministry which is interwoven with the 
affections of a people, which has tender 
and sacred connection with their most inter- 
esting experiences, which is identified with 
their life, and precious to them in the hour 
of death; which has intimate association 
with their firesides, their weddings, their 
cradles, and their graves ; which is a living 
force in their history, and links their gener- 
ations together — such a ministry is a pre- 
cious gift of God to a Christian people, 
albeit " we have this treasure in earthen 
vessels." 

The frailty, the confessed unworthiness of 
the vessels, must not make us disparage the 
sacred divine treasure which they contain. 
Surely this is one of those royal gifts of the 
triumphant Messiah " ascending up on 
high and leading captivity captive " (Eph. 
4:8). Let it ever be gratefully received 
and reverently improved by them to whom 
it is given. 



ELEMENTS OF MANHOOD IN ELOQUENCE. 



[January, 



ELEMENTS OF MANHOOD IN ELOQUENCE. 



I. PHYSICAL ELEMENTS. 

The human voice is one of the most mar- 
velous of the instruments which creative 
skill has fashioned for human use. The 
organs by which the human will is able to 
play upon the elastic air, giving it impulses 
which, alighting upon their organs of hear- 
ing, can convey intelligence to other minds; 
the power of these organs to modify the 
thought thus conveyed — to emphasize it — 
to vivify it with emotion, whereby a thou- 
sand sympathetic hearers shall be made, not 
only to understand a discourse, but to 
" weep, and melt, and tremble " under it — 
what could more signally display that crea- 
tive skill, whereby we are so " fearfully and 
wonderfully made. " and the subtle manner 
in which that divine skill has linked the 
spiritual and the material together in the 
human constitution ? It is quite obvious 
that those bodily organs which are directly 
employed in the act of speaking need to be 
in the most healthy condition, and need to 
be trained to their highest attainable power, 
if we would have the speaker furnished with 
the most suitable instrument. There must 
be deep and strong respiration; there must 
be even and vigorous pulsation; and lips 
and throat and tongue and teeth must be 
ready to contribute their several parts, to 
form the articulate utterance. The form, 
and the strength, and the pliability of these 
several organs and instruments must affect 
favorably or unfavorably the formation of 
the voice, and its power to reach effectively 
the organs of hearing to which it addres c es 
itself, and the minds beyond them. Nor 
can we set any narrow limit to the enumera- 
tion of organs upon which the qualities of 
speech are dependent. The eye of the 
roused orator flashes with the light of his 
vivid thought; his whole face beams with 
the same illumination; his unpurposed, 
unconscious motions of hand, or head, or 
entire person are abundantly expressive. 
They are likely to be effectively so, in pro- 
portion to the mind's natural and complete 
possession of every part of the bodily frame 
which it occupies — every member, every 
muscle, every fibre. In proportion to the 
health, and vigor, and pliancy of these, are 
they capable of serving the mind as organs 
of expression. No direct study and practice 
of attitudes and gestures and tones can 



suffice for these high uses. If any such 
study and practice are to be employed, there 
is obvious danger of their degenerating into 
the merely formal and artificial. There is 
a deeper and truer culture, safer and more 
effective. It goes on in the gymnasium. It 
goes on in the athletic sports of the campus. 
The races and wrestlings of boyhood; the 
kite, the skates, the ball, the oar; the bow 
of the young archer; the prancing of the 
untamed steed daringly mounted and suc- 
cessfully mastered ; the industrious labor in 
shop or field, by which the boy contributes 
to the family maintenance, or earns the 
means of higher education — all healthful 
uses and exercises of the body, whereby its 
powers are developed and disciplined into 
pliant subjection to the indwelling and in- 
forming spirit — all these are of incalculable 
value, in the physical education of the 
public speaker. 

There is no degree of bodily strength and 
vigor, no pliancy and elasticity of muscle, 
no suppleness of limb, no power of easy and 
free and energetic motion, no freshness and 
glow and joy of bodily health, which 
may not contribute effectiveness to speech. 
There is no form of intemperance or sensu- 
ality, no effeminate self-indulgence, no 
strain of the bodily powers, by excess of 
exertion or undue privation of sleep, no 
ungirding of the constitution by habitual 
indolence, which will not impair the body 
as an instrument of speech. 

II. INTELLECTUAL ELEMENTS. 

All genuine culture and wise discipline of 
the intellect have direct relations to our pres- 
ent theme. 

A teacher, counseling the father of his 
pupil, advised that the lad should commence 
the study of the Latin language. The 
father objected that " he did not know what 
his boy would ever do with Latin." The 
teacher replied: " It is not what he will do 
with the Latin ; it is what the Latin will do 
to him." 

Classical studies have thus far held their 
eminent place in the college curriculum, 
notwithstanding many vehement assaults 
upon them, in view of their slight applica- 
bility to material uses, because true scholars 
have frequently and forcibly vindicated 
them, by showing their admirable effects 



1897.] 



REV. RICHARD 8. 8T0RRS, D.D. 



W3t%jS0?&-> ^^BB 




m * 




■ 




M^' : '" vK^^Sk 




■M El' a. 

1 ^H 









Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D D , 
Pastor of the Church of the Pilgrims, Brooklyn, N. Y. Installed_Octoher, 1846. 



10 



ELEMENTS OF MANHOOD IN ELOQUENCE. 



[January, 



upon the minds that earnestly and faithfully 
pursue them. The people have been re- 
minded and have been able to see, that the 
men who speak and write the purest, clear- 
est, strongest English, are not commonly 
the men who have studied English alone. 
When Webster poured luminous floods of 
thought upon the people's minds and shook 
their hearts with the deep tones of their 
mighty vernacular, though every word and 
phrase and idiom were intensely English, 
they knew that those masterly powers had 
derived no small part of their training and 
culture from the earnest study of Roman 
and Greek authors. 

Beholding and hearing such an orator, 
and tracing his personal history backward, 
searching for the root whence such a noble 
and admirable growth has arisen, we do not 
fail to find it in a generous early culture ; in 
youthful studies which have not only fur- 
nished the mind with accurate and extensive 
knowledge, but have developed its powers 
by wholesome exercise, and reduced them, 
in orderly discipline, under the ready con- 
trol of the will. Not classical studies alone 
have contributed to these good results. 
Mathematical studies, training the mind to 
close and continuous attention, to distinct 
conceptions, to scrupulous accuracy; philo- 
sophical studies, accustoming it to careful 
induction, wide research, fine discrimina- 
tion, clear apprehension and firm grasping 
of principles; logic, with its decisive pro- 
cesses and searching tests ; history, with its 
discipline of memory and judgment; poetry 
awakening and guiding the imagination, and 
quickening into vivid life innumerable 
hidden germs of thought and feeling ; gen- 
eral literature, with all its enriching and 
refining influences — all studies which have 
been pursued with earnestness and fidelity, 
have entered into the secret growth of the 
orator, and each contributes its appropriate 
quality to the consummate flower of his 
eloquence. 

Those famous orators who have not en- 
joyed the advantages of academic education 
probably are not exceptions to this. Accu- 
rate knowledge of their early history usually 
shows that such men were diligent in the 
studies for which in youth they had oppor- 
tunity. If they had few books, those were 
most thoroughly mastered. If they entered 
no school, they had daily converse with 
sagacious mothers, who knew how to wake 



them to thought, and prompt them to con- 
tinual inquisition of nature. Their daily 
tasks and their daily sports taxed and 
developed and matured at the same time 
their bodily and their intellectual energies; 
while habits of attentive observation and 
thoughtful reflection were ever storing their 
minds with facts and illustrations, which 
subsequently became their ready material 
for instructive and entertaining discourse. 
Every study which Lincoln had opportunity 
for ; every book which he got hold of and 
read over and over again; every speech to 
which he listened, that had argument in it, 
to which he riveted his attention, and took 
it home in his memory, to be pondered, to 
be scrutinized, to be found fallacious and 
rejected, or found conclusive and taken into 
the goodly company of an honest mind's 
accepted convictions — every such speech, 
book, study, entered into the structure of 
the youth; made a permanent contribution 
to his intellectual growth; helped forward, 
solidly and reliably, the intellectual build- 
ing up of the man. The man thus edified, 
thus growing, is the basis of the orator — is 
the orator. All his stores of thought and 
knowledge are slowly and surely gathering 
against the occasions which are sure to come. 
All the powers of reasoning and imagination 
and of utterance which he so slowly acquires 
will be ready for those occasions, and will 
then come forth into vivid manifestation, 
" like the outbreaking of a fountain from 
the earth, or the bursting forth of volcanic 
fires, with spontaneous, original, native 
force."* 

The orator cannot be made by mere 
rhetorical culture. He cannot be made up 
for an occasion. The eloquence must exi-t 
in the man, or the occasion will not bring it 
out of him. Rhetorical culture must super- 
vene upon a broader, deeper, more general 
culture. It must polish and render flexible 
and available powers which have been de- 
veloped and strengthened by various, patient 
and faithful study. The whole deep hill 
must be full of the moisture which the 
sweet heavens have patiently dropped upon 
it, or the glad fountains cannot break out 
from its green sides, or within its rocky 



* Readers familiar with the speeches of Daniel 
Webster will recognize this and several other allu- 
sions in this article as drawn from the speech in 
which he so lucidly denned and so powerfully ex- 
emplified " true eloquence." 



1897.] 



ELEMENTS OF MANHOOD IN ELOQUENCE. 



11 



glens. The awful depths of the mountain 
must be heavy with the Plutonic impregna- 
tion, or there can be no " bursting forth of 
volcanic fires." Slow, patient, continuous, 
deep, in great part secret, must the pro- 
cesses be, by which great reservoirs of power 
are accumulated. It is the method pre- 
scribed by him who " inhabiteth eternity," 
and in whom whosoever believeth " doth 
not make haste." 

True oratorical power is essentially a 
power of intellect. It is a result to which 
every faculty of the intellect makes contri- 
bution; it is a power in which all the powers 
of manhood are combined; it is a growth 
into which a vigorous nature gathers every 
nutritious element from the ground through 
which it sends out its roots far around, and 
strengthens itself in every breeze that visits 
its foliage. Such vital growths must have 
time ; they cannot be greatly hastened. All 
undue pressure, if it hasten the expansion 
of bulk, will proportionably diminish the 
strength of fibres and tissues, and the ulti- 
mate fruitful ness. But the time must be 
improved. Simple lapse of time will not 
secure the result. The vital force must be 
diligently acting. The gathering, the appro- 
priation, the assimilation, the incorporation 
of the elements of power into the living 
substance of one's own manhood, is more 
laborious than giving forth the mature re- 
sult in effective expression, when the occa- 
sion comes. Or rather it demands more 
patient and persevering labor. What we 
call " great efforts " of the orator do doubt- 
less involve most vigorous and strenuous 
exertion of the highest powers, a swift 
expenditure of accumulated vital energy; 
but this is done under a passionate rapture, 
which makes it, according to Bushnell's fine 
distinction, more properly play than work. 
The capacity for such raptures, the ability 
to sustain them, the power to make them 
triumphs, cannot be a sudden acquisition. 
It must be acquired by slow, continuous, 
patient labor. Faithful, diligent, earnest 
study is its price. Liberal studies, various 
studies, all studies that are really such, con- 
tribute to the noble result. Nothing of real 
mental exercise, nothing of real mental 
acquisition is lost. Consciously or uncon- 
sciously, the speaker uses all his past studies 
in every effective speech ; the smallest part, 
probably as preserved material brought forth 
from the treasury of memory; by far the 



greater part as power, diffused through all 
his beiug, and various as are the intellectual 
manifestations in a great oration. 

III. MORAL ELEMENTS. 

The terms by which both the Greeks and 
the Romans expressed the idea of virtue, 
have their etymological root in their terms 
for manhood, the masculine -humanity, and 
we ourselves, even in that peculiar use of the 
term in which we specially emphasize female 
virtue, have reference always to the most 
resolute decision, the most determined will, 
of which noblest womanhood is capable. 
Our poetry figures the virtuous maiden as 
" a quivered nymph with arrows keen," 
" clad in complete steel," who " may trace 
huge forests, and unharbored heaths, infa- 
mous hills, and sandy perilous wilds," 
unharmed; who " by grots, and caverns 
shagged with horrid shades, may pass on 
with unblenched majesty." "Antiquity 
from the old schools of Greece ' ' figured 
such virtue under the impersonation of ' ' the 
huntress Diana ' ' with her ' ' dread bow, " 
and " wise Minerva, unconquered virgin," 
wearing " that snaky -headed Gorgon shield, 
wherewith she freezed her foes into congealed 
stone," rightly interpreted, no doubt, by 
Milton, as nothing else, " but rigid looks of 
chaste austerity and noble grace, that 
dashed brute violence with sudden adoration 
and blank awe." 

The moral strength of right decision 
enters into the true idea of manhood, and 
no less into the true idea of womanhood. 
The deepest search and truest analysis finds 
the same essential elements in manly and 
womanly character, however they may be 
mingled in different proportions, and how r ever 
they must be modified, in their phenomenal 
manifestations, in the diverse providential 
situations, and as manifestly diverse provi- 
dential constitutions of the sexes. Of the 
moral elements of manhood essential to elo- 
quence, the first which we name is honesty. 
By this we mean simple, dowmright sincerity 
— the disposition to think and to speak 
" the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth," always and everywhere; as 
scrupulously when haranguing a popular 
assembly as when giving testimony before a 
court. 

A man may argue plausibly for that 
which is false, and may speak persuasively 
for that which is w r rong; but if he be forth- 



12 



ELEMENTS OF MANHOOD IN ELOQUENCE. 



[January, 



with answered by a man of no greater abili- 
ties, who sets forth the pure truth in his 
argument, and sets up the un perverted 
right, as the goal of his persuasion, which 
of the two will have exemplified true elo- 
quence ? At the very least, which of the 
two will have given the stronger and better 
exemplification ? 

Quintilian and Cato insisted that the 
orator must be an upright man, first of all 
an upright man, who understands speaking. 
Surely a known character of probity gives 
exceeding weight to a man's expressed 
opinions, aud force to his persuasions. 
What is this but the conviction, in the 
minds of his hearers, that he says honestly 
just what he thinks, and that he would not 
attempt to persuade others to aught which 
had not the approval of his own faithful con- 
science ? 

Those who, without sincere convictions, 
argue and persuade, in favor of whatever 
their selfish interest seeks, first of all 
endeavor to appear honest. Tne whole art 
of sophistry is in " making the worse appear 
the better reason," making the false seem to 
be true. No man avows himself in favor 
of falsehood or of injustice. Is it possible, 
then, for any man to speak eloquently what 
he does not believe — to plead eloquently for 
what his own conscience does not approve ? 
Can there be hearty, genuine, downright 
earnestness in such speech ? That is not 
" the outbreaking of a fountain from the 
earth." It is not true eloquence. True 
eloquence must ever be the eloquence of 
truth. 

Another moral element of eloquence is 
courage. No other quality is more univer- 
sally acknowledged as essential to genuine 
manhood. There is as much occasion for it 
in the orator as in the soldier. We speak 
of the courage of thought — the daring to 
hold and to utter one's honest convictions, 
in spite of all perils that may be involved. 
The man who, in sight of a gibbet, or with 
the smell of prison damps already in his 
garments, can say the same things, in the 
same unambiguous words, and in the same 



steady tones as he would to a docile and 
sympathizing audience; the man who, in 
the midst of a Diet that has all the dun- 
geons of an empire at its disposal, cannot be 
made to swerve a hair's breadth from the 
line of his own honest convictions, not only 
is a hero, equal to any who have won fame 
on battlefields, but in such plainest utter- 
ance of his convictions, he exemplifies the 
sublimest eloquence. The words thus 
spoken are ever written with the point of a 
diamond on history's most imperishable 
tablets. Not only when truth is to be 
spoken in the presence of such bodily ter- 
rors is courage essential. He who modifies 
the sentiment which he ought to utter, or 
qualifies his expression of it, intimidated 
thereto by hisses of his audience, heard or 
apprehended; or fearing the strictures of 
the press, which will publish his words to- 
morrow; who represses the convictions of 
his own understanding, in timid subjection 
to the demands of his party — such an one 
admits an element of weakness into his 
speech most hurtful to its eloquence. The 
courage which calmly and firmly utters the 
mind's true thoughts unmoved and unde- 
terred by popular clamor or partisan detrac- 
tion, or (far harder test of fortitude) by 
tearful remonstrance of timid or weak 
friends, can hardly fail to exalt the utter- 
ance into the character of genuine elo- 
quence. Such courage cannot be suddenly 
acquired. The cowardly man cannot be 
the courageous orator. No element of man- 
liness is more deeply imbedded in the char- 
acter. It is always blended with honest 
truthfulness. The boy who would never 
lie, nor equivocate, to escape censure; who 
would never fawningly profess what he did 
not honestly feel ; nor ever conceal truth 
which justice requires to be told ; whose 
home -life and school -life have been a per- 
petual exercise of intrepid honesty, becomes 
the man of courage, prepared for life's 
grander exigencies. If called to public 
speaking, he will not be likely to lack occa- 
sions for heroic speech, speech which the 
eloquence of heroism will render immortal. 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF IN THE 
SYNOD OF IOWA. 

W. W. HEBERTON, TREASURER. 

The report of the Standing Committee on 
Ministerial Relief of the Synod of Iowa, 
made at its meeting in Ottumwa, October 
15-18, is such a clear and stirring paper, 
that we have taken the liberty of quoting 
from it for the benefit of the readers of The 
Church at Home and Abroad. After 
referring to the statistics of the Board in 
regard to the Synod of Iowa, relative to last 
year's report, the chairman says: 

" We cannot believe that the great Pres- 
byterian Church in the United . States of 
America will come short of its duty to the 
noblest array of heroes ever marshaled in 
the conflicts of earth. No true Presby- 
terian can be true to his church and believe 
in repudiation. In days gone by, young 
men in the full vigor of life, with mental 
powers and capabilities that assured them of 
success in any of the profitable avenues of 
life, turned aside from worldly comfort and 
pleasure, stopped their ears to the siren 
songs of wealth and fame, held out their 
hands to the Presbyterian Church, when she 
was crying for reapers to garner in the har- 
vest, and said, " Here am I, send me;" 
she accepted their offer; she required them 
to be free from worldly avocations; she set 
them in places where men not only hungered 
for spiritual food, but many times for the 
bread that cometh not down from heaven. 
She required of them and accepted at their 
hands such sacrifice as made martyrs in 
other ages ; and from their reaping she has 
garnered in the harvest. 

" But there has come a day when no 
longer are these noble servants of God and 
the Church able to even thrust in the sickle, 
when empty-handed, so far as this world's 
goods are concerned, they stand and look 
back over those years, so quickly gone, only 
regretting that they cannot do more for 
Christ and the Church. Christ will pay 
his obligations in full throughout the bound- 
less ages of eternity; the Church's obliga- 



tions must be paid in time. Those empty 
hands testify to the obligations due. For 
forty-seven years the Presbyterian Church 
has been acknowledging the indebtedness 
and striving to meet it. One million and 
one-half dollars have been invested as a 
permanent fund, of which only the interest 
shall be used. This goes but a small way 
towards yielding sufficient revenue to enable 
the Board to pay out the drafts made upon 
it by the presbyteries throughout the domain 
of the Church. 

" Last year 795 families received an 
appropriation, and when you think that the 
whole amount in the hands of the Board 
from every source that could be thus used 
was only $166,735.07, you will see that 
each family assisted received on an average 
but 8210. 

" The Board, in its report, seems to hope 
for brighter things in the future, probably 
thinking it is darkest before the dawm ; and 
your committee is indeed gratified that it is 
possible for the Board to say, ' On the 
whole, there is ample cause to be of good 
courage, concerning the future of Ministerial 
Relief.' 

" The joy of knowing that we have had 
a part in making the evening shades of life 
a little less irksome, the hard places softer 
and smoother, for these saints of God, ought 
of itself to be sufficient incentive to every 
loyal member of the household of faith, to 
see to it that no year goes by in which his 
church is not in the column of contributing 
churches for this most Christian cause. 
Yea, we believe it is, if only the proper 
attention is called to the matter and the 
opportunity given; and your committee 
cannot help but quote from the report of 
the Standing Committee of the General 
Assembly the following: 

" ' This failure of our churches to remem- 
ber the Relief Fund in their Sabbath offer- 
ings is due largely to two causes: 

" ' 1. That many of our pastors feel a 
delicacy in presenting the cause to their con- 
gregations on account of a possible inference 
that subsequently they themselves may re- 

13 



14 



DR. CATTELL'S SUCCESSOR. 



[January, 



ceive the benefit of the Fund, and that 
many other pastors through unintentional 
neglect have not presented the matter to 
their people ; and that elders have failed to 
observe the recommendations of previous 
Assemblies, as to their particular duty in the 
matter of this Fund.' 

" We are of the same opinion, and trust 
that this synod will be able to propose and 
adopt a plan that will be put into execution, 
and that will make the Presbyterians of 
Iowa rejoice when next year, and in the 
years to come, they run down the column, 
' Relief Fund, ' in the report of the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States of America, and that in 
the General Assembly of the Saints in 
Heaven, will cause them to be exceeding 



glad as from the Master's lips they hear, 
1 Inasmuch as ye have done it unto the least 
of these my brethren ye have done it unto 
me.' " 

This was followed by a series of ringing 
resolutions urging the interest of the elders 
to show itself for this cause, in their respec- 
tive congregations, especially at the time of 
the annual offering for the Board. 

If these timely and urgent suggestions 
could be followed, not only by the Synod of 
Iowa, but by all the other synods in the 
Church, our poor, struggling and crippled 
treasury would doubtless be put on its feet 
again, and the hearts of all the friends of 
the cause, as well as those of our 800 
families, be made to rejoice. 



DR. CATTELL'S SUCCESSOR 

Our readers are doubtless already informed that 
the Board of Ministerial Relief has elected Eev. 
Benjamin L. Agnew, D.D., to be its Corresponding 
Secretary. "With the consent of his people and 
permission of his presbytery he has accepted the ap- 
pointment, devoutly recognizing it as a call of God 
thus duly authenticated to him. His people were 
perfectly united in their love to him, and their de- 
sire for his life-long continuance in the pastoral re- 
lation with them. But they recognized the Lord's 
need of him in administering the Church's tender 
care of his disabled and needy servants, and their 
widows and orphans. None better than they knew 
their pastor's eminent fitness for that large and 
holy work. They knew his bodily strength, his 
mental powers, his administrative ability and his 
Great-heart sympathy. They showed their unsel- 
fish love to him and their confidence in his wisdom, 
as well as their intelligent estimate of the great 
cause to which they surrender him, by unanimously 
consenting to make the sacrifice. 



In the session of the presbytery of Philadelphia, 
at which Dr. Agnew was released from his pastoral 
charge at his own request and with the concur- 
rence of his congregation, we listened to an un- 
usually interesting and impressive proceeding. It 
is a remarkable fact that the constitutional provi- 
sion for the resignation of a pastoral charge makes 
specific mention of no other occasion for such 
resignation than it describes in these terms : 
" When any minister shall labor under such grie- 
vances in his congregation, as that he shall desire 
leave to resign his pastoral charge." Long prac- 



tice of our judicatories has settled the interpreta- 
tion of this provision which recognizes other pro- 
vidential reasons, and reasons creditable to both 
ministers and people for such resignations. 

In the present case there was no reason on either 
side for consenting to the proposal which had 
come from a Board of the Church, save the con- 
viction that the precious and sacred interest en- 
trusted to that Board needed that that pastor 
and that people should make the sacrifice, than 
which a pastor and people so happily united can 
voluntarily make no greater. All this was made 
abundantly evident by the testimony of the com- 
missioners representing the congregation and by 
their pastor's frank and fervent declarations. 

The value and sacredness of the cause to which 
Dr. Agnew thus devotes himself for the remain- 
der of his years was impressively set forth in his 
own statement of the reasons which had convinced 
him of his duty to accept this call, and by the 
addresses of several members of the presbytery 
showing the grounds of their assent to it. All 
these addresses took, in clear words and earnest 
tones, the same high ground on which Dr. Cattell 
has so long and so earnestly advocated this cause 
and labored for it — that it is no pitiful scheme of 
pauperism, but an organized effort to fulfill the 
Church's duty to provide for her ministers when 
disabled by age or infirmity for the service to which 
she has ordained them, and for their widows and 
orphans when left destitute, an honorable and 
honoring pensioning analagous to that which the 
nation provides for the veterans of its army and 
navy and for its honored judges. 

Dr. Agnew' s pastoral relation ceases, and his 
work as Secretary begins, January 1, 1897. 



HOME MISSIONS. 



This is the only country where young men 
are not handicapped, where they are invited 
and encouraged to rise instead of being 
compelled to bow to fixed and inexorable 
customs. Read Dr. Withrow's article, p. 60. 



Rev. F. H. G wynne, D.D., sometime 
synodical missionary of Oregon, has ac- 
cepted the call of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Great Falls, Montana. Rev. 
W. O. Forbes succeeds him as synodical 
missionary of Oregon. 

A letter enclosing a check for 88 explains 
the remittance in this way: " This amount 
is the result of an effort by Mrs. W. T. H. 
and her Sunday-school class of eight little 
girls, and raised by working from nine cents 
(each one got a penny a short time ago to 
work from) and is forwarded to the Board 
as their Thanksgiving offering with their 
prayers that it may be of much good to 
some needy missionaries." 



An interesting feature of the recent meet- 
ing of the Synod of Washington, at Moscow, 
Idaho, was the presence of thirty Christian 
Nez Perce Indians. They were ministers 
and elders and their wives. One of the 
evening services was conducted wholly by 
them ; one of their number, Rev. James 
Hays, preaching the sermon. Mr. Hays 
and many of the others were trained in 
Miss McBeth's theological school. The 
whole company were the fruits of the labors 
of those sainted missionaries, Snaulding and 
Whitman. 

The following letter is one of many which 
describe the hardships through which our 
missionaries are passing this severe and mem- 
orable winter. Will not the friends of the 
missionaries rally to the help of the Board 
in giving them relief. 

For three days the storm has raged, and the 
cold is intense. We have not had any coal or fuel 
for over a week. I get coal from Eddyville — thir- 
teen miles off— just as I can get fifty or seventy- 
five cents from my members. We are burning our 
little crop of corn, and are really suffering with the 
cold. It is the worst storm of cold and sleet for 
years, and I am almost in despair. 



The Board of Home Missions, at its meet- 
ing November 24, unanimously elected Mr. 
Harvey C. Olin, of Chicago, treasurer to 
succeed Mr. O. D. Eaton, whose lamented 
death was so recently announced. Mr. 
Olin is an elder in the Hyde Park Church 
and superintendent of the Sabbath-school. 
He has had thorough training and wide 
experience as a business man. He occupies 
at present the responsible position of auditor 
of the Union Stock Yards. The Board is 
fortunate in securing such a man for the 
office to which it has called him. Mr. 
Olin has signified his acceptance of the 
office and expects to enter upon its duties 
on the first day of the new year, 1897. 



Mr. Varian Banks, who has been the act- 
ing treasurer of the Board for a year past, 
has been for several years the tried and 
trusted lieutenant of Mr. Eaton, and it is in 
large measure due to his skill and thorough 
knowledge of the details of the office that 
its affairs have been so ably managed. 
When the Board, about a year ago, offered 
Mr. Eaton an extended vacation, in order 
that he might seek rest and recovery of 
health, the treasurer consented to take the 
leave of absence only on condition that the 
duties of the office might be placed in the 
hands of Mr. Banks. Through this trying 
period he has performed the duties of the 
office with such rare skill and ability that 
the Board at its recent meeting placed on 
record the strongest expression of its appre- 
ciation and thanks for his services. 

While Mr. Banks has shown his thorough 
knowledge of the affairs of the office and 
his ability to manage them, he did not seek 
the office whose responsibilities and burdens 
had crushed Mr. Eaton into an untimely 
grave. Nor did the Board deem it wise to 
place them upon one so young, and so an 
older man was elected. 

But it -will be gratifying to the Church at 
large and the missionaries in particular to 
know that Mr. Banks will remain in the 
office in the place which he has filled so 
long and so ably. 

15 



16 



NOTES. 



[January, 



In the early future we shall see that the 
Middle Ages reached all the way up to the 
emancipation of American slavery, the era 
of electricity and the resort to peaceful 
arbitration as a method of settling interna- 
tional difficulties. History, so far as it has 
to do with the acquisition of wealth and 
power, will be more of a warning than a 
guide. It will show the evil3 of the old 
motives, while the dawn of the era of better 
ideas will inspire with a higher and nobler 
ambition. We have solved for the world 
the problem of human slavery, and the 
harder and more stubborn problem of war; 
we have risen from the physical into the 
social, and are destined to solve for man- 
kind the problems of wealth and poverty, 
of capital and labor — problems that have 
come down to us from the Middle Ages. 
Europe has shown herself incapable of solv- 
ing these problems because she is anchored 
to history and tradition. 



To the Ministers, Elders and Members op 
the Presbyterian Church : 

Dear Brethren : — Owing to the existing debt and 
the falling off in current receipts, the Board is con- 
strained not only to reduce the amount of its grants 
to the presbyteries ten per cent, on the appropria- 
tions of last year, as indicated in the circular letter 
of June 15, but also to adopt measures looking to 
the curtailment of its work with a view of bringing 
it within the limits of the means placed at its disposal 
by the Church for that purpose. 

The General Assembly has from year k) year 
recommended the amount which in its judgment 
the Church should furnish for the prosecution of its 
home mission work, but the Board for prudential 
reasons has not felt justified in conducting it on 
quite as large a scale as that recommended by the 
General Assembly. Even with this precaution 
the result has been the accumulation of a debt 
within the past few years which the Board has 
carried in the hope that with better times increased 
contributions would be made by the Church to re- 
lieve it. In this, it regrets to say, it has been dis- 
appointed. Instead of growing smaller, the debt is 
still about what it was at the last meeting of the 
Assembly, viz., $300,000, though the present in- 
debtedness is much less than it was at the same date 
last year. The Church has not responded to the 
recommendations of the General Assembly by plac- 
ing the means in the hands of the Board to conduct 
the work on the scale recommended by it, nor even 



on the reduced scale adopted by the Board. The 
Board has, therefore, no option but to put itself in 
a position to curtail the work and reduce it to such 
an extent as will bring it within the means placed 
at its disposal, and to that end it has decided to 
issue after October, 1896, no commissions to the mis- 
sionaries in the field for a period extending beyond 
the present fiscal year, which expires on March 31, 
1897. It is not to be understood that the Board 
contemplates putting a stop at that time to the great 
work entrusted to it by the General Assembly, but 
to arrange for its continuance, whether on a dimin- 
ished or an enlarged scale, as will bring its expend- 
iture within the means put at its disposal by the 
Church. 

It is most painful to all the members of the Board 
to find themselves compelled to take this step, but 
they feel that they cannot honestly continue to 
make engagements when they have not the prospect 
of being able to fulfill them. The salaries of the 
missionaries are now about three months in arrears, 
and the Board is doing everything in its power to 
relieve the distress that such delay in the payment 
of them necessarily involves. 

The Board has decided to make this statement 
of its financial condition to the Church in the hope 
that it may awaken such interest in the work, and 
in its faithful servants who are doing the work, as 
will bring the needed relief in freeing the Board 
from a burdensome debt, and in enabling it also to 
prosecute the work without any curtailment. 

With the beginning of the next fiscal year, April 
1, 1897, it has arranged to make monthly payments 
of salaries. 

Eev. John Hall, D.D. 
" D. Stuart Dodge. 
" Lyman W. Allen. 
" Wilson Phraner, D.D. 
" Thos. S. Hastings, D.D. 
" Chas. L. Thompson, D.D. 
" James S. Ramsey, D.D. 
" Thomas A. Nelson, D.D. 
" James M. Ludlow, D.D. 
1 ' George L. Spining, D. D. 
George R. Lockwood. 
Titus B. Meigs. 
George H. Southard. 
John Crosby Brown. 
Wm. H. Corbix. 
Walter M. Aiken. 
Robert Henderson. 
John S. Kennedy. 
John E. Parsons. 
Henry E. Rowland. 
Charles E. Green. 



1897] 



MISS SUE L. MCBETH. 



17 



... 



-• mm 







K 



Fori Lapwai, Nez Perce Station, [dah 



MISS SUE L. McBETH. 

MISS KATE McBETH. 

Miss S. L. McBeth arrived at Lapwai 
agency on the Nez Perce reserve in the fall 
of 1873. Although an employe of the 
Government, her appointment came to her 
through Dr. Lowrie, secretary of the Board 
of Foreign Missions, for at that time the 
educational work on many of the reserva- 
tions was largely under the control of the 
different denominations. 

Dr. Lowrie was no stranger to her; he 
had been her correspondent while she was a 
missionary among the Choctaws, and indeed 
her coming among the Nez Perces had been 
suggested by her former associate at the 
Good Water mission station in Indian Ter- 
ritory, Rev. George Ainsley, who in 1873 
was in charge of the little Government 
school at Lapwai agency. Miss McBeth 
was never at any time a strong woman, and 
at the time of her starting west for her work 
among the Nez Perces, it was feared she had 
not strength enough for the journey. Little 
did her friends then think she would spend 
nearly twenty years of faithful service for the 
Master in that field. 

Mr. Spaulding at the time of her arrival 
in 1873 was in Kamiah, where the presby- 
tery had decided he should live, much 
against his own wishes. Rev. Cowley, now 
of Spokane, was also then in Kamiah in a 
little Government school. 

In 1874 Mr. Spaulding was brought 
down sick to his beloved Lapwai, and died 
in a little Government house within the 



school enclosure, which Miss McBeth called 
her home. She al ways spoke of Mr. Spaul- 
ding as a faithful missionary, a strong man. 
She had little patience with weak ones. She 
taught one year in the Government school 
at Lapwai, then by advice of the good agent, 
John Monteith, she removed to Kamiah, 
took up the work laid down by Mr. Spaul- 
ding, which was the training or instructing 
of a class of five men for the ministry. 
Three of that class are now in their graves. 
Although as perfectly isolated in Kamiah 
then as if she had been in Africa, she ever 
spoke of her first years there with pleasure. 
There with intellectual relish did she dig 
around the roots of the Nez Perce lan- 
guage, adding daily to her dictionary and 
grammar. And when in the evenings her 
weak eyes were too tired to read or write, 
she would in her darkened room mentally 
translate the songs of Zion, dear to herself, 
into the Nez Perce tongue. From the first, 
Elder Billy Williams was her trusted friend, 
her almost daily visitor and through him 
more than all others she became rich in 
Indian lore. 

Gen. O. O. Howard visited Kamiah in 
1877, and thus describes her and her work : 
" In a small house of two or three rooms 
I found Miss McBeth living by herself. She 
is such an invalid from partial paralysis, she 
cannot walk from house to house, so I was 
sure to find her at home. The candle gave 
but a dim light, so that I could scarcely 
make out how she looked as she gave me her 
hand and welcomed me to Kamiah. The next 
time by day showed me a pale, intellectual 



18 



MISS SUE L. McBETH. 



[January, 



face above a slight frame. How could this 
face and frame seek this far-off region ? 
Little by little the mystery is solved: her 
soul has been fully consecrated to Christ and 
she has, as she believes, been sent here on 
a mission to the Indians. Her work seems 
simply just like the Master's in some respects: 
she gathers her disciples, a few at a time, 
around her, and having herself learned their 
language so as to speak and understand 
them, she instructs and makes teachers of 
them. Everything about this little teacher 
is of the simplest in style and work." 

Her Kamiah school -room was a picture. 
There around this little woman sat not only 
her class of divinity students, but pastor 
and elders with an occasional visitor as 
well, while the principles of Christianity 
and civilization were explained to them in 
their own tongue. If doubts were ex- 
pressed, the leaves of the Bible were turned 
until the "Thus saith the Lord" was 
found, settling the matter with them forever. 
There was no unsound theology taught 
under the Kamiah pines. Was this little 
Scotch woman able for such work ? Can 
any one who has read her " Seed Scattered 
Broadcast" doubt her ability to teach 
theology ? 

What effect has it had upon the church 
whose session sat as pupils in her school- 
room? All the ministers and students for 
the ministry came from that one church with 
but two exceptions. It is to-day a well- 
trained missionary church, sending out 
yearly evangelists to other tribes. The na- 
tive pastor needs intelligent helpers. She 
knew that the only lasting civilization for 
Indians must come through the gospel. All 
else would prove but a veneering which time 
would rub off. Questions of law and order 
were discussed there, for Christianity and 
civilization among them cannot be separated. 

She had enemies, as all strong characters 
must have. Hers were of a class. One of 
the chiefs once said to her: " You have been 
trying to kill the chiefs ever since you came 
on this reserve." She did not deny that 
she was trying to destroy their power over 
the people, believing as she did that no real 
progress could be made until the tribal 
relations should be broken up, and the 
Indian man feel his individuality and not 
merely regard himself as a part of a band. 
Miss McBeth seldom appeared among the 
people, but from out that school- room, 



through her pupils, went a strong influence 
for good, not only to every part of the Nez 
Perce tribe, but to the Umatillas, Spokanes 
and Shoshones as well. Often in reviewing 
her work would she exclaim, " Thank the 
Lord for Robert Williams! I could have 
accomplished little without him." Like 
herself, he knew no fear of man. 

She needed all her courage to stay up and 
strengthen the little hearts around her. 
For Indians are timid braves. Her strong 
will and her ability to read their hearts was 
ever a mystery to them. Under her gaze 
they felt they were being sifted and weighed. 
She was always upon the lookout for good 
material for the Lord's work. Some of 
these fine-looking men sitting before us now, 
dropped their blankets and washed off the 
paint to enter her school-room. "All hail 
the power of Jesus' name." 

The school -room was but a part of her 
work; with Paul she could say, " Besides 
all this comes upon me the daily care of all 
the churches." Figuratively she was 
always walking round the walls of Zion, 
marking her bulwarks, pointing out to the 
little band of native workmen the weak 
places to be strengthened. 

At the breaking out of the Joseph War 
in 1877, she, with some whites, was guarded 
by forty -five loyal Kamiahans from Kamiah 
down to Lapwai, making the trip, sixty 
miles, in one day, in a farm wagon. This 
was no new experience to her. Christian 
Choctaws had guarded her out of the Indian 
Territory when Texas ruffians were more to 
be dreaded than the White Bird band. 
Her answer then to the call, " Come 
home," was " I am immortal until my 
work is done." She did not return to 
Kamiah until 1879. Her school for the 
time was kept up in Lapwai, but the most 
of her twenty years were spent with the 
Kamiahans either in the Kamiah valley or 
in Mt. Idaho, which was at that time their 
trading town. She saw about as much of 
the people there as when living down beside 
the little church. How happy she was 
when her pupils with their families were 
comfortably housed for the winter in the 
cottages built for them at Mt. Idaho. Did 
anything trouble their hearts Avhile they 
were down in Kamiah, the little pony soon 
bore them up the trail to Mt. Idaho to the 
" mother." 

Sacred scenes must often come before 



1897.] 



A PILLOW. 



19 



men now. No journey was ever 
undertaken, not even from Kamiah to 
Lapwai, or Mt. Idaho to Kamiah, without 
kneeling beside this mother to ask the 
Father's care. Little notes came back to 
her if detained, and then as soon as possible 
after their return they reported to her. 
How they trusted her! " Why," one of 
them said, as we gathered around her for the 
last time in the Kamiah Church, " she 
never deceived us once! Let us keep her 
teaching in our hearts and follow close after 
her." But it was in her school-room the 
last winter of her life that this strong bond 
between teacher and taught, mother and 
sons, was seen. How anxiously they would 
scan her face each morning as she stepped 
with swollen feet from the sitting-room to 
the school-room ! For she must be there. 
In a moment one of these gentlemanly 
pupils was at her side to help her to the 
chair, which another would place where she 
loved to sit. With her far-reaching eye and 
fast- failing strength she was fortifying them 
against the skepticism which they would 
meet in the near future. They must not be 
taken unawares. She never grew weary of 
the Lord's work. Often did she say in that 
last winter, " If I was able and younger I 
would like nothing better than to go into a 
wild tribe and do over again the work I 
have done here." At her own request her 
body lies beside the little church she loved 
so well in Kamiah, beautiful Kamiah with 
its Scottish Sabbath. Need I say more about 
her work when you have here the living 
epistles before you ? Full as her work 
among the Nez Perces seems to be, 'tis but a 
part — a small part — of the service this 
woman of faith and prayer was enabled to 
accomplish. The secret of it all lay in her 
early consecration to the Master and a con- 
sciousness that she was working not for time, 
but for eternity. While teaching in Fair- 
field University, Iowa, now Parson's Col- 
lege, she was urged to give herself to litera- 
ture. She gave her answer in a little poem 
which I now read to you: 

" Write a book, my sister? 

I am writing it day by day, 
And the characters traced in that writing 

Can never pass from the scroll away, 
For the parchment is a part of the Infinite, 

The soul is the vellum given, 
By which with the pen of my life I write 

A record for hell or heaven. 
Oh ! a fearful gift is this author's life, 

For the lowliest guides a pen 
Of words and deeds that leaves 

Its trace on the hearts of men, 




Miss Sue L. .Mdi 



And carelessly often the record is made 

And lightly we pass the thought 
That we must account for the ill we have penned 

And the good we have written not. 
Oh, not 'mid the planets that shine, my sister, 

In the galaxy of fame, 
That is bounded by changing time, dear sister, 

I sigh to rank my name. 
For the dusl of earth is upon the stars, 

And the brightness will pass away. 
When eternity ushers in the light 

Of that sinless clime of day. 
Oh. then may my writing be approved 

By the searching eye of him 
In whose visible presence the sun shall fade 

And the glory of earth -row dim. 
May he write my name in the Hook of Life. 

With the dear ones he has given, 

And I crave no other share, dear sister, 
In the fame of earth or hea\ en." 



A PILLOW. 

Not very many years ago there was at 
Albuquerque, N. M., under the care of the 
Woman's Executive Committee of Homo 
Missions, an Indian school for boys which is 
now replaced by one for Mexican boys, as a 
Government school has absorbed the Indian 
work at that place. 

Mrs. Haines, the loved and honored sec- 
retary of this society, was accustomed to 
speak of the " dove-tailing of Providence, " 



20 



THE NEW WEST. 



[January, 



and the following story, told by a consecrated 
worker, illustrates this truth. It was not 
the latest dazzle in decorative art, a pillow 
of silk or velvet or satin, covered with dain- 
tiest lace or embroidery — the pillow of our 
story was neither large, nor fresh, nor new ; 
it was a small feather pillow which had 
already done good service. 

This pillow was placed, with some apolo- 
gies and misgivings, at the bottom of a 
barrel containing many gifts — all useful and 
acceptable for our Albuquerque school, N. 
M. The secretary pinned upon it an 
explanatory note, stating that, although so 
unusual an offering, " it was weighted with 
prayers," and could not be refused. How 
many tears had fallen upon it over the woes 
of suffering humanity, how many anxious 
thoughts while devising for its uplifting had 
deprived the owner of her usual rest, is a 
history yet to be revealed. 

All unconscious of noble self-sacrifice, the 
poor old lady explained to the secretary that 
she needed but one pillow, and as one made 
of husk would serve her purpose, she wished 
to send this to some needy child or tired 
missionary. 

Before the barrel reached Albuquerque, 
one of those mysterious visitations befell the 
school which sadly crippled its work. The 
building was burned; and sheltered as best 
they could, the weary missionaries and their 
pupils were in need of almost everything. 

Article after article was taken out of the 
barrel with rejoicing, as they met the very 
wants of the occasion. 

One of the children, a little Indian boy, 
was tossing with fever and moaning with 
pain in his head, which was intensified by 
the discomfort of a husk pillow. Having 
discovered the old lady's gift, his teacher 
gently drew away the husk pillow — hoping 
not to disturb him — and slipped the soft one 
under his head. He aroused at once to the 
sense of comfort and was told that a friend 
far away, who loved Jesus, and because she 
loved Jesus, had sent the pillow to him. 
He lifted his head, and asked in Anglo- 
Indian, "The one Jesus?" — in other 
words, " Is it the same Jesus of whose love 
you have told me?" " Yes; the one Jesus 
— the same Jesus," was the reply. 

And when the aching head had found 
rest, and the glow of health was restored to 
the fevered cheek, and our Indian boy stood 
erect in the presence of men and angels to 



confess Christ as his Saviour, and to pledge 
himself to his service, did he, or did only 
the angels know which leading was the 
stronger, the lessons so faithfully inculcated 
in the school, or that soft messenger of com- 
fort for the sick and tired sufferer which 
came to him in the Saviour's name and 
which served to commend the tender love of 
" The one Jesus ?" H. E. B. 



Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work at Home. 



JANUARY. The New West. 

FEBRUARY The Indians. 

MARCH Alaska. 

APRII, .... The Cities. 

MAY The Mormons. 

JUNE Our Missionaries. 

JUI<Y Resnlts of the Year. 

AUGUST The Foreigners. 

SEPTEMBER The Outlook. 

OCTOBER • The Treasury. 

NOVEMBER Romanists and Mexicans. 

DECEMBER The South. 



THE NEW WEST. 

This region comprises more than one-half 
of our national area, nearly one-third of our 
States, and all of our Territories. The prin- 
cipal gold and silver mines are in the far 
West. One-third of the copper of the 
world is produced in six western States. 
The great wheat fields, the cattle ranges, 
the greatest of our forests, the grandest 
scenery, the most diversified climate and 
the principal sanitariums of our country are 
all in the newest West. About half of the 
wool production of our country comes from 
the new West, or if Texas be added, the pro- 
duction of wool will be far more than half. 
One-half of the acreage of wheat produced in 
the United States is in the new West, and 
the number of bushels is far beyond one-half, 
showing the additional fact that the average 
production per acre in the new West is far 
beyond that of the States lying east of the 
Missouri river. The same is true of other 
cereals. 

It is less than a half century since the 
first Presbyterian church was organized in 
the new West. Leaving out of the account 
the work on the Pacific coast, the introduc- 
tion of Protestant Christianity into the 
western half of our country occurred with- 



1897.] 



THE NEW WEST. 



21 



in the life of the present generation. It 

would he interesting and profitable to con- 
sider the religious condition of these State3 
and Territories, at least so far as regard- the 
comparative statistics of our own Church. 

Arizona has a population of 77,000; 
there are 13 Presbyterian churches, with an 
aggregate membership of 597, with 9 minis- 
ters; it is a significant fact that of the adult 
male population there are but two out of 
every hundred that belong to any church. 
One of the churches is composed entirely of 
Indians, with a membership of 203, with 
Rev. Charles H. Cook as the pastor. 

California has a population of 1,220,000. 
The first Presbyterian church in that State 
was organized in 1850; we have at present 
228 churches with 21,146 members. 

The population of Colorado is 450,000; 
there are 101 churches, 8624 members, and 
84 ministers. While our Church has had a 
good degree of growth, it is a significant 
fact that of the adult male population but 
seven per cent, are in Protestant churches, 
a slightly smaller proportion than is found in 
California. 

Idaho has but 130,000 population; we 
have 28 churches, with 1343 members. 
The percentage of the adult male population 
in the Protestant church membership is but 
four and one-half. 

The population of Kansas is 1,350,000. 
There are 343 Presbyterian churches, with 
25,321 members and 206 ministers. This 
State has nearly one-fourth of its adult 
males in the membership of Protestant 
churches, the percentage being twenty-three 
and two-tenths. Kansas has always at- 
tracted the best classes of western emigra- 
tion. She has four times as many Protes- 
tants as Romanists. Though she leads her 
sister western States in the relative strength 
of her moral and religious forces, there are 
still 1,000,000 of her population outside of 
all church connection. 

Minnesota, with 1,610,000 population, has 
258 Presbyterian churches, with 19,338 
members, and 1 75 • ministers. Notwith- 
standing the financial stringency which this 
State in common with the entire country has 
felt, 19 churches were organized during the 
past year and more buildings dedicated than 
in any previous year in the history of the 
State, and it is a remarkable fact that all of 
these arc free of debt. Nearly twenty-three per 
cent, of her adult males are church members. 



Montana has a population of 185,000. 
There an- 35 Presbyterian churches, with 
2021 members and 31 ministers. One third 
• if these churches are self-supporting. None 
of the western State- -how belter results for 
the amount of missionary money expended 
upon them than Montana, but the greater 
part of the history of our Church within 
that State has been made under the trying 
difficulties of the Board's retrenchment. 
There are many communities without the 
ordinary means of grace, hence it is that 
but three and one-half per cent, of her male 
population are in the membership of Protes- 
tant churches. 

Nebraska, with a population of 1,158,- 
000, has 225 churches, with 15,1)31 mem- 
bers and 140 ministers. The country will 
not soon forget the terrible drought that 
visited the State a little more than a 
year ago. Through all that dark and try- 
ing period our missionaries stood like heroes 
at their posts and have since been rewarded 
with fruitful revivals. Fifteen and one-half 
per cent, of her male population are found 
in the membership of her Protestant 
churches. 

Nevada has but 60,000 population, and 
we have but 7 churches, with 424 members 
within her borders. These churches are far 
apart and the work entails great hardship 
upon the three ministers to whom it is com- 
mitted. Only two and one-fifth per cent, 
of her adult male population are in her 
Protestant churches. 

New Mexico has 185,000 population, 
mostly Mexicans. We have 3D churches, 
with 1043 members. These churches, with 
a number of mission stations not yet organ- 
ized, are under the care of 20 ministers. 

North Dakota has 225,000 inhabitants 
and 99 Presbyterian churches, with 3449 
members. There are but 52 ministers in 
charge of this work. One-fifth of the male 
population of this State are in Protestant 
churches, and yet the sad fact remains that 
of every five men four do not profess a 
hope in Christ. 

The Territory of Oklahoma has a popula- 
tion of 275,000. Though the youngest of 
our Territories, our work has been so great- 
ly blessed that we have 37 churches, 1364 
members and 20 ministers. 

Indian Territory, which lies close by, has 
67 churches, with 2091 members, mostly 
Indians, under the care of 39 ministers. 



22 



THE NEW WEST. 



[January, 



The population of Oregon has increased 
fifteen per cent, in the last five years, and 
is now 400,000. It was in this State that 
the vanguard of our Presbyterian army was 
led by the now sainted Samuel Parker, sixty 
years ago, closely followed by the immortal 
Whitman. Their labors were not in vain 
in the Lord. There are now 90 churches, 
with 6036 members and 75 ministers. A 
little more than ten per cent, of her adult 
male population are professing Christians 
and Protestants. 

South Dakota has a population of 332, - 
000. There are at present 126 churches, 
with 5255 members and 91 ministers. This 
growth has been very rapid, the increase 
being tenfold in fifteen years. A little more 
than one-fifth of her adult male population 
are in the Protestant churches. 

Utah is at present in an alarming condi- 
tion. The promises so recently made by 
her people, and willingly accepted by the 
country, of obedience to the laws of the 
land, and respect for the decencies of our 
Christian civilization, are being grossly vio- 
lated, and Utah sits defiantly entrenched in 
statehood. The only hope of making it a 
true American State with the semblances of 
Christian civilization lies in her Protestant 
forces. While it remained a Territory, 
gratifying progress was made by the mission- 
aries of evangelical Christianity. What 
was then gained is still faithfully held. She 
has a population of 254,743. Only two 
and three-tenths per cent, of her male popu- 
lation have been brought into the member- 
ship of evangelical churches, so that out of 
every hundred men you meet, more than 
ninety-seven are non-professors. In this 
State we have 22 Presbyterian churches with 
1079 members. These, with the number of 
unorganized missions, are under the care of 
24 faithful ministers. 

The State of Washington has 415,000 
inhabitants, among whom we have 96 
churches, with 5222 members. The num- 
ber of ministers is 76. 

Wyoming has 100,000 inhabitants. In 
this State we have 1 2 churches, with 396 
members and 8 ministers. The mission 
work in this State is chiefly in the northern, 
northwestern and southwestern parts of the 
State, where important mineral and agricul- 
tural industries are developing. 
■j In all this new West the population is 



sparse, the average being but four persons 
to the square mile, and yet in the aggregate 
the increase has been phenomenal. The 
vast and varied resources, the limitless 
variety of climate, and the rapidly improv- 
ing facilities for carrying on the innumera- 
ble occupations, give promise of an enormous 
population at an early day. But to return 
to our Church work in this region. 

It is interesting to note that among the 
churches enumerated above, 39 are Indian 
churches, with a membership of about 4000, 
with over 40 native helpers. Of these, one 
entire presbytery of 17 ministers and 22 
churches is in Dakota. Washington has 8 
churches, with 10 ministers and about 600 
members. In New Mexico there is one, in 
the Pueblo of Laguna. 

In the mixed multitude of our cosmopoli- 
tan West, we have 49 Mexican churches, 
with 6 Mexican ministers, 6 licentiates and 
17 helpers, an aggregate Mexican member- 
ship of 1543. 

In California there are three Chinese 
churches, with 164 members, and one Jap- 
anese church with 110 members. There 
are also many churches of our European 
nationalities. 

Alaska belongs to our new West. In 
this far-away land the Presbyterian Church 
began its work nineteen years ago. The 
w r ork has been largely educational, but part 
of the visible fruits are seen in 7 organized 
churches with an aggregate membership of 
820. There is at present but one native 
minister; but promising young men are in 
preparation for the sacred office. 

Surely much of our national history, and 
probably its most brilliant chapters, will be 
made between the Mississsippi river and the 
Pacific ocean. Thither a vast multitude of 
the most enterprising sons and daughters of 
the older States are flocking; hosts of sturdy 
emigrants are seeking homes in that attrac- 
tive land. If the population of our entire 
country will double within the life of the 
next generation, as it has done in the past 
thirty years, surely the new West will re- 
ceive more than its proportion of the in- 
crease, estimated upon either its present 
population or its geographical extent. In 
the light of these probabilities, it is an 
appalling fact that more than ninety out of 
every one hundred of its inhabitants do not 
even profess a hope in Christ. 



1897.] PASTORAL LETTER OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY ON HOME MISSIONS. 



23 



PASTORAL LETTER OF THE GEN- 
ERAL ASSEMBLY ON HOME 
MISSIONS. 

The General Assembly iu session at Sara- 
toga Springs, New York, May 26, 1896, 
authorized the Moderator of the Assembly to 
issue a pastoral letter to the churches, to be 
sent out over the signatures of the officers of 
the Assembly, urging, in view of the imme- 
diate and imperative needs of the Board of 
Home Missions, a prompt and substantial 
manifestation of loyalty to this great work. 

Carrying out this direction, the officers of 
the Assembly earnestly draw the attention 
of all pastors, sessions and church members 
to the needs of this Board. 

The first need is that of the current work. 
In this connection it is important to remem- 
ber that the Presbyterian Church in the 
U. S. A. has been engaged since its organi- 
zation in home mission work, and the 
successful development of American national 
life has been in a very considerable degree 
the result, under God, of the work put 
forth by the Church. From the close of 
the seventeenth century to the present time 
our Church has done a vast work under 
God's blessing for the moral and religious 
advancement of the Republic. This inti- 
mate and helpful relation of the Church to 
the Nation still exists. To-day at least one- 
third of our particular churches are home 
mission churches, and one-fourth of our 
effective ministry is supported in whole or in 
part by the contributions of our people to this 
Board. The sphere of effort includes not 
only the helping of weak churches in sup- 
porting their ministers, the sustaining of 
missionaries and evangelists in communities 
that are destitute of the means of grace, 
but also the maintenance of the work of 
city evangelization and the care of mission 
schools among the Indians, the Mexicans, 
the Mormons, the Alaskans and the south- 
ern whites. In this work the Board is 
effectively aided by the Woman's Executive 
Committee of Home Missions. Owing, in 
large part, to the financial stringency, the 
contributions these past two years have not 
been commensurate to the needs, and in 
view of its lessened resources, the Board has 
notified the presbyteries that it is obliged to 
reduce its appropriations to the churches by 
ten per cent. The work is the work of the 



Church, and the Board can expend only the 
sums furnished by the ( Jhurch. 

The Board of Home Missions, further, 

has labored for several years pasl under the 
incubus of an increasing debt. This debt 
was occasioned mainly by the growth of the 
work, and the effort of the Board to over- 
take it, stimulated thereto by the requests 
and evangelistic aggressiveness of the pres- 
byteries. During the past fiscal year, and 
at the call of the General Assembly, contri- 
butions were made for this debt, which 
largely reduced it. The Board, how- 
ever, is still burdened with a debt of 
$350,000. 

Realizing the serious state of the home 
mission enterprise, the General Assembly 
has inaugurated certain practical measures 
looking forward to yet greater efficiency in 
the work of the Board. Concisely stated, 
these measures involve that all churches 
applying for aid shall contribute according 
to ability towards the support of their min- 
isters; that each presbytery shall furnish the 
Board of Home Missions with a careful, 
conscientious and conservative estimate of 
the least possible amount necessary to aid 
the churches within its bounds; that the 
Board shall indicate to each presbyterial 
home missi >n committee the maximum total 
amount it is able to grant the aid-receiving 
churches ; that the Board shall inquire into 
the record of each aid- receiving church in 
the matter of its gifts to home mission 
work ; that the presbyterial committees shall 
make the final apportionment among the 
churches, not exceeding in the aggregate the 
amount designated by the Board ; and that 
each presbytery shall use every endeavor to 
enlarge the gifts to home missions, and to 
stimulate its churches to self-support. By 
this plan the churches, the presbyteries and 
the Assembly's Board are brought into close 
relations, share jointly all responsibility, and 
become mutually helpful in this great 
work. 

The Assembly, further, appointed a com- 
mittee of conference with the Board, to 
ascertain its exact condition, to determine 
the causes of the indebtedness, and to report 
to the next Assembly upon the whole sub- 
ject of its work. 

The Assembly has also commended the 
Board to the generosity of the Church. 
The need as we have seen is great, and 
stated in dollars and cents requires for the 



24 



ALABAMA ALASKA. 



[January, 



payment of the debt $350,000, and for the 
current work at least $y00,000. In view 
of all the facts, the undersigned appeal, in 
the name of the Church and of the Church's 
Lord, for the means wherewith to carry for- 
ward that vast work in this land, which has 
been entrusted to us as a branch of the 
universal Christian Church. 

Let us remember that Gabriel, sent from 
God, foretold (Dan. 9 : 25) that the walls of 
Jerusalem were to be builded, " even in 
troublous times." Heroic work for Christ's 
kingdom and crown has been done repeated- 
ly by believers in seasons of privation. 
And now, when the cry of hard times is so 
loud in the land, the followers of Christ 
have a remarkable opportunity to impress 
the unprofessing world by acts of sacrifice 
for Jesus' sake. It is easy, and it signifies 
little, to give when the purse is too fat for 
its strings. But when its sides shrink, and 
yet the enthusiasm of the owner does not 
diminish, in the consecration of all he is 
able to give to the carrying forward of the 
blood-bought cause of the Master through a 
great emergency, it gives the world faith in 
our faith. 

The painful needs of our unpaid mission- 
aries, further, should be enough to make 
every Christian possessing wealth hesitate 
to say his prayers until much more is done 
for their relief. The cry of want comes 
from missionary family circles. The call to 
help them comes imperiously from Em- 
manuel. 

Our Church, again, is not local, or pro- 
vincial, but continental. The national 
advance in population continues. There is 
a demand to-day in this work above any 
made in the past. Four hundred ministers 
are now needed above the number for whom 
the Board can provide. The call for teach- 
ers, helpers and evangelists comes, both to 
the Board and to the Woman's Executive 
Committee, from every section of the coun- 
try. From Maine on the east to Washing- 
ton on the west, from Wisconsin on the 
north to Florida on the south, the work of 
Christ appeals to the liberality of his people. 
Within the next fifty years there will be in 
this land a development equal to that of the 
past half-century. Let every church in our 
denomination and every pastor, officer and 
church member, after meditation and prayer 
upon the urgent needs of the great cause of 
home missions, give of their substance to 



make America sure for Christ, and through 

America, the world. 

John L\nsing Withrow, 
Wm. Henry Roberts, 
Wm. Eves Moore. 

Letters. 

ALABAMA. 

Rev. B. F. Guille, New Decatur : — The church 
of New Decatur is in better organization, better 
financially and socially and spiritually than ever 
before in her history. When I went there the en- 
rollment was twenty-five ; it is now seventy-five. 
There were but few officers, and almost all of them 
had held office beyond the term because they had 
no business meetings. A new session of three good 
men now hold office. The Sabbath- school elected 
a superintendent, September 6, who promises to be 
permanent and the best ever in office there. He is 
spiritual, enterprising and cordial, but has never 
been brought out till by hard pressure recently 
through his personal attachment to me. The 
church paid me in full at leaving and had no 
debts, with money in treasury and more available 
assets in unpaid subscriptions. 

ALASKA. 

Rev. Alvin C. Austix, Hoonah: — Our peace 
has been greatly disturbed and the lives of two of 
our people were endangered by the agitation of the 
old cause which is supposed to account for all cases 
of severe illness, witchcraft. Threats were resorted 
to after arguments had failed, and finally, after 
nearly a week of excitement, the trouble quieted 
down without loss of life. 

Old burial customs have proven very hard to be 
done away with. One man buried since my last 
report was forwarded was perhaps an extreme case, 
and will show what we have to contend with. The 
man had been converted only a short time before, 
and he knew that his days were almost numbered. 
He told me that since he was a Christian he did 
not want any old customs observed regarding his 
burial. A number of his friends, including his 
wife, wanted to keep his remains in the house for a 
year before burial. I worked with them all of the 
week and put in all day Saturday in a pouring rain 
making a house in which to place the coffin. It 
was a house complete from foundation to shingled 
roof. The service from the church was about five 
o'clock Saturday, and what was my disappoint- 
ment, when the coffin was placed in its temporary 
resting place, to see the following articles put in 
with it - a pitcher of water, a pail of berries and 
food, a clock, wound and running, and also a music 
box which contributed its part during the latter part 
of the service. I had no interpreter, and remon- 
strance was useless. The music was good, but I 
thought, the selection not appropriate. 

The work is progressing. Six have been re- 
ceived into the church on profession, and eight in- 
fants baptized during the quarter. Eighty cents is 
not much of a help to the Home Board, but it is 
more than the mission has done before, and I hope 
is only a pledge for better things in the future. 



1897.] 



ARKANSAS — CALIFORNIA COLORADO. 



25 



Key. J. II. Condit, Juneau .-—Since my last re- 
port we have enjoyed a communion service. We 
welcomed eleven members into church fellowship. 
Nine of these came by letter from Bister churches, 
and two on profession of faith. All are adults, and 
nine are heads of families. The majority of them 
are good working members. There were but five 
members here when we came six months ago. 

We now have a Christian Endeavor Society and 
Ladies' Aid Society in working order. The Endea- 
vor Society lias twelve members, and the Aid Soci- 
ety sixteen. I think the attendance at the Endea- 
vor Society prayer meetings has averaged at least 
twenty. 

I have for my share of the Sabbath-school work a 
class composed of boys from twelve to sixteen. 
These boys have been an unruly element in our 
school, but last Sunday I took charge of them and 
by means of a map, some illustrations and an open- 
ing lecture on our purpose to have good order in 
our Sabbath-school, was gratified to see order 
emerging from chaos. There were thirteen boys in 
attendance, and the class has eighteen members en- 
rolled. I ask for no greater work than that of 
leading those boys to the higher life. I am now 
working on the organization of a Boys' Brigade. I 
trust to get thirty or forty boys into such an organi- 
zation. I hope to be able to do something to 
counteract the neglect of parents and the schooling 
of the street. 

A new church is absolutely essential to our 
growth and prosperity, and we will agitate that 
matter next spring. I trust some brother or breth- 
ren will be found to assist us in such an enterprise 
as this. 



ARKANSAS. 

Rev. S. R. Keam, Fort Smith: — Ten years ago 
this month I began work among the full- blood 
Choctaw Indians. San Bois and Green Hill were 
designated as the field. At the latter place the In- 
dians had all scattered to parts unknown to me, and 
the church building had been taken down by per- 
sons who held a claim on the lumber. At San 
Bois there were six or seven members patiently 
waiting for God to send a minister to preach to 
them. The church building was old and almost 
ready to fall, which led us to seek new quarters. 
The work has moved slowly, but, looking over the 
ten years, the change is marvelous. We have 
now one hundred and forty earnest Christian men 
and women. Through the kindness of the Board 
of Church Erection we have been able to build 
three comfortable churches. Our church at San 
Bois would be a credit to any town. The Board 
made a grant of $300, and the building is worth 
$1000. It will seat three hundred people, and is 
painted inside and out. If our rich people of the 
North and East could see the glorious power of the 
gospel among the Indians, they would quickly fur- 
nish the Board of Home Missions the means to send 
more laborers into the Lord's vineyard. I am the 
only Presbyterian minister in two counties. Many 
places are calling for the gospel, and there is room 
for several men in these count ies. The Indians have 
improved in general appearance. Their beds and 
bedding are much cleaner. Rev. John Edwards 
asked if I preached on house keeping. My reply 
was, "Not from the pulpit, but frequently at their 



camp-fires." I speak of these things to show the 
refining influence of the gospel as wdl a- it- - 
power. To < rod !>«• all the praifi 

The congregations are always g 1. Family 

prayer is generally observed, and our school al 
Bois i- kept up the entire year. We are now 
building another chapel at "Ochowla," £.< , 
dar ('reek.' 1 The long drought ami the ex 
hot summer have cut the crop- -hurt. I cannot 
see how many of our people will get through until 
another crop is made. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Rev. Stephen K. Pknxkn, Long IipacJi. I 
Angeles Co.: — The three months ending October 31 
were very prosperous and could have been doubly 
so if we had a larger and better church building. 
The house has been full ; large numbers have gone 
away unable to get in, and many stay away because 
it is so crowded. Sabbath-school has doubled and 
could be much increased if we had room for ad- 
ditional classes. Seventeen have been added to the 
church since last communion in July, making 
thirty-one in all in the six months. Every depart- 
ment of work is wide awake and prosperous. 

I have preached to persons occupving every 
available square foot of space, sitting on pulpit 
platform, steps of the choir gallery, on front and 
rear steps outside and more than fifty going away to 
other churches. With a suitable building a strong 
church could be built up in a few years. People 
from four hundred miles around are here summer 
and winter. 



COLORADO. 

Rev. L. T. Bttrbank, Denver: — This report 
covers a territory of about one thousand square 
miles, lying forty miles east of Denver. It has two 
typical railroad villages, Byers and Deer Trail, 
twelve miles apart, containing each about seventy- 
five inhabitants. Saloons, pool, gambling and 
sundry sports and nameless vices were common. 
Byers had preaching from occasional Methodist 
students ; Deer Trail had never had preaching. 
Such was the spiritual condition when I began 
laboring there about one and a half year since. A 
petition from this people for a Presbyterian church 
organization was sent to the Denver Presbytery at 
its April meeting Dr Kirkwood was invited to 
visit the field. He did so on the last Sunday in 
May, and a church was organized of forty-four 
members, one elder and a deacon, ordained. A 
unanimous call from church and people was pre- 
sented to presbytery at its June meeting for my 
services as pastor, which I accepted. The installa- 
tion is waiting for the commission from the Board, 
for if the aid asked by the unanimous vote i>( pres- 
bytery is not given there will not be sufficient sup- 
port. The people contribute nobly, some beyond 
their means, many of them are poor people. Sheep 
husbandry outside of the villages i> the chief busi- 
ness. Wool sells for three and a half cents per 
pound this year at the K. K. Some members oi" 
the church run their small ranches on shares. 
There is no irrigation or crop farming. Our con- 
gregations manifest a remarkable hunger for the 
word of life. Dr. Kirkwood said their attention 



26 



IDAHO — INDIAN TERRITORY. 



[January, 



was almost painful. Two vigorous Sunday-schools 
have been organized, and a large number have be- 
gun to learn the catechism. Some of our people 
are scattered away from the villages in summer, so 
that worshipers will drive ten or fifteen miles for 
church on Sunday. 

The village of Deer Trail, with drinking and 
gambling, was as bad as any other one anywhere. 
Now the saloon has died for want of patronage ; the 
people in quietness and in considerable numbers 
are in meeting and Sunday-school on Sunday, and 
the town is as quiet as a Xew England one. While 
looking at the marvelous changes on this field in 
this brief period we can only exclaim, " What hath 
God wrought ?' ' The only obstacle to a glorious fu- 
ture for this work seems to be the poverty of the 
Board, which compels such meagre help, and the 
dull times that press so heavily on a noble but poor 
people. 



H. W. Rankin, Pueblo: — I began my labors at 
Grand Junction, Colorado, where we continued the 
work for three weeks holding two meetings each 
day. The interest increased with each service. 
Many cold and indifferent Christians were revived 
and quickened, backsliders reclaimed, and sinners 
converted to God. It was a great uplift, spiritual- 
ly and temporally, for the church, and the entire 
community felt the influence of the work. There 
were over forty professed conversions. Eighteen 
united with the Presbyterian Church, with several 
more to follow, and others united with the other 
churches. 

Erom there we went to La Junta, in Pueblo 
Presbytery Our church here was struggling under 
many difficulties, and the work was greatly needed. 
We continued the work seventeen days. A deep 
interest developed from the beginning, and soon 
the little church was filled to overflowing, and peo- 
ple turned away unable to gain admittance. A 
larger building was secured, and that was filled. 
The Spirit of God was manifest in power, and there 
were conversions at everv meeting. At two meet- 
ings for men only over three hundred were present. 
Such a gathering of men was never before seen in 
the town, and there were some remarkable conver- 
sions, among them the editor of the leading paper 
in the town and the strongest infidel in that part of 
the country. In several instances whole families 
were converted, and the entire community was 
moved as never before. All classes and conditions 
were reached. The church has been greatly 
strengthened and blessed, and now takes a position 
it never before held in the community. Fifty per- 
sons have united with our church, with more to fol- 
low, and several united with the other churches. 
There were eighty professed conversions. 

From there we went to Rocky Ford, a town twelve 
miles distant. The influence of the work at La 
Junta had reached the place before us, and the first 
night the church was full. We remained there 
thirteen days, and the power of God was manifest 
in all the meetings. People came from seven and eight 
miles in the countrv twice each day. It was a time 
of great rejoicing in the church and in many homes. 
Thirtv were received into the church with more to 
come. There were about fifty conversions. The 
church has received a great uplift, and pastor and 
people are rejoicing. 



The dear Lord has abundantly blessed the work 
during the quarter. There have been one hundred 
and ninety professed conversions ; one hundred and 
eight have united with our churches. I cannot give 
you the number that have united by letter. We 
cannot reach nearly all the fields that are calling 
for the work. 



Rev. A. J. Rodriguez, Ignacio : — An Indian told 
me that he thought the sun is the great father who 
made all things, and the stars are the little gods. He 
said that the Pujacantes medicine men have to se- 
lect one of the stars as their god or helper in mak- 
ing cures. He said moreover that if the medicine 
man had sufficient faith in his selected star, then, 
when he is effecting cures, he falls into a sort of 
ecstasy, and in that way or state he goes to the stars 
and his star tells him where the sick parts are and 
also tells him whether or not he is going to succeed 
in curing the case. They claim that these selected 
stars can show to the medicine men the interior of 
the human body so that they may see exactly where 
the sicknesses are. Many wondered when I told 
them about the miracles of Christ, and usually they 
ask me if this Christ was a son of the sun or 
the moon. I explain to them in simple words how 
the Son of God came to the world and why he 
came, and also of the great love God has for them 
and for all nations. 



IDAHO. 



Rev. R. P. Boyd, Pan's : — Our only elder was 
taken away by death after a short illness. He walked 
with God, and we have the best of reasons for be- 
lieving that he has gone where his treasures were 
and where his thoughts have been much of the 
time for many years. I do not know that he was 
ever absent from a Sabbath service when it was 
possible for him to be present, although this often 
involved walking a distance of about three miles. 
When visiting him during his last sickness, he re- 
quested my wife and me to sing "Jesus, lover of 
mv soul." It seemed a severe blow to us to lose 
him in the midst of his years, but it was evidently 
confounding to the advocates of error to have an 
illustration of the supporting powers of the rod and 
staff uj on which the Christian leans as he passes 
through the dark valley of the shadow of death. 
The three sons of this elder united with our church 
the first Sabbath of this month. Thus while God 
has sent us sorrow he has also given us cause for re- 
joicing The father of our elder is still living, 
and, although he is a strong Mormon, he was evi- 
dently well satisfied respecting the spiritual destiny 
of his son. A man in this town also, from whom I 
little expected such testimony, said to me, "Mr. 
Quinton" (this was the name of our elder) " was a 
good man " Thus, while he rests from his labors, 
his works do follow him. 



INDIAN TERRITORY. 

Rev. H. A. Tucker, Caddo: — Meetings have 
been held at Caddo. Lehigh, Atoka, Bethel Mis- 
sion, San Boise and Tushkahoma Female Institute. 
At these places ninety-six persons were received 
into the church, and four hundred and fifty enrolled 
as members in the "Bible Temperance Army." 



1897.] 



MAINE — MINNESOTA APPOINTMENTS. 



27 



Many times have we said, " Bless the Lord, O my 
soul, and forget not all his benefits." Some of the 
benefits bestowed are solid comfort in preaching: the 
gospel, opportunities to be like the pole that held up 
the brazen serpent in the wilderness, and the pres- 
ence of God in saving power. You ask, " Does the 
work pay?" A few days before our meetings 
commenced at Bethel Mission an Indian girl was 
standing before a blazing fire. Her clothes were 
ignited, and before the flames could be extinguished 
her back and sides were burned into a crisp. 
When we visited her we sang " Jesus, lover of my 
soul." While singing, she quietly said, " I am so 
happy." The next day we called to see her again, 
and at her request we sang " I am going home to 
die no more." Then the sufferer, with a glow of 
peace on her countenance, said, "lam so thank- 
ful." In a few days the Good Shepherd called 
this lamb to himself. If the blood-washed 
spirit of this Indian girl should speak to the men 
and women who have means to send the gospel she 
would say, " It pays to send the gospel to the home 
of the red man." 



Kev. Leoxidas Dobsox, Cttaremore: — Perhaps at 
no time in the history of this country has there 
been a feeling more pronounced than now on the 
question of races The Indians of the five civilized 
tribes realize that their governments peculiar to 
their modes and habits of life are crumbling beneath 
their feet, They charge the white race as the 
cause of the threatened disruption of their national- 
ity and with all the attendant woes of such a calam- 
ity. It is true that the Indian has been brought 
face to face in this country with much of the worst 
element of our race, who are here as adventurers, 
for gain at any cost. You will not wonder then that 
a class like this has been largely discounted, especi- 
ally by the best and most advanced of the red men. 
This feeling is perceptible in social and business 
life, and is, to say the least, not conducive to 
Christian life and the best developments at large of 
the great interests of the Church of Christ. We 
fondly hope for more auspicious times, for a brighter 
and better day. Perhaps the Indian has been 
nursed too much by both Church and State. Yet 
the Church still stretches her hand to help him, and 
notwithstanding multiplied hindrances she has 
been and is still being rewarded for her expendi- 
tures, her care and toils. 

MAINE. 

Rev. Kenneth McKay, Houllon: — For the 
first time during the eight years of my work in this 
field I forward a second report without having re- 
ceived my money from the Board. During these 
months we have often labored under a load of 
anxiety as to how and when the grocer's bill was 
to be paid. And still the past three months have 
brought to us joys and encouragements greater than 
any other quarter covered by our regular reports. 
We have seen the completion of our new church 
and had it dedicated to God on the fourth Sabbath 
of September, nearly free from debt — there remains 
but about $200 to be provided. 

Our church is beautiful and perfectly suited to 
our present necessities, and can be adapted to the 
needs of our people for many years to come. When 
all is thrown open it will seat 500 ; we had GOO at 
the dedicatory service. We have a fine Sabbath- 



school in the basement. We have a Christian En- 
deavor room in the front, which opens up to the main 
auditorium by folding partitions. The window- 
are all the gifts of families or individuals, some me- 
morial and others having simplv the family name 
The pulpit furniture is the gift of three or four of the 

Boston churches. Dr. Dewing, our pastor-at-large, 

was with us at the dedicatory services and W 
great help and comfort. In the afternoon we held 
a citizens' service, at which kind and congratulatory 
addresses were delivered bv the six resident Pro- 
testant pastors. We received during the day, in con- 
nection with the services, nearly $400 towards the 
seating of the church. We are now very comfort- 
able and happy in our new home and hope to do 
better work than ever before. 

MINNESOTA. 

Rev. R. N. Adams, D.D., Superintendent: — 

This quarter not only closes the synodical vear, but 
also a decade of unbroken service as superintendent 
of the mission work in the Synod of Minnesota. 
Seven years of that time were years of prosperity 
and plenty, during which our growth as a church 
was vigorous, substantial, and I might properlv say 
phenomenal. For in that time we added 126 
churches to our roll ; erected forty-three manses 
and 123 church buildings; and we still hold all 
that property without the loss of a church or a 
dollar. Three years of that time were crucial 
years in every department of Christian activity, and 
I need not tell you that our churches are still feel- 
ing the financial straitness which has so largely di- 
minished the resources on the field and retarded 
the progress of the work. Considering, however, the 
unparalleled stringency of the times, we feel that it 
is a matter of profound gratitude that so much has 
been accomplished and that the prospect now 
brightens. Opportunities for effective and aggres- 
sive work were never greater. 

Our great effort during the past year has been to 
foster and strengthen our feeble organizations, and, 
as a means to this end, protracted services were 
held in fifty-three of our aid-receiving churches, 
which resulted in an addition to the membership of 
1000 on profession of faith, and 300 by letter. 

Bemidji, the last church organized, is fortv miles 
from the railroad, and 120 miles from any Presby- 
terian church. It is the only church in that region 
and is surrounded by 500 families with no other 
means of grace. This is but a sample of the crying 
need to be found within the bounds of this great 
home mission synod. 



Rev. G. G. Matiiison, Ferqus Falls: — On Sep- 
tember 20, we dedicated a church at Baker Alli- 
ance, church costing one thousand dollars, free 
of debt. Five persons united with the (mutch. 
The First Presbyterian Church of Benridge has 
given the contract for a house of worship, 30x42 
feet. 



APPOINTMENTS. 



L. M. Stevens, Sorrento and Seneca, 

W. R. Henderson, D. D., Coronado Beach, 

F. Rhoda, Valona, 

E. T. Lockard, Cavucas, Moro and Toro Creek, 

F. S. Thomas, Hollister, 

J. M. Donaldson, Highland and Wrights, 



Fla. 
Cal. 



28 



APPOINTMENTS. 



[January, 



M. D. A. Steen, D.D., Woodbridge and Clem- 
ents, Cai. 
R. Ballagh, Piano and station, " 
J. B. McCuish, Pueblo, Westminster, Colo. 
E. M. Smith, Pueblo, Fountain, " 
J. McLean, Del Norte, 1st, u 

E. H. Lyle, La Junta, 1st, " 

F. W. Hawley, Synod ical Missionary, I.T. 
E. B. Evans, Wheelock, " 
J. A. B. Oglevee, Perry, 1st, O.T. 
H. L. Moore, Newkirk and station, " 
T. S. Bailey, D. D., Synodical Missionary, Iowa. 
J. G. Aikman, Humeston and Grand River, " 
H. Quickenden, Garden Grove and Leroy, ' ' 
M. McLeod, Lime Springs, 1st, " 
J. M. Wilson, Armstrong, 1st, tl 
J. Smith, Burlington, Hope, u 
H. B. Dye, Morrison, " 
S. B. Fleming, D.D., Synodical Missionary, Kans. 
W. M. Howell, Marietta, " 
A. H. Parks, Past or- at- Large, " 

E. L. Combs, Garnet and Sugarvale, " 
A. C. Frick, Carlton, Dillon and Union, " 
D. McDonald, Synodical Missionary, Ky. 
H. A. Brown, Ebenezer, Rector ville and Val- 

ley, 

L. M. Scroggs, Harmony and stations, " 

J. McDonald, Burkesville, " 

F. Marston, Manchester, " 
W. C. Clemens, Harlan Court House, " 
D. Howell, Synodical Missionary, Mich. 
A. C. Mclver, Fraser, Ubly and Verona, " 

Thompson, Grand Kapids, Immanuel, " 

W. Carrick, Deerfield and Petersburg, u 

N. Adams, D. D., Synodical Missionary, Minn. 

J. Barackman, Sandstone, 1st, " 

Tietema, Greenleafton, Ebenezer, " 
Montgomery and New Pra- 



C. S. Dewing, D.D., Presbyterial Missionary, Mass. 
H. McGilvray, Portland, 1st, Me. 

H. Hausman, Manchester, 1st German, N. H. 

J. N. Crocker, D. D., Synodical Missionary, N. Y. 
W 



J. 
C. 
R 
F. 
K. 

C. W. Hansen 
gue, 

C. H. Gavenstein, Kanarauzie, Ebenezer, " 
J. Dobias, Tabor and station, Bohemian, " 
J. God ward, Elbow Lake and stations, 

E. D. Walker, D. D , Synodical Missionary, Mo. 
J. T Curtis, Preston, Salem and Irwing, 
J. G. Knotter, Monett, Waldensian, " 

J. A. Novinger, Birdseye Ridge, Boynton and 

Bell Porter Memorial, " 

A. B. Herr, Albany, " 

J. W. Shearer, St. Louis, Grace, " 

J. B. Brandt, St. Louis, Tyler Mission, " 

W. H. McMinn, St. Louis, Oak Hill, " 

T. L. Sexton, D.D., Synodical Missionary, Neb. 
W. E. Basset t, Norden, " 

D. K. Miller, Bennett and Palmyra, " 

D. W. Montgomery, Pastor-at-Large, " 
R. M. Smith, Lysinger, Stockham and Ver- 
ona, " 

G. Bailey, Broken Bow, " 

A. J. Evans, Republican City and Oxford, " 
C. H. Churchill, St. Edward and Woodville, " 

B. Beall, Pastor-at-Large, " 
R. E L. Hayes, Randolph and Mackey, " 
W. B. Lower, Florence and Ponca, " 
J. A. Menaul, Synodical Missionary, N.M. 
H. P. Corser, Flagstaff, Ariz. 

E. C. Chavez, Tucson, Spanish, " 
B. C. Meeker, Las Cruces, N M. 
T. C. Moffett, Raton, 1st, 

S. W Curtis, Las Vegas, Los Valles, La Luz, 
Spanish and stations, " 



N.D. 



J. 

E. 

H. 
G. 
D. 

J. 

J. 
C. 

A. 
H. 
J. 

H. 
J. 
T. 
R. 
O. 
G. 
F. 

W. 

T. 

II. 

II. 

W. 

I. 

I) 

R 

J. 

E. 

F. 

R, 

A. 



McGilvray, Portland, 1st, 
Hausman, Manchester, 1st German, 
N. Crocker, D. D., Synodical Missionary, 

E. Marden, Voorheesville and Bethle 

hem, 
F. Robinson, Apalachin, 1st, 
P. Bake, D.D., Spencertown and Auster 

litz, 
King, Cairo, 
H. Jensen, Clarkstown, 
I). King, Hempstead, 
R. W. Klose, Cochecton, 
A. Schwarz, Melville and station, 
Voorhees, Greenlawn, 
W. Jones, Constantia and West Monroe, 
. C. Peabody, Brownville, 
Scovel, Kirkland, 
H. Pollock, ftossie, 

E. Grosh, Williamstown and West Cam- 
den, 
Durrie, Bismarck, 1st, 
Byers, Tower City and Buffalo, 
S. Vincent, Hudson and Oaks, 
Zoll, Grandin, 
. J. Hall, Park River, 
. G. Rogerson, Harvey, 1st, 
. C. Hunter, Minot and Logan, 
. O. Forbes, Synodical Missionary, 
C. Templeton, Enterprise, Joseph, Prairie 

Creek and station, " 

J. Adams, Cleveland, 1st, and Klickitat, 

2d, 
E. Snyder, Brownsville, 1st, and Craw- 

fordsville, " 

W. Coberth, York, Faith, Pa. 

P. Carson, D. D., Synodical Missionary, S D. 
J. Bloeiaendaal, Palmer, 1st Holland, " 

M. Butt, Britton and Amherst, " 

Macnab, Nashville, Camp Crook and Alza- 

da, 
M. L. Eckard, Volga and station, u 

A. Duncan, D. D., Synodical Missionary, Term. 

N.C. 



Oreg. 



M. Penland, Beech and Pleasant Grove, 
M. Boyd, Reems and Jupiter, 
W. C. Willoughby, New Decatur, West- 
minster, Ala. 
S. Little, Synodical Missionary, Tex 
P. Lyle, Kerrville and station, " 
S. Day, Pearsall, Dilley and Cibolo, " 
C. McAdie, Lampasas and stations, 
S. Wilson, Nephi, Utah. 
W. Martin, Manti and Ephraim, " 
W. Blohm, American Fork, Pleasant 
Grove and stations, " 
, S. Smith, Payson and Benjamin, " 
M. Gunn, Synodical Missionary, Wash. 
Lamont, Vancouver, Memorial, " 
S. Waaler, Roslyn, Mount Pisgah, " 
. A. Sample, D.D., Auburn, White River, " 
Wheelis, Nooksack, Clearbrook and station, " 
L. Fordney, Anacortes, Westminster, " 
Gow, Wellpinnit and Spokane River, " 
H. Beattie, Wilbur, Cortland and station, " 
Jamieson, Pleasant Hill and Fancy Creek, Wis. 
Harvey, Waunakee and Middleton, " 
L. Adams, Omro, " 
H. Burkholder, Madison, Few St. and 
Winnebago St. Missions, " 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



FRESH FACTS. 

Wei Hien Hospital. 

Dr. Furies, of the Wei Hien Hospital, 
West Shantung, gives the following interest- 
ing iucident : 

In conversing with my preacher in the hospi- 
tal, I find lie was convinced of the truth by read- 
ing Christ's genealogy in Luke, " being the Son of 
God," in contrast with Confucian genealogies. 
This is the first conversion by the genealogies I 
have ever heard of. 

Dr. Cochran. 

Mr. Speer, in a private letter from Oroo- 
miah, says: 

What a power Dr. Cochran is out here ! From 
Jul fa down his name has been a talisman and his 
presence a magnet. We have been guided from on 
high in pressing the medical work in this land. 
It is the most deadly foe Islam has, and yet it is 
tolerated and patronized, and our doctors are the 
great men of the land. 



pastor-elect is wrell reported of. Hi- preachii 

truly evangelistic and enthusiastic. There 

promise of more extensive work to be done in this 
church. 



Church Work in Pyeng Yang. 

Mr. Graham Lee wrote in September 
from Pyeng Yang as follows: 

Our church work has kept up its steady growth. 
Our building holds now about three hundred, and 
every Sunday it is packed to the doors, and many 
stand on the outside. Three times this year we 
have enlarged our church to meet its growing 
demands, and we must soon enlarge again. Next 
Sunday we are to have communion service, and 
expect to baptize about twenty-five men and 
women. These will make about one hundred 
baptisms this year so far, and besides this we have 
received over three hundred catechumens. It is 
the Lord's work and wonderful in our eyes. 



Dedication at Rio Janeiro. 

Rev. J. II Rodgers writes of the 
rededication of their church building, after 
greatly needed repairs had been made, the 
cost of which had been raised on the 
ground: 

Special services for a week were held in com- 
memoration of the reopening, including sermons 
from native pastors and missionaries, greetings 
from other evangelical churches in the city, com- 
munion and baptismal service. Inspiring crowds 
filled the building. The testimony was clear that 
the gospel had prospered in Rio Janeiro. The 



Bible Study under Difficulties. 

One of our missionaries in Japan writes: 

A young man, one of the Christians here, Last 
year entered the naval college. According to 
strict rules he can have no book but his text-books. 
This of course debars him from having: his Bible 
with him. Every Sunday he goes to the hou>e of 
a Christian professor in the college and has a Bible 
study. When a verse particularly impresses him, 
he transcribes it on paper to study it at his leisure. 
He has met with derision among his fellow-stu- 
dents, so that he had to go to a quiet place in the 
grounds to pray, but he still perseveres, and is 
gaining the respect of his fellow-students. From 
his allowance he sends a contribution to the 
church every month. He made haste slowly in 
becoming a Christian, and this is one reason, I 
think, why he has held out so well. 



History of Two Bibles. 

Mr. Olsson, a Bible colporteur in South 
America, tells the following of two Bibles 
which he sold in the province of Chilian : 

The Bibles were bought by two young men ; one 
fell into the hands of a Koman Catholic priest, 
who contemptuously burned it. The other was 
faithfully studied and the heart of the young man, 
the owner, was touched by the Saviour. He came 
to the mission meetings and was finally converted. 
His wife also was converted from reading the same 
Bible. Two years later, I met this man at a reli- 
gious service, who reminded me of the sale of that 
Bible. His face was shining with the joy of 
heaven, as he presented to me half a dozen people 
who had become converted through the reading of 
that same Bible. Twelve persons had been 
brought to the missionaries' meetings, of whom 
nine are now converted, and one is a deacon in 
Rev. Mr. Boomer's Church in Chilian. The 
Bible looked to me like a book twenty years old, 
though quite new two years ago. 



San PedroChurch. 

A native preacher connected with our 
Mexico Mission writes of this the church at 
San Pedro, which has been placed in his 
charge, cheering tidings of growth. He 
says: 

The congregation had special services Sabbath 

29 



30 



FRESH FACTS. 



[January, 



night as recommended by the General Assembly, 
to pray for the better observance of the Sabbath. 
Almost all the church members took part, selecting 
hymns or leading in prayer, and our meeting was 
very simple and solemn. We have established 
regular religious services in different wards in the 
town, at houses of the members, several nights in 
the week, in order to reach unconverted persons 
afraid of being seen going to the chapel. Already 
we can count a number of adherents gained m this 
way, and invitations to visit and talk with such 
are showering upon us. Sometimes I hold services 
the same evening from six to seven o'clock in one 
house, and then from half past seven to half-past 
eight in another. Many of the cold members are 
showing new life, and the attendance upon regular 
services is increasing. The Woman's and Young 
Ladies' Society meets regularly, and is flourishing, 
with over fifty members, among whom are many 
Roman Catholics. 



The American Board. 

At the late meeting of the American 
Board in Toledo, an able and very interest- 
ing paper was read by Secretary Daniels, 
entitled " No Backward Step." In it he 
reviews some facts in the financial history of 
the American Board, showing how embar- 
rassments in the funds have been followed 
by enlargement, painful retrenchments by 
joyous movements forward, so that from 
decade to decade the receipts have risen to a 
higher plane. This study of the financial 
history of the American Board by decades 
has led us to examine our own Board's his- 
tory along the same line, and we think it is 
calculated, in the same degree as in the case 
of our sister Board, to inspire faith and to 
create expectancy of another advance as 
this century shall go out. 

Average receipts by decades — 1833 to 
1893: 

1833-43, . . . . . $35,909 06 

1843-53, 86,909 39 

1853-63, 134,718 28 

1863-73, 250,138 43 

1873-83, 509,979 26 

1883-93, 798,032 63 

A study of these figures justifies the lan- 
guage that Dr. Daniels has used in his hope- 
ful paper. He says: 

The spirit of missions, the promises of Christ, 
the providences of God, are all against a policy of 
retreat. The kingdom of grace is under divine 

law, Its unalterable principle is progress 

The kingdom of Christ is a spreading, augment- 
ing, radiating kingdom, which is at length to fill 
the whole earth. All our plans and views and 
hopes must conform to this glorious truth — the 
fundamental principle of progress. Planning 



and acting for the coming ages and the dying 
race, and representing the Church of Christ, we 
must regard this cause with the eye of faith. 
Nothing but stubborn necessity should ever induce 
the Board to swerve from the rule that has made 
its history glorious. If the churches do not go 
forward, then the noble faith and heroic plans of 
our missionary work must be discontinued. But 
the churches will go forward. Defeat does not 
belong to the church, nor to her missionary 
activities. The work of recovering this world to 
Christ is not to be turned back. Individual 
stations may be abandoned ; particular missions 
dropped ; and there may be temporary ebb in the 
tide of benevolence ; but the progress shall be 
onward. Our missionary operations shall con- 
tinue until nation after nation shall be trans- 
formed into the likeness of Christ. 



Opening of Africa. 

The extent and rapidity with which the 
continent of Africa is opening up to the 
light and blessings of the gospel are inspir- 
ing to the whole Church of God. It is 
gratifying to know in this connection the 
use which the Lord is making of our Pres- 
byterian missionaries in this forward march 
of the gospel army. Some of them in truth 
he is making to glorify him by their early 
but joyous departure to the service of 
heaven. Their brief labors on earth serve 
as an inspiration to the Church to still 
greater sacrifices for Africa's redemption. 
Others are boldly and nobly pushing forward 
the blessed work among the sons and daugh- 
ters of Ham. They are adding to our 
knowledge of geography and ethnology, the 
religious needs of Africa, all essential ele- 
ments to a thorough understanding of the 
obligations which rest upon the Church for 
the evangelization of this mighty continent. 
Dr. Snyder, of the Southern Presbyterian 
Church, has recently reported the discovery 
of an important lake, which the scientists 
of England pronounce an important addi- 
tion to our knowledge of the country. In 
a recent number, mention was made of an 
exhibit at the Berlin Industrial Exposition, 
of Bible and literary work done in different 
African languages by our American Presby- 
terian missionaries, which attracted the 
attention of German officials and others at 
that time. Our own Dr. Good's interesting 
report on the Dwarfs is being followed up 
by efforts on the part of our living mission- 
aries to a better understanding of the 
possibilities of reaching these Dwarfs with 
the gospel. A most cheering indication of 
the leading of God's providence towards the 



1897.] 



F RES 1 1 FACTS, 



31 



evangelization of these benighted people is 
the fact that Dr. Good's letter regarding 
them, having fallen under the eye of a noble 
Christian lady in Scotland, whose heart had 
been touched by Mr. Stanley's reference to 
the Dwarfs in his book, " Through Darkest 
Africa," she now agrees to furnish funds 
with which to begin and sustain work among 
the Dwarfs, under the supervision of our 
Board. On the basis of her liberality, the 
Rev. Smith Gardner Dunning has been ap- 
pointed to the Gaboon and Corisco Mission, 
for the purpose of entering upon this work, 
and sailed on November 11, for his desti- 
nation. The Board is ready to appoint 
another missionary on the same basis when 
he can be found. Meanwhile, Mr. Roberts 
and Mr. Hickman of our mission are mak- 
ing further explorations, and have discovered 
quite a number of Dwarfs on the outskirts 
of the Mabeya tribe. They are already 
considering how some of the youth of this 
strange people may be brought to the coast 
for education in Bible truth. 



But doubtless even thus will the mighty 
hand of the Lord overrule theevil for 



Churches in Hadagascar. 

The Christian chinches in Madagascar 
appear to be passing through a baptism of 
fire, but not in the manner which was 
anticipated when the French gained ascen- 
dency in the island. The friendly attitude 
of the new French governor towards Protes- 
tant missions, himself being a Protestant, is 
a cause of great gratification and hopeful- 
ness to the English missionaries in the 
island. It gives promise of continuance in 
their work without the meddlesome interrup- 
tion which had been feared. But hostility 
to the mission work has broken out now 
from another quarter. From all parts of 
the island the news comes of risings on the 
part of the heathen against the French, 
inspired generally by an anti-foreign and 
anti-Christian spirit. Numerous village 
chapels and schools, evangelists' houses, 
even dispensaries, and a leper asylum, have 
been destroyed. In some districts the work 
of years seems to be overthrown. Many 
Christians have lost their all ; not a few have 
been murdered in cold blood, and a large 
number have been grossly ill-used. The 
French authorities will probably soon gain 
the mastery over this fierce outbreak of 
heathenism, and the Christian workers 
resume their operations, but it will take a 
long time to undo the mischief wrought. 



Home Missions in Japan. 

We find some very encouraging state- 
ments in the report of the Board of Home 

Missions of the Church of Christ in Japan, 
which was presented to the Council of Mis- 
sions at Kanazawa, in the month of July 
last. This Board has recently completed 
the second year of its existence as an inde- 
pendent body. The general management of 
its work is entrusted to an Executive Com- 
mittee consisting of five members residing in 
Tokyo and Yokohama. It employs eight 
evangelists; four of these having been 
added within the last few months. The 
financial report shows that the Board re- 
ceived in contributions for the year ending 
June 30, 1896, 1,469,763 yen. Of this 
sum, 872,703 yen were contributed by 
churches and preaching places, and 441,010 
yen by individuals, schools, mission band-, 
etc., and 156 yen by missionaries, the whole 
number contributing being fifteen. The 
total outlay of the Board for the year was 
1,225,095 yen. 

This interesting enterprise may be said to 
be now fairly started. It is purely Japanese, 
both in its origin and in its prosecution ; 
and as such it deserves the sympathy of all 
who are interested in the advancement of 
Christ's kingdom in that country. Our 
own missionary, Rev. T. T. Alexander, of 
Tokyo, in sending a copy of this report, re- 
quests the publication of the following note : 

A writer in the September number of The Chtjhcb 
at Home and Abroad (p. 192), referring to the 
work of the Japanese Board, makes the following 
statement : "It must be understood that the above 
thirty-seven companies of believers are entirely 
dependent on mission funds for their support, as 
are also many of the churches. The churches that 
help themselves are not as yet in a position to do 
much toward helping others." An examination of 
the Japanese treasurer's report for the year ending 
June 30, shows that this statement is somewhat 
ill-advised. Of the yen 872,703 contributed by 
churches and preaching places (companies of be- 
lievers), the sum of 434,915 was given by seven- 
teen churches, all of which are entirely independent 
of mission funds ; and 118,670 by seven "companies 
of believers," none of which have any coDnection 
with the missions. The remaining 319,118 was 
contributed by about thirty-three churches and as 
many "companies of believers," some of which 
are entirely dependent on the missions for their 
support, and others only in part. From this it 
appears, as might be expected, that the churches 
that help themselves, at the same time are doing 
most to help others. 



32 



FRESH FACTS. 



[January, 



The Shanghai ilission Press. 

The increasing demands on our minion 
press at Shanghai are one index of an 
awakening interest among the Chinese in 
western literature of a high order. Here 
is a single instance : One man from the anti- 
foreign and exclusive province of Hunan 
visited Shanghai during the past year, and 
subscribed for 12i. copies of the Review of 
the Times in Chinese. The issues from this 
great press establishment are given in the 
report just received as half a million copies, 
and over forty -six millions of pages for the 
year under review. Nearly thirty different 
Bible societies and missionary organizations 
look to this press for assistance in furthering 
their far-reaching operations. Such are the 
constantly growing demands upon it as to 
the quality and quantity of its work that it 
is under the necessity of frequently adding 
the latest and best of press appliances from 
Europe, and of increasing its working force. 
The Board has recently appointed Mr. C. 
W. Douglass, of Topeka, Kans., to go out to 
aid in this great enterprise, expecting the 
expense will be wholly met by the enlarged 
receipts of the press, which already turns 
some hundreds of dollars every year into 
the Board's treasury. Mr. Douglass is a 
practical printer of high standing, and an 
elder in the Church, greatly esteemed for 
his Christian character and activity. 



Simultaneous Foreign Missionary Meetings. 

A committee representing the Foreign 
Missions Boards and Societies in the United 
States and Canada have sent out a stirring 
appeal to all evangelical pastors throughout 
the land, for simultaneous meetings, with 
a view to quickening the whole Church of 
Christ in our country, to a due conception 
of its blessed privileges and solemn respon- 
sibility in the sacred enterprise of missions. 
They suggest a plan of campaign which 
looks to action, and aims at concentration of 
Christian thought on this theme of para- 
mount importance. The plan embraces the 
following features: 

1. A Sermon on Missions from every 
evangelical pulpit on Sabbath, January 10, 
1897. 

2. A Midweek Prayer Meeting for 
Missions. 

3. District Missionary Rallies in 
the larger cities on Thursday evening, Jan- 
uary 14. 



4. An Interdenominational Mass 
Meeting in the interest of missions, Friday 
evening, January 15, is suggested for this 
unless some other evening be better suited 
to local convenience. 

Large results are to be expected from 
such a united effort of the denominations to 
deepen conviction and interest in this 
divinely appointed enterprise. 



Our nissionaries at Mosul. 

Our missionaries at Mosul are pluckily 
holding on to their position there in spite of 
the embarrassments which the continued 
hostility of the government causes them. 
They seem, however, while prevented from 
going into the mountains, to have found 
openings among the nominal Christians on 
the Tigris plain of considerable encourage- 
ment. Mr. McDowell is about to inaug- 
urate a training-class of five Syrian young 
men, recommended by the native presbytery 
last spring. Dr. Hansen's medical skill is 
a source of strength to the cause. The 
mountain Nestorians are making a vigorous 
effort to hold their own as against their 
ancient enemies, the Kurds, and some col- 
lisions have occurred. 



Schools in Beirut. 

According to recent reports our mission- 
ary schools in Beirut are mainly crowded 
full. The Sidon Industrial school had 106 
members and could have had fifty more pay- 
ing pupils had there been room. The 
Syrian Protestant College also is full. 



Death of fir. riarling. 

The late mails from Africa relate some of 
the incidents of the sad d3ath of Mr. Mar- 
ling, and the sore bereavement which has 
thus come upon his family and the mission- 
ary work among the Fang people. The last 
thing in speech of this sainted missionary 
was to join feebly with his wife in singing, 
" How sweet the name of Jesus sounds." 
Mrs. Marling expresses her purpose to re- 
main at Angom, and carry forward the 
gospel cause for which her husband has 
sacrificed his life. 



The Bible in the World. 

The organ of the British and Foreigu 
Bible Society publishes some interesting 
facts in answer to the question, Into how 
many languages and dialects has the whole 
Bible been translated ? from which it ap- 



1897.] 



MOTIVES FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



33 



pears that, at the present time, complete 
versions of the Bible exist in more than one 

hundred languages and dialect-, cadi one of 
winch being the outcome of patient scholar- 
ship and heroic faith. The Dumber of* com- 
plete versions for Asia is forty-one — more 
than those in European languages — all the 
more remarkable when it is remembered thai 
almost all of these have been made within 
this century, and are the result of modern 
Christian missions. There are in Africa 
thirteen complete versions, in Australasia 
and Oceanica ten and in America three. 



The Gospels in a New Tongue. 

Mr. Johnson, of Efulen, Africa, writes 
of the joyful arrival of the long looked-for 
Bule gospels. The missionaries were no 
more delighted than the school-children, of 
whom thirteen boys and two girls were ready 
to read in them. Groups of the children 
gathered around the missionaries from time 
to time to read the new books. They were 
sold at the price of fifty cents apiece, which 
puts them within the reach of all who are 
able to read them ; and, at the same time, 
causes them, as Mr. Johnson says, " to 
hustle around to get them." They were 
busy in making bush-rope, diguing sweet 
potatoes, bringing peanuts and eggs to sell, 
and in every honest way trying to make a 
little money with which to buy a book. 
The eagerness with which the gospel is re- 
ceived and read by these dark children of 
Africa is remarkable. The Spirit of God, 
moreover, is working in the hearts of those 
young children, teaching them to pray and 
to give thanks to God for his unspeakable 
£rift to them. 



Dr. Marshall on Pacific Coast. 

Dr. Marshall, field secretary, has been 
spending some weeks on the Pacific coast, 
addressing the synods and other assemblies, 
having up to the time of his last report 
delivered fifty-six addresses. He writes: 
" The brethren are enthusiastic in their 
work for foreign missions. I look for the 
most marked results by way of increased 
interest. Foreign missions is taking the 
front rank in interest here on the coast." 
It is evident from other letters that Dr. Mar- 



[llness ok Me. Speer. — Thai waa a startling 
message which the cable broughl to the mi— ion 
rooms from Hamad an, from Mra Speer, announc- 
ing that " Robert" ww then- prostrated by U-\<-v, 
and promising to send "weekly" reports by 
cable. This implies an expectation that tin- illness 
would continue for mum.' weeks. No doubt this 
had been given ber as a professional opinion, and 
it justifies grave apprehension. It w a comfort to 
know that wise and faithful medical advice and 
care will not be lacking in Ilamudan, where both I'r. 
G. \V. Holmes and Dr. Jessie C. Wilson reside. 
This note is written with grateful recollection of 
Dr. Holmes' brotherly professional ministration 
to myself in a brief illness at Tabriz in 1884. 

Karely has any so youthful pair been so circum- 
stanced, in serious illness of one of them, as to 
know that so many prayers are ascending daily 
from Christians in so many lands, that the power 
of God may be present to heal. Surely these 
prayers are heard and heeded with fatherly con- 
siderateness What we thus ask will doubtless be 
granted unless the Lord hath need of the beloved 
"Robert" in some higher service, nearer the 
throne. From that surely we would not withhold 
him. — See p. 5. h. a. n. 

MOTIVES FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

REV. WILSON PHRANER, D.D. 

The considerations which furnish inspira- 
tion or motives to foreign missionary work 
are numerous and manifold. We can indi- 
cate only a few of them in this article. 

1. The condition of our fellow-men in 
heathen lands. Their ignorance and degra- 
dation, their oppressive superstitions, call 
for the sympathy of those who are enriched 
with the blessings of Christian civilization. 
Life in those lands would seem to have 
but little significance or value. The degra- 
dation of woman and the wretchedness of 
childhood ; the burdens which their many 
crude and cruel superstitions impose, as 
illustrated in their wild and frantic endeav- 
ors to propitiate their false deities and secure 
pardon or release from the consequences of 
conscious sin and guilt, are such as not 
only to justify, but to commend on the 
basis of philanthropy alone the whole work 
of missions. 

2. The adaptation of the <jo*pt>I to meet 
these universal needs. The blessings which 
the gospel includes and carries with it 
wherever it goes, as illustrated iu the fruits 
of missionary work, is the best possible vin- 
dication of the whole enterprise of Christian 



shall's presentation of the cause is making 
a deep impression upon his audiences. 

THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MISSION LIBRARY 
475 Riverside Drive, New York 27, N. Y. 



34 



MOTIVES FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



[January, 



missions. No intelligent and unprejudiced 
man can observe the wide contrast between 
the character and life of the converts to 
Christianity and those of their heathen 
neighbors, and not be impressed with the 
efficiency of the gospel as the power of God 
unto salvation and blessing for this life as 
well as for that which is to come. The 
renovation and improved condition and new 
life which the gospel carries with it, dem- 
onstrate its adaptation to be a universal 
religion — a gospel for man as man always 
and everywhere; nor can we even catch a 
glimpse of the glory of the gospel until we 
recognize this fact of its universal adapta- 
tion and purpose, until we accept it as 
God's panacea for the wants and woes of 
humanity. 

3. God's revealed purpose. This is no 
mere human enterprise, but one which has 
been ordained of God. It is his purpose 
that the gospel shall be extended over all 
the earth, and in this work we are called to 
be laborers together with him in the execu- 
tion of his great purposes of love and mercy 
which are as wide as the world. Surely 
there is inspiration in the thought that God 
calls us to this work. His word is full of 
instruction as to the nature and extent of 
his kingdom. Patriarch and psalmist and 
prophet alike not only foreshadowed the 
coming of the Messiah, but foretold the 
glory of his kingdom — a kingdom which 
should in due time be established, which 
should extend from sea to sea and from the 
river to the ends of the earth, a kingdom 
which should be a glorious kingdom, a uni- 
versal kingdom, an everlasting kingdom, 
in which he, whose right it is, shall reign 
supreme as King of kings and Lord of 
lords. To have a place in this kingdom 
and to have part in extending and building 
it up among our fellow-men is a distinction 
in which we well may glory. To be a co- 
worker with God along the line of his 
purposes, to have our thoughts and aims 
and desires and purposes all in harmony 
with his, and in all to be directed and 
cheered and sustained by him — this it is 
which imparts to life a dignity and value 
which are derived from no other source. 

4. True loyalty to Christ. Obedience to 
his last command to go into all the world 
and preach the gospel to every creature is a 
test and sign ot genuine discipleship. 
These words of our blessed Lord, coming 



to us with all the sacredness of a farewell 
message, at once put an end to all question 
as to the privilege and duty and responsi- 
bility of the Church as a missionary organi- 
zation. Here is her charter or authoriza- 
tion not only, but the definite and specific 
instruction of the Master, as to the work 
given her to do, and any hesitation or delin- 
quency in this connection implies disloyalty 
to him whom we rejoice to acknowledge as 
Lord, and whose authority we accept as 
supreme, and to whom we confess our obli- 
gations for all the blessings and hopes which 
the gospel has brought to us. 

But our Lord has not merely given us a 
command in this connection, but also seeks 
to strengthen our confidence by the assur- 
ance that unto him is given all power in 
heaven and earth. Go ye therefore. This 
enterprise of the world's evangelization is 
not a forlorn hope, but an undertaking to 
be prosecuted under the direct authority 
and supervision of him to whom all power 
in heaven and earth is given, and who 
promises to be with his disciples as they go 
forth in this work even all the days or to 
the end of time. 

5. The actual achievements of this ivork. 
In these, when viewed in connection with 
the lack of energy and the meagre provision 
made on the part of the Church for its 
prosecution, we may find another incentive 
to new confidence and hope and increased 
fidelity. 

The best possible vindication and com- 
mendation of missionary work is to be 
found in its results. 

We have but to study the history of 
Protestant missions during the last century 
to find that the gospel is still the power of 
God unto the salvation of perishing men. 
These results, considered as the first fruits 
— the pledge and promise of the coming 
harvest — are wonderful and full of inspira- 
tion and hope. It is now only four years 
more than a century since William Carey 
organized the first Baptist Missionary Soci- 
ety in London. Although there had been 
a few other feeble efforts on the part of the 
Protestant Church to carry the gospel to the 
heathen world, yet 1792 is, by common 
consent, accepted as the beginning of the 
era of modern Christian missions. And 
now behold what God has accomplished 
during the century. 

A century ago there were four or five small 



1897.] 



MOTIVES FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



35 



organizations in the whole Protestant Church 
for distinctive foreign missionary work ; imw 
there are 280 such societies. A century 
ago the Danish Church had a small mission 
in India, and our Moravian brethren a small 
work upon the Island of St. Thomas and 
in Greenland and Labrador in British 
America. Now Protestaut missionaries are 
found not only on every continent, but also 
iu almost every province of every nation 
over the whole world, and in many of the 
islands of the sea. 

There are to-day no less than 3364 prin- 
cipal stations and more than 15,000 outsta- 
tions, making in all over 19,000 different 
points at which the gospel is regularly 
preached. There have been organized 
during the century about 11,000 churches, 
which have an aggregate membership at 
this time of 1,300,000. The United States 
and Europe have out upon the field 
between 10,000 and 11,000 missionaries 
who, together with over 70,000 native 
preachers and teachers and helpers who 
have been raised up on the field, are 
carrying forward this great work. There 
are between 8000 and 9000 Sabbath- 
schools, with something over 1,000,000 
scholars. There are 17,000 day and board- 
ing-schools, in which are gathered 900,000 
children and youth receiving the elements 
of a Christian education — about 40,000 are 
in high schools, academies and colleges, a 
large number of whom are preparing for 
Christian work. There are also nearly 
5000 ordained native preachers engaged in 
proclaiming the gospel to their fellow-coun- 
trymen. A century ago there was no Bible 
Society in existence; now there are eighty- 
one — printing and circulating as many 
Bibles each year as existed in all the world 
a century ago. A century ago the Bible 
was printed iu only forty-six different lan- 
guages; now it is printed and circulated, in 
whole or in part, in no less than 340 differ- 
ent languages and dialects. From seventy 
to seventy-five of these languages have been 
for the first time written out and set in order 
by our Christian missionaries. 

The British and Foreign Bible Society 
since its organization in 1804 has printed 
the Scriptures in more than 200 different 
languages, and our own American Bible 
Society in more thau sixty. At the begin- 
ning of the present century only about 
$200,000 were raised annually for this work 



by the w hole Protestant ( Shurch ; now tin- 
sum of thirteen or fourteen million dollars 
are annually expended in the effort to carry 
the gospel to the regions beyond. Such 

may be said to be a brief centennial exhibit 
of the work of foreign missions. Of course, 

great and most important parts of this work 
caunot be tabulated for they are but prelim- 
inary and preparatory to that which is to 
come. Who can measure or report tin- 
pervasive influence of Christian character 
and example, or of the Christian literature 
which is being scattered among the nations ? 
But still in what can be seen and recognized 
in connection with the progress and devel- 
opment of this work, what reason has the 
Church for encouragement and thanksgiving 
and what incentive may be derived from an 
intelligent consideration of the achievements 
of the gospel in the past. True, the time 
of harvest is not yet, but, thank God, it is 
coming, and may not these results of the 
century past be taken as the token and 
pledge of vastly greater things in the 
future ? May not the whole changed condi- 
tion of the world and of the relations of the 
nations to each other, especially the wealth 
and progress and preeminence of the dis- 
tinctively Christian nations, be interpreted 
as a preparation of the world for the gospel 
and the pointing of God's providence to the 
time when the earth shall be filled with the 
knowledge of the glory of the Lord as the 
waters cover the sea. 

6. The vast amount of work yet to be 
done. While gratefully recognizing what 
has been already accomplished, yet when 
we remember that to the 400,000,000 of 
China the Protestant Church has only one 
missionary to about every 260,000; among 
the 287,000,000 of India only one mission- 
ary to about every 230,000; to darkest 
Africa only one missionary to about 175,- 
000; to Japan, one missionary to about 
60,000, and to the whole heathen world one 
missionary to about 90,000, verily the 
Church of Christ may well be humbled in 
view of her shortcoming hitherto: and in 
view of the fact that so large a portion of 
the world is still without the gospel and per- 
ishing for lack of knowledge, shall not the 
consideration, of these things furnish the 
Church incentive to new earnestness and 
fuller consecration, to more generous gifts 
&nd more earnest prayers and efforts for the 
world's evangelization ? 



36 



CONCERT OF PRAYER FOR CHURCH WORK ABROAD. 



[January, 




I-' 



Cover of Bible Presented to the Empress Dowager. 

Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work Abroad. 



January — The Bible and Foreign Missions. 

February — Evangelistic Missionary Work. 

March — Missionary Administration. 

April — Native Christians. 

May — Woman's Work. 

June — Foreign Missionaries. 

July — Mission Printing Presses. 

August — The Reflex Influence of Foreign Missions. 

September — Missionary Schools. 

October — Medical Missions. 

November — Influence of Christianity on the Social 
Life and Civic Institutions of Heathen 
Lands. 

December— The Home Church and Foreign Mis- 
sions. 



We begin this month 
the new series of topics 
for the Monthly Concert. 
The old method has been 
followed so long that in 
many churches this im- 
portant service has fallen 
into a rut. By the time 
the average pastor has led 
four or five meetings on 
me country, he has about 
used up the material which 
ie deems available. In- 
leed, one of our most prom- 
inent ministers and one 
full of missionary zeal, re- 
cently exclaimed: " I de- 
dare, I have gone over 
South America so often 
that I don't see how I can 
get up anything fresh on 
that subject!" Doubtless 
many pastors have had the 
same feeling. So this year 
we will strike out in a new 
direction, and take up an 
ntirely different class of 
^subjects. We may return 
to the old method next 
year, for there are advan- 
tages in the plan of pre- 
senting particular countries 
which we should not per- 
manently abandon. But this year let vi 
have a change. The full list of topics will 
be mailed free of charge to pastors who will 
write for it. Address, Rev. Arthur J. 
Brown, D.D., 156 Fifth avenue, New York. 



January — The Bible axd Foreign Missions. 

fa) The place of Foreign Missions in the Word of God. 

(b) The place of Foreign Missions in the plan of God. 

(c) Christ's yearning for a lost world. 

(d) The Holy Spirit and Foreign Missions. 

(e) The penalty of disobedience. 

(f) Foreign Missionary motives. 

(g) Apostolic Missionary methods. 



The first subject is appropriately, " The 
Bible and Foreign Missions. " "To the law 
and to the testimony, ' ' O Israel ! Let us 
rise above questions of detail and criticism 
to the high level of the word of God. 
Let it be in all our churches and around all 
our family altars a time for studying the 
great Scriptural incentives to missionary 
effort, and the Biblical principles which 
underlie it, a time for listening to the voice 
of the Son of God, and for considering the 
relation of foreign missions to the divine 
purpose. Let us emphasize the preeminently 
spiritual character of this work, and make 
it clear that it is not an outside or incidental 
charity, to be dismissed with an occasional 



1897.] 



CONCERT OF PRAYER FOR CHURCH WORK AIJROAD. 



37 



" collection," hut that it rep- 
resents our participation in 
Christ's love for a dying world, 
the measure of our baptism of 
the Holy Spirit. 



8©liliS§SE^§SS§SMri^ia 



I in 
i m 



A committee appointed by 

the Joint Conference of For- 
eign Mission Boards of all de- 
nominations, invites pastors 
throughout the United States 
and Canada to preach a ser- 
mon on foreign missions on the 
morning of the second Sabbath 
of January, and has asked the 
Evangelical Alliance to desig- 
nate that day on its programme 
for the Week of Prayer, " as 
a day for preaching on the 
Great Commission, and for 
prayer for the evangelization 
of the world." What better 
theme can the pastor find for 
such a sermon than the monthly 
concert topic for the month, 
" The Bible and Foreign 
Mi-sions," or some one of the 
subtopics indicated in connec- 
tion with it ? 






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Pastors and leaders of foreign 



Page of Bible Presented to the Empress Dowager. 



missionary meetings who wish 
to read up on the subject will be helped by 
the following references which have been 
prepared by the librarian of the Foreign 
Missions Library at the Board's headquar- 
ters in New York: 

" The Holy Spirit in Missions." A. J. 
Gordon. F. H. Revell Co., N. Y. $1.25. 

" Christian Missions." Julius H. Seelve. 
Dodd, Mead & Co., N. Y. fl. 

"The Evangelization of the World." 
B. Broomhall. Revell, N. Y. $1. 

"Missionary Addresses." J. M. Tho- 
burn. See " The Farewell Command- 
ment," pp. 107-126. Hunt & Eaton, 
N. Y. 60 cts. 

" The Christless Nations." J. M. Tho- 
burn. See " New Testament Missions," 
pp. 145-179. Hunt & Eaton, N. Y. $1. 

" Modern Missions in the East." Ed- 
ward A. Lawrence. Harper & Bro. $1.75. 
(This may be purchased from the Foreign 
Missions Library, 156* Fifth avenue, New 
York, for SI. 50 postpaid.) 



Foreign 



Missions After a Century." 
James S. Dennis. Revell, N. Y. 81.50. 
(This may be purchased from the Foreign 
Missions Library, 156 Fifth avenue, New 
York, for $1.15 postpaid.) 

Board's Leaflet, "An Epistle to the 
Churches." Two cents each. 



[Note. — The above cut is a page of the 
elegant copy of the New Testament, reduced 
in size from 10 x 13 inches, which was pre- 
sented by the Christian women of the Chinese 
Empire to the Empress Dowager in 1895. 

The cut on the opposite page represents the 
front cover of that Bible. It is described 
in our February number, 1895, page 126. 
The large characters on the left hand side 
of the cover signify " The Book of the New 
Testament Complete." The smaller char- 
acters in the middle are engraved on an oval 
plate of gold, and signify that the book is 
"The holy classic for the salvation of the 
world."] 



38 



THE BIBLICAL ARGUMENT FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



[January, 



An article in The Homiletic Review for 
September reminds us of the mistake of four 
years in the common chronology, emphasizes 
the fact that we are really " just approach- 
ing the nineteen-hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of Christ," and sounds " the 
twentieth century's call to Christendom, to 
cooperate in inaugurating a movement all 
along the line for the immediate evangeliza- 
tion of the world." Do not wait for others, 
but begin this movement yourself in your 
own church and community. 

The suggestion was made that we print 
some of the Biblical passages which most 
clearly set forth the duty of missionary 
effort, but the fact speedily developed that 
compliance with the request would involve 
the reprinting of the greater part of the 
Bible. Foreign missions do not rest upon 
occasional and isolated texts; they are 
woven into the very warp and woof of the 
word of God. The Bible is a text-book 
on foreign missions. 

It is of immense importance to know what 
God' s plan is and then to take our place in 
it. As to the purpose of God in this dis- 
pensation, Anthony Grant has, in his 
Bampton Lectures, given clear and brief 
statement: " That the gospel shall be 
preached in some places at all times, and in 
all places at some time." 



THE BIBLICAL ARGUMENT FOR 
FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

REV. JOHN R. DA VIES, D.D. 

When we speak of the Church as being 
the elect, the body called out from the rest 
of the world, we are prone to think of it as 
being exclusive in its character, contracted 
in its size, and narrow in its purpose. But 
when we study the Church as portrayed in 
the Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments, this conception passes away, and in 
its stead rises the picture of a Church whose 
mission is the conquest of the world through 
the preaching of the gospel to every crea- 
ture. Let us look briefly at the manner in 
which this rising dawn grows, and finally 
breaks in all its splendor amid the closing 
pages of revelation. Consider the promise 
made to the patriarchs that in their seed all 
the families of the earth shall be blessed. 
Look at the aliens coming to share in the 
redemptive mercies of Israel. I refer to 
Baalam the son of Rahab the harlot and to 



Ruth gleaning in the fields of Boaz. Lis- 
ten to the Psalmist's harp, while he sings of 
the heathen boy given to Christ, of the 
uttermost parts of the earth being his for a 
possession and of all nations rising to do 
him honor. Walk through the picture 
gallery of the prophetic Scriptures. Isaiah 
asks you to see the Gentiles coming to his 
light and kings to the brightness of his 
rising. Daniel points to the stone cut out of 
the mountain without hands dashing to 
pieces all opposition, and filling all time 
with its glory. Zechariah presents the king 
about to enter Zion, speaks peace to the 
heathen, and extends his dominions from sea 
to sea and from the river to the ends of the 
earth. While Malachi says: "From the 
rising of the sun even unto the going down 
of the same my name shall be great among 
the Gentiles, and in every place incense 
shall be offered unto my name and a pure 
offering." 

Now crossing the period which separates 
the Old from the New and entering the 
glowing gateways of the gospel. Worship 
with the wise men who have come from 
afar, and who are laying at the feet of the 
infant Christ their gifts of gold, frankin- 
cense and myrrh. Ponder such parables as 
the leaven working in the meal until the 
whole is leavened ; the mustard tree rising 
from small beginnings and throwing its 
branches afar; the great supper which is 
furnished with guests, not by the select com- 
pany at first invited, but by the outcasts 
gathered from near and far. Look at some 
of our Lord's miracles. lie not only healed 
the servant of the Roman centurion, but 
also across the borders of Tyre and Sidon 
conferred the same blessing upon the daugh- 
ter of the Syro-phoenician woman. Stand 
at the foo't of the cross and ere it grows too 
dark read the inscription placed above the 
dying Christ and written in the three mas- 
terful languages of the old world. Translate 
these words, not from your own point of 
view, but from that of the Master when he 
said, " Other sheep have I which are not of 
this fold " — and in this connection remem- 
ber that Asia accused him, that Africa bore 
his cross, that Europe crucified him, while 
the isles of the sea looked in awe upon his 
dying agonies. But the forty days are 
ended, and the faithful few are led by the 
Master as far as to Bethany, and now as 
those hands, pierced for the world's redemp- 



1897.] 



THE HOLY SPIRIT AND I'ORKKiN &UB8IO*i8. 



39 



tion, are lifted id a parting benediction, he 
says: "Go ye, therefore, and teach all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the 

Father, and of the Sun and of the Holy 
Ghost." The commentary upon these 
words you will find in the after-life of these 
in mi, as they leave the narrow streets of 
Jerusalem and hasten along the great high- 
ways of the Roman empire to preach in the 
cosmopolitan centres of that world-wide 
power the unsearchable riches of Jesus 
Christ, and for the final commentary upon 
our Lord's Great Commission, lift up 
your eyes to the multitude which John saw 
but could not number, gathered out of 
every kindred and tribe and people and 
nation, ascribing blessing and honor and 
glory and power unto him that sitteth upon 
the throne and unto the Lamb forever. 
Many in this day of critical unrest are ready 
to file their objections to foreign missions, 
and these at times seem to rise like moun- 
tain ranges between us and this sacred enter- 
prise. But the answer to every objector and 
to all objections is the reply: " Missions are 
the life-blood of God's Church. Missions 
are an integral part of God's word. Mis- 
sions were the final message of God's Son, 
aud the only course for me as a Christian 
is to find my place and fulfill my ministry in 
this divine plan." 

THE HOLY SPIRIT AND FOREIGN 
MISSIONS. 

REV. MALTBTE D. BABCOCK, D.1X 

If Christ was interested in missions the 
Holy Spirit must be. But the whole life of 
Christ was the idea of missions writ large. 
At his birth, when the interest of the angels 
was so great that they broke through invisi- 
bility, the message rang out, " Good tidings 
to all people; on earth, peace." Simeon, 
Jew that he was, felt that Christ was a light 
not only to Israel, but to lighten the Gen- 
tiles. Though the mission of Jesus seemed 
limited to the house of Israel, yet all 
through his life we see the widening of the 
horizon, in the tumult of his heart when the 
Greeks sought him, in the recognition of the 
" sheep not of this fold," until at last from 
Jerusalem the command radiates a universal 
commission, " Through all Judea and 
Samaria and to the uttermost parts of the 
earth." 

Who is the Holy Spirit but the Alter Ego 
of Jesus ? He has no mind of his own 



other than the mind of Jesus. lie speaks 
not of himself. I !«■ ha- no aims or ambi- 
tions of his own. While Jesus is tin- King 
in heaven, he is his viceroy on earth. Jesus 

-aid, if he went away he would send another 
Guide, Teacher and Strengthener. The 
absence of Jesus means the presence of the 

Holy Spirit. Ami vet it is nol the absence 
of Jesus, for no separation is involved when 

the Spirit who comes is the Spirit of Jems, 
the Spirit who historically informed and 
inhabited Jesus while on earth. 

The Ch irch at large has yet to learn that 
the Holy Spirit is historically the Spirit of 
Christ. Christ with his disciples becomes 
the Spirit of Christ in the ap -ties. What 
else does it mean when Jesus said: " The 
Father will send the Comforter in my 
name ?" Paul, understanding this, speaks 
again and again of the Spirit of Christ. 
Jesus Christ fulfills his promise, " Lo, I 
am with you," by his Spirit, so that Paul 
could say, " Christ in me," meaning the 
Spirit of Christ, knowing that Christ in his 
historical person is with the Father. This 
interchange of names is proved beyond a 
doubt in Ephesians 3 : 16, 17, in the 
prayer that we may be " strengthened with 
might by his Spirit in the inner man, that 
Christ may dwell in our hearts bv faith." 

How then could the Holy Spirit, minding 
the things of Christ, or we, if we have the 
mind of Christ, be indifferent to missions ? 
What is the Book of Acts but the mis- 
sionary acts of the Holy Spirit, the gospel 
of the work of the Holy Ghost? Jesus 
bids the disciples not to begin their ^ork of 
witnessing in Jerusalem and unto the ends of 
the earth until the Holy Ghost has come 
upon them. The Holy Spirit is the initia- 
tor, the guide, the supporter in the procla- 
mation of the gospel all through this record 
of evangelizing the world. He chooses one 
or another; "separates Barnabas and Saul '' 
for unusual work, " forbids," " suffers not to 
go," inspires and qualifies, fills the apostles, 
and speaks through them. Who but the 
inspirer of the records of truth can be the 
inspirer of the preachers of truth ? Who 
but the Lieutenant of Jesus can be the com- 
mander of the missionary host to-day ? 

Dare we think that the Acts of the Apostles 
are ended ? Should we not see after Acts 
28 : 31 a comma and not a period, antici- 
pating the continuance of the work of the 
Holy Spirit through the Christians who sue- 



40 



Christianity's world-wide mission. 



[January, 



ceed John, Peter and Panl ? Are we not 
to be witness for Jesus, commissioned to 
te tify of nis death and resurrection ? If 
so, can we expect to work in our own energy 
if the apostl s did not in theirs? The con- 
tinuance of the work of the Holy Spirit is 
plain enough in such lives as Ziegenbalg, 
Schwartz, Ziuzendorf, Harms, and scores of 
others who in their days yielded themselves, 
body and soul, for the indwelling and out- 
working of the Holy Ghost. We need the 
inspiring of the Holy Spirit to get the mind 
of Christ on this subject. We must not 
forget that election is to service as well as 
to salvation, that we are saved not just to be 
saved, but to be saviours, called in, to call 
in. 

T> yield ourselves to the H)ly Spirit, to 
know the mind of Christ, wo ild be to feel 
the outgoing love of Christ and to be fol- 
lowing his gesture to the uttermost parts of 
the earth in such sympathy and prayer and 
gifts and self-devotion, as would swiftly send 
the everlasting gospel on wings around the 
world. 

What shall this mean to us ? We are 
responsible in the sight of God, not merely 
for what we are, but for what we might be; 
not merely for what we do, but for what we 
might do. Are not the w >rds of Jesus defi- 
nite enough ? Have we not heard them for 
our own salvation ? They involve their 
utterance by us for the salvation of others. 
The Holy Spirit reiterates the truth : " And 
let him tint heareth say come." Have 
you, have I, the missionary spirit ? Is the 
Holy Spirit using me to advance the king- 
dom of Jesus on earth ? If not — if my heart 
is not in the work of missions — have I a 
right to believe that the Spirit of Christ is 
dwelling in inc ? 

CHRISTIANITY'S WORLD-WIDE 
MISSION. 

When Christ said to his disciples, " Go, 
preach my gospel to every creature," he 
was simply uttering the enacting clause of 
all the legislation of God concerning man. 
It was like saying to a healthy fruit tree, 
Bear fruit. It w r as like saying to a child, 
vigorous, sound in body and mind and 
spirit, Be happy. It was like saying to a 
true man, Do the works of truth. " Preach 
the gospel to every creature ' is simply a short 
way of saying the mission of the Christian 
Church is world-wide, and its mission is 



world-wide because its character is world- 
wide. Its message is to the whole world 
because Christ came to the whole world. 
The same reasoning that proves the one 
proves the other. The same reasoning that 
would disprove the one would also disprove 
the other. The Christian Church is not 
Christianity, but so far as the Christian 
Church expresses, reveds Christianity, its 
mission must be in-pired by the Spirit of 
Christ, which is Christianity. There was a 
time when Christianity in this world was 
wholly in the person of Christ. It began 
there. It came from God to men through 
Christ, spread to his disciples, and spread 
through his disciples to the ends of the 
earth, b\ r the simple expn ssion in human 
speech and human life of the divine charac- 
ter of Jesus Christ. 

When Christianity came into this world 
it came as the spirit of life in Christ Jesus. 
It found in the w r orld the law of sin and 
death at work everywhere. Not some 
statute that said this was sin, and therefore 
you must not do it, but a principle of life 
that worked in the spiritual nature just as 
the law of gravitation works in the physical 
nature. That is its nature. There is a 
" law of sin " in every one of us. It does 
not matter what you cull it, or where it 
came from — it is here. By its influence we 
do wrong even with the knowledge of the 
right. There is not one of us but has 
suffered from the violation of every part of 
our nature. And the curse that lies in the 
heart of it is that our fathers did as we do, 
and so this original sin, theologically speak- 
ing — heredity, scientifically speaking — is 
a law of sin and death at w<>rk in battle with 
a law of the spirit of life. And so the 
Apostle Paul, in the seventh chapter of Ro- 
mans, describes just what thousands of 
books are describing to-day — a war of the 
flesh against the spirit; a war of desire, of 
impulse that is wrong, against the assertion 
of conscience and the clear discussion of 
reason revealing a right way. Into this 
battle Christianity comes as the law of the 
spirit of life in Christ Jesus. Life from 
God comes into alliance with what is best 
and noblest in us; and if there be no best 
and noblest in us, begets it there and 
strengthens us on the right side of the con- 
flict, aiding us to defeat the wrong. 

The human race is one, and this law of 
sin and death is as universal as man, there- 



1897.] 



CHRIST »S WORLD-WIDE SPIRIT — MISSIONARY CALENDAR. 



41 



fore the necessity of the world-wide mission 
of any power that reveals the work of God 
to save the world from sin. If you put any 
limit to the revelation that came to us by 
Christ you deny that it is of God and for all 
persons. Who will place a limitation upon 
any law of God ? (an you limit the law of 
gravitation to any particular part of the 
physical universe ? Are the laws of thought 
applicable only to some select part of our 
race? Why, then, attempt to limit the 
action of the " law of the spirit of life?" 

The world-wide mission of Christ makes 
necessary the world-wide mission of his 
Church. If the Church, the body of 
Christ, be sound and healthy, it will be 
moved in all its life by the indwelling spirit 
of Christ. If Christ's work was for the 
whole world, the Church can have no nar- 
rower field, for the Church is to continue 
that which Christ " began both to do and to 
teach. ' ' 

J. P. Egbert, D.D. 



CHRIST'S WORLD-WIDE SPIRIT. 

" The great secret of a passion for world- 
wide missions is an appreciation of Jesus 
Christ, in his world-wide relations, and to 
those Christians and those denominations to 
which Christ means most, missions mean 
most. We have to be gathered up into 
Christ in his universality before we can 
broaden to the scope of the universal errand 
upon which he came. Men are making of 
Christ a matter of personal property. It is 
hard to let go of the idea that he has special 
reference to me and a particular relevancy 
to me and to those that I am interested in. 
Thomas said, ' My Lord and my God !' A 
good confession of faith, but too much pos- 
sessive pronoun of the first singular to make 
Thomas good for much for diffusing the 
knowledge of Christ. It is no accident that 
the apostle who felt most profoundly that 
Christ came as a world-Saviour — not as a 
Saviour of the Jews as Jews, not a Saviour 
of Gentiles as Gentiles, but a world-Saviour 
— was the apostle who accomplished most in 
helping the whole world to be saved by 
Christ. Only Christ can give us Christ- 
wide views, hopes, ambitions. This ' uni- 
versalism ' will become part of our faith 
only as we are ' enlarged ' in Christ. We 
cau understand him and the immensity of 
his mission only so fast as we become his. 



To have a heart that stops at home missions 
is another way of saying that we have not 
gotten beyond an American Christ ; a Christ 
that beams only on the side turned toward 
our one beloved continent If we have do 
faith in Bending oul the faith to Burmah, it 
is because we have not yet gotten bo widen, d 
out in Christ, a< to suppose that a Burmese 
means as much to Christ as an American 
does; that his gospel can do as much for a 
Burmese as it can for an American, or that 
Christ's errand on earth contemplated the 
Orientals in the same way that it did the 
Occidentals. We are so small ourselves 
that unconsciously we curtail even the Lord, 
and pare down his scheme. It seems to me 
that, as a rule, men have to be converted a 
great many times before they are thoroughly 
new men in Christ, and before they are in- 
teriorly so like him as to be able to see 
things as he sees them, and to feel them as 
he feels them. Men are converted in in- 
stallments " 

C. H. Parkhurst, D.D. 



MISSIONARY CALENDAR. 

DEPARTURES. 

November 4 — From New York, to join 
the Mexico Mission, the Rev. W. H. Sem- 
ple. 

November 11 — From New York, to join 
the Western India Mission, Dr. A. S. 
Wilson and wife ; to join the Africa Mission, 
Rev. S. G. Dunning. 

November 12 — From San Francisco, 
returning to the Canton Mission, Rev. B. 
C. Henry and wife, and Miss Julia Henry: 
returning to the Central China Mission, 
Mrs. T. W. Houston and children; return- 
ing to the \Yest Japan Mission, Miss Alice 
R. Ha worth; returning to the AVest Shan- 
tung Mission, Rev. John Murray; to join 
the Fast Shantung Mission, Dr. Charles 
Lewis and wife; to join the Siam Mission, 
Rev. F. I. Lyman and wife. 

ARRIVALS. 

August 29 — At San Francisco, from the 
Canton Mission, Miss Hattie Lewis. 

October 31 — At New York, from the 
Lodiana Mission, Rev. l\ S. ( ;. Jones and 
wife. 



42 



AMONG THE NESTORIANS. 



[January, 



AMONG THE NESTORIANS. 

LETTER II. 
BY ROBERT E. SPEER. 

From Odessa to Oroomiah is a two weeks' journey 
in time, but it takes the traveler from a city marked 
by a measure at least of the active, forceful life 
of the west into the heart of the unchanging, be- 
calmed, obverse east. From the queer mixture of 
repose and unrest which marks a Russian city, we 
have come where there is no visible unrest, where 
the quiet of unviolated custom, the peace of unin- 
ventive torpidity and the sepulchral paralysis of 
Islam fill the land with Oriental stillness. Each 
stage of the journey speaks more strongly of the 
transition. We crossed the Black Sea from Odessa 
to Batoum on a handsome English-built steamer. 
We climbed from Batoum to Akstafa on a crowded, 
crawling train of the Trans-Caucasian Railway. 
We rode from Akstafa to Julfa over a Russian post- 
road, for the most part magnificently constructed and 
kept in repair, in diligences, great heavy carriages, 
drawn by four horses driven abreast, our baggage 
following in a heavy springless wagon, called a 
fourgon. At Julfa we passed through the Russian 
frontier house, crossed the Aras river and dropped 
out of enterprise, public spirit, national policy and 
industry, as we stood on Persian soil. From Julfa to 
Oroomiah was a five days' journey. No Persian 
wagon could make it in five hundred or five thou- 
sand, but the light American wagon of the mission 
went through easily with those who preferred it to 
horseback, which, with donkey-back, constitutes the 
only mode of speedy travel in Persia. 

We rode into Oroomiah with a large party of 
missionaries, native Christians and others who had 
come out to meet us, preceded by a gaily capar- 
isoned horse, sent out by the Serparast in honor of 
Dr. Cochran, on September 23, and the two weeks 
which passed since have been crowded with visits to 
the villages, meetings with the churches, conferences 
with the members and Boards of the native church, 
a two days' conference for the deepening of the 
spiritual life attended by missionaries and a score 
or more of natives who understand English, visits 
to the houses of Jews and Nestorians, the College, 
Fiske Seminary, the press, the hospitals, the gover- 
nor and other officials, the Anglican missionaries, 
and one of the mountain districts, innumerable 
discussions and the necessary preparations for the 
long journeys before us in this land of no hotels and 
no railroads at all, and no principles, except bad 
ones. 

THE WORK OF OROOMIAH STATION. 

The work of this station is more extensive and 
more complicated than the work of many missions. 



Geographically it is divided into two sections : the 
Turkey work and the Persia work. The former 
lies in the mountains of Koordistan, just across the 
border, about seven or eight hours' ride from Oroo- 
miah. The snow-topped hills look out upon us to 
the west and hide behind their white crests the 
awful story of the unhindered slaughter of the 
innocents before the eyes of the Christian world. 
The Turkey field is divided into three districts : 
Gawar, Baz and Jeloo. All this work has of neces- 
sity been curtailed this year because of the disturbed 
condition of the country. Every few days fresh 
rumors are brought in of outrages nearer the border. 
Some of the Gawar villages were ravaged several 
weeks ago. We heard the story the other day from 
the victims. Last week, on the Tergawer plain, at 
the foot of the mountain, I took a picture of a 
camp of the refugees. They had no tents, no bed- 
ding, no food. It had rained the night before and 
they had had no shelter, but had slept, even the 
little naked children, on the bare grassless ground. 
The villages around were giving all the help they 
could, and there was a God above keeping watch 
over them and over his other children who are 
looking with unmoved hearts on this spectacle of 
pillaged homes and ruined villages and of shames 
unnamable. 

The Persia work is divided into the three districts 
of the plains of Oroomiah, Sulduz and Tergawer. 
The Oroomiah plain likewise — it is tres partes 
throughout — comprises the three sections defined 
by the three rivers of the plain, the City, the 
Baranduz and the Nazloo. 

CHARACTER OF THE WORK. 

The geographical diversity of the work is scarcely 
greater than its diversity in character. First, there 
are some Armenians in this field, few as compared 
with the number in the Tabriz field, perhaps, but still 
enough to furnish an opportunity for work. Miss 
Cyrene Van Duzee, who has been associated with 
Oroomiah since the abandonment of the Salmas sta- 
tion, has undertaken some of this work, and the 
Rev. H. M. Allen, of the American Board mission 
at Van, whom the Turkish government has thus far 
refused to allow to return to his station and who is 
waiting here hoping that it will be possible for him 
to return, will meanwhile devote himself to it. A 
special service was begun for Armenians last Sunday 
and was well attended. The exodus of more Arme- 
nians from Turkish bondage will give a yet larger 
field for this work. 

Second, there is a hopeful field for work among 
the Jews. There are four synagogues in Oroomiah. 
Week before last was the Feast of Tabernacles, and 
on the Jewish Sabbath Mr. Shedd and I visited a 



1897.] 



AMONG THE NESTOR FANS. 



43 



number of the leading Jews in their booths. With 
one, the head of his synagogue and holding accord- 
ingly a monopoly of the butchering business, we 
had a long discussion, which he began by express- 
ing the hope that I might soon become a true Israel- 
ite, lie was amazed to learn of the number of Jews 
in New York and wished to have his greetings car- 
ried to them. We visited also all the synagogues. In 
the largest one, after the regular service was con- 
cluded, but before any one had gone, the native 
preacher who accompanied us and who devotes all 
his time to work among the Jews, arose and asked 
permission to speak, which was respectfully given. 
After he had spoken, Mr. Shedd spoke and pointed 
out the significance of some facts I had stated about 
the Jews in America and their position, especially 
their good treatment by the Christian population 
and their enjoyment of all rights and liberties. The 
congregation listened earnestly, but at the too open 
mention of Jesus, the Son of David, as the Messiah, 
some arose and went out, others cried out, while 
more shouted for silence and a respectful hearing 
and explained that those who had gone out were 
drunk, as it was the Feast. Among these Jews 
there is an open door both in the synagogues and in 
their homes. 

Third, harder than any other is the work for 
Moslems. There can be no open or direct 
work. The German missionaries who openly 
undertook work among the Moslems were immedi- 
ately expelled from the country several years ago. 
The Persian government has been very kind to 
our missionaries on the whole, and has allowed 
them exceptional liberties, altogether illogical 
liberties for a Moslem government to allow, and it 
grants extraordinary liberties to its subjects as 
compared with the government of the Sultan, but 
all direct work by missionaries for Moslems it for- 
bids. Stronger than any expectation of the govern- 
ment, however, are the bigotry of the Mohammedan 
ecclesiastics, the fossilized prejudice of the people 
and their hatred and contempt for the Christians, 
whom they have ruled and enslaved for centuries. 
The martyrdom of Mirza Ibrahim, the converted 
Mussulman in Tabriz, and the open murder of 
Baron Aghajan three years ago on the false charge 
of intercourse with a Moslem woman, committed in 
Oroomiah by a great crowd in broad day, indicates 
that the time for a bold open work among Moslems 
has not yet come. It is impossible, however, that 
many Moslems have not come to see the superiority 
of the pure Christianity which the missionaries 
have introduced. Many facts could be presented 
to show that they do recognize its superiority to Is- 
lam. The medical work has had a tremendous 
power in breaking down their pride and hostility 



and in showing them both the spirit and result of 

Christianity as contrasted with tin- harsh spirit and 

paralytic results of Islam. In the common inter- 
course of life among the natives, then- is QOt a 
little discussion which is favorable to the prepara- 
tion of the Moslem mind for the acceptance of the 
gospel in that day when the shackles are stricken of! 
in these lands and every man is given that best of 
all freedoms, the freedom to worship God in accord- 
ance with the dictates of his own conscience and 
to do his will. 

THE NESTORIANS. 
Fourth and largest is the Nestorian work. The 
mission was established in 1 335 as a mission to the 
Nestorians, and the work for Armenians, Jews 
and Moslems is only secondary at present to the ex- 
tensive and highly developed work among the 
Nestorians, of whom there are perhaps 100,000 in 
all, 75,000 in Turkey and 25,000 here. Dr. Grant 
held that these Nestorians, or Syrians as they are 
often called, always by the Anglican missionaries, 
were the descendants of the lost Ten Tribes. Some 
of the Nestorians hold this opinion and contend 
that their names, customs, language and facial 
features show them to be of Hebrew descent. They 
make out a strong case, as Dr. Grant did, but the 
mass of reliable opinion seems to be as uncertain 
that the Nestorians are the lost tribes as that the 
Anglo-Saxons are. For centuries the Nestorians 
have been a subject people, the serfs and servants of 
the dominant Moslems, but, like the Armenians, 
they have kept their national identity and the 
forms of their ancestral faith and have maintained 
in a remarkable way, under the unceasing oppres- 
sion, a spirit of dignity and self-respect. The old 
Nestorian Church retains its episcopal organiza- 
tion under its bishops and the patriarch at Kochan- 
nis in the mountains to the west. When the mis- 
sionaries first came, and for many years, they strove 
to introduce evangelical life into the old Church. 
The rupture by which a separate Church was es- 
tablished grew out of the hostility of the old 
Church ecclesiastics to the new life and the awak- 
ened Protestant spirit of the people. The old 
Church organization would probably have disinte- 
grated in time in its evil and unallowable features 
under the influence of the new life, and the great 
mass of the Church would have become evangelical, 
and the Church organization itself probably, if the 
Anglican mission of the Archbishop of Canterbury 
had not come into the field ten years ago to fortify 
the ritualism and formalism of the old Church and 
to antagonize the modernizing influence of the mis- 
sion which was yet slowly swinging the Church back 
to Scriptural discipline and fidelity. The power o\' 
the Anglicans, both financially and politically, has 



44 



AMONG THE NESTORIANS. 



[January, 



been strong, and they have in a measure rehabili- 
tated the bishops in whom, as often wicked and vile 
men, the people were losing confidence. Theirs 
has not always been an easy position for English- 
men, even high church ritualists, to occupy. The 
late Mar Goriel, who was recently foully murdered 
in the mountains, was an unscrupulous bishop and 
a corrupt man, and he once excommunicated the 
whole Anglican mission, yet its members were 
bound by their principles to recognize his apostolic 
authority. In spite of the Anglican influence, the 
evangelical spirit works in the old Church, and the 
conciliatory attitude of our mission to it, together 
with the close personal relations of the members of 
the old Church and the Protestant Church, as mem- 
bers of one race subject to common evils, prevents 
the creation of a sharp, impassable line between our 
own Church and the old Church people, such as the 
Anglican mission would be pleased to draw. One 
of the old Church bishops is a preacher of our 
mission in Tergawer and many of the priests of the 
old Church open their doors to the missionaries for 
the preaching of evangelical truth. Last Sunday I 
spoke in two of the old churches, once to one of our 
own congregations which worshiped in it and 
again to a large congregation of the Nestorian 
church, vhich listened as earnestly as any American 
audience could to all that was said about Christ's 
desire for his people's unity in himself, and the evil 
of setting up the differentials in the place of the 
unifying Christ. 

A NATIVE STATEMENT OF THE DIFFICULTIES. 

All of last Friday was devoted to conference with 
the representatives of the native Church. About 
twenty of the leading men came together, members 
in the main of the Evangelistic and Educational 
Boards which supervise the work of the Church. 
During the morning the natives asked questions and 
in the afternoon I asked them for their replies to 
the following : What is the end which we as a mis- 
sion from the American Church should have in 
view in this land ? What plans are the best for us 
to pursue the more speedily to reach this end ? 
What should be our attitude toward the old Church 
organization ? What . are the great needs of the 
native Church ? Their replies showed a breadth of 
spirit, a solidity of judgment, a desire for the true 
view, which were most encouraging. There are 
childish elements in this people, but there is a body 
of strong character too. The morning hours they 
devoted especially to a statement of the difficulties 
in the way of independence and self-support and to 
an inquiry as to the opinion of American Christians, 
as to their duty and the hope of relief. Oppression, 
tyranny and hardship constitute such large part of 



the life of the Nestorian people that it is not to be 
wondered at that they speak so often and earnestly 
of theoi. The purposed annihilation of the Arme- 
nians has shown them their blessings, but it has indi- 
cated also over what a gulf the Christian subjects of 
a Mohammedan state live. Many letters might be 
written on the subject of the social and political con- 
ditions of the Nestor ians. Every traveler must 
gather here a great mass of information on the sub- 
ject, but the summary given by the native men them- 
selves will illustrate well the bearing of their condi- 
tion on this one vital missionary problem. ( 1 ) In a 
village of 100 or 200 houses, i. e., of 600 or 1200 
population, only ten or twenty houses will be con- 
tributors to the support of the church ; all the houses 
of the village will be open and constitute a field for 
constant personal work ; but not all the houses will 
contribute to the support of the pastor. (2) The 
people have no freedom to give. It is probable 
that the head of the house may not belong to the 
church. The women and the young men have no 
money, nor any other form of wealth. The 
head of each house controls all. (3) All expenses 
are greatly increased. Mutton has gone in a few 
years from three to six cents a pound ; oil from ten 
to twenty-five cents a quart, and there has been here, 
as in America, a rise in the scale of living. Better 
houses, better food, better clothes are among the 
necessities now, a result produced by other 
causes than the incoming of the Christian spirit 
alone. Wheat is sixty cents a bushel, while 
common wages rarely exceed fifty cents a day, 
and unskilled day labor earns one kran and a 
half, or fifteen cents. Everything is done on a 
petty scale that causes stagnation. The girls' school 
here needs 300 bushels of wheat for the winter 
supply, native bread being the staple article of food. 
The school is forbidden to buy this amount at once 
in the market lest such a large purchase should 
affect the price. This is a city of over 60,000 
population. (4) The people are very poor and op- 
pressed with heavy taxes. The end of all govern- 
ment is the extortion of money. In the village of 
Saatlooi, for example, each householder pays the 
following taxes : door tax, head tax, cattle tax for 
mares, cows, and buffalo cows, tax in kind of native 
fuel, a mixture of cow dung, straw and dirt, chick- 
ens and labor, and if renting a vineyard, 224 
pounds of grapewood for fuel, sixteen pounds of 
grapes and a money tax also ; if cultivating a 
wheat field, two-thirds of the product of the field. 
Thus practically all improvements are taxed in 
further discouragement of thrift or enterprise, and 
constant pretexts for fines are discovered by way of 
further extortion. The people have no defense 
against this. They cannot acquire land and culti- 



1897.] 



sr \%r. 



45 



vate it independently for themselves. They are 
ryots, often practically serfs tied to the soil. (5 ) The 
Serparast, i. e., the Moslem appointed to act a- 
governor for the Christian population, knowing 
that his term will probably ho short and that he 
will have to screw tighter if he is to get back the 
money paid for his office — all offices are paid for 
here by the incumbent, who makes his money in 
turn out of the people — has been unduly exacting. 
On any pretext he summons Christians before him 
and then charges for the trouble to which he Ins 
been put. His tariff of charges for such services has 
recently doubled. Last year he took 2000 tomans, 
or dollars, from one village by his exactions. If 
the pastors endeavor to settle quarrels so that they 
will not go before the Serparast, he fines the 
pastor for his interference. All these evils are 
intensified by the village system, which is practi- 
cally a system of serfdom. (6) The natives spoke 
of the difficulties introduced by the coming of the 
Anglican and Roman Catholic missions and the care- 
less and demoralizing expenditure of money by some 
smaller Christian bodies on irresponsible men here. 

THE BRIGHTER SIDE. 

There are not wanting optimists among the Nes- 
torians, however — men who have seen the vision 
far away, who believe in the promises of the living 
Gorl, and that he will not lose sight of Iran. And 
no very daring optimism would be needed to write a 
letter full of encouragement regarding the work, its 
past power, its present influence and its certain 
growth. Yesterday morning two bishops of the 
old Church came with Oriental supplications to see 
Dr. Cochran. The Archbishop of Canterbury would 
have opened his eyes at the sight of those bishops. 
Joseph's coat and Li Hung Chang's pipe were 
small matters compared with their episcopal accou- 
trements of rags and tobacco. In the afternoon the 
acting governor with a large retinue called with one 
of the multitudinous princes of the land, and immedi- 
ately after the Serparast came with many friendly 
protestations. What if it was to Dr. Cochran's wide 
influence that these men paid such respect? Earlier 
in the day I studied a Muilah who had come from 
Khoi, bringing his son to the hospital, and I watched 
in the operating room the hand of "the infidel" 
bring relief to the son of the Moslem. And now to- 
night I look back over these three groups repre- 
senting the old Church, the State and the State re- 
ligion, and it requires no prophet to read the prom- 
ise and the sure result, as they come now to this re- 
presentative. Who is so blind as not to see that 
they will come in time to the King himself? 

Oroomiah, October 6, 1896. 



Letters. 

81 \M. 

Rev. Eugene P. Dunlap, D.D., Bangkok, Slum: 
— We have recently returned from one of the most 
delightful tours that I have ever taken in Siarn. 
Mrs. Dunlap accompanied me, that Bhe mi^'lit labor 
for women, and to encourage the women of the little 
church in Nakawn. We were absent from borne 
eleven weeks. We traveled in a small coast Bteamer 
or acanoe, on elephants, and afoot. We Lodged in a 
bamboo hut or in the homes of the people, and 
many nights in canoes, and enjoyed throughout 'he 
tour the kind hospitality of the people. Two faith- 
ful colporteurs labored with us, and we apprecia ed 
their help. They were always ready to testify for 
the Master, and patient in teaching the individual 
inquirer. At Nakawn, one of the Christian 
women volunteered to help Mrs. Dunlap in the 
work among the women, and spent mrch time in 
accompanying us on several tours into the iuieii »r. 
ON A STEAMER. 

We left Bangkok June 1 , in a small coast steamer. 
The steamer was crowded with Siamese, Chinese, 
Malay, Cambodians, Arabs, Christians, Buddhists, 
Mohammedans and Spiritualists. We had but 
little space to move about. No first-class, all steer- 
age together ; content with the small space allotted, 
we made the voyage without care. Fellow- passen- 
gers were friendly, and we found pleasure in pre- 
senting the gospel to them, and ministered to some 
who were sick. We stopped for a time at several 
ports, in which we proclaimed the gospel, and dis- 
posed of many portions of Scripture and tracts. 
The Christians gave us a hearty welcome in Na- 
kawn. There was no little excitement over the 
first white woman and child that have visited the 
province. And during our sojourn in the city, old 
and voung from far and near came to see the white 
woman and the little white boy. We held a daily 
preaching service throughout our sojourn of six 
weeks 

MRS. DUNLAP AT THE ORGAN. 

At these services Mrs. Dunlap presided at the 
organ and led the singing. This helped attract 
the people. We had good audiences from first to last. 
The people listened so attentively that it was a real 
pleasure to preach to them, After service, we in- 
structed inquirers, Mrs Dunlap teaching the women 
inquirers. In this she was usually aided by one or 
more women, members of the little church. In fact, 
throughout the town the cooperation of the native 
Christians was very commendable indeed ; they 
showed a real missionary spirit. We also held 
occasional preaching services by invitation in 
houses in the city. 

TOURS INLAND. 

We made a considerable number of tours into 
the interior, thus teaching a good number who 
had never before heard the gospel. One of the most 

interesting of the short tours was made on elephants 
to a little settlement in which there is considerable 
interest in the gospel. We passed through charm- 
ing country, great broad rice fields, beautiful cocoa- 
nut and banana gardens, and had a grand range of 
mountains in view all the way. The disciples at 
the settlement received us gladly. They had pre- 
pared a room for our entertainment and for the 



46 



KOREA. 



[January, 



services in the home of one of the disciples. 
About the walls of the room hung inviting bunches 
of bananas, soft cocoanuts, pine-apples and palm 
fruit. The disciples united in entertaining us and 
our fellow- workers, not forgetting our elephants 
and drivers. So many seemed eager to hear the 
gospel that we held all- day services. 

WOMEN THRONGING MRS. DUNLAP. 

The women thronged Mrs. Dunlap, and listened 
to her stories of the Saviour. The disciples 
seemed revived ; they resolved to build a chapel in 
the village. One gave a lot for the chapel. It 
was my joy to baptize four women, wives of the 
disciples, and six little ones offered by their parents, 
and to add a good number to the inquiry class. 
Afterward I baptized five men from the settlement, 
and ordained one as elder in the little church of 
Nakawn. There is much joy from seeing these 
little centres of influence established, and it is a 
pleasure to note that the interest in this settlement 
is largely due to the missionary spirit of the young 
man who was ordained elder. He is zealous in 
proclaiming the way of salvation to others. It was 
not easy to say good-bye to the little band of dis- 
ciples so happy in the gospel. Our thoughts and 
prayers often turn to them. 

KOREA. 
Rev. H. G. Underwood, D. D. , Seoul, Korea : — 
During the part of a year that has passed, the work 
has been varied by two trips to Chang Yun, on both 
of which stops were made and work carried on in 
many towns and villages. When Dr. Wells was 
with me a large quantity of medicines was dispensed 
and all the sick who came were directed to the 
Great Physician of the soul. A stop at Song Do of 
a day showed the possibilities of work at this com- 
mercial centre of the whole land. In the morning 
a large crowd gathered, and after listening atten- 
tively to the gospel for over an hour, quickly pur- 
chased tracts to the tune of over ten thousand 
(10,000) cash. The Christians who are there soon 
hunted us up, and, with inquirers, the still, small 
hours of the night wore away. 

POSSIBILITIES. 

We were much impressed with the possibilities of 
the place as a centte from which influences would 
reach far and wide. We plan for more than one 
visit to this city in the coming year. 

Haija of Whang Hai Do also gave us a good re- 
ception, and the influence of Mr. Miller's previous 
visit was seen in extended sales of books, not a 
few people stating that they knew these books were 
good, for they had bought some when Min Hyo Sa 
(Mr. Miller) had been around. 

FREQUENT STOPS. 

All the way to Chang Yun we stopped as often as 
circumstances would permit, to see the sick and 
preach the gospel. Arriving at Sorai, in Chang 
Yun, one of the first things that struck us was the 
new church. Right on the site where but a little 
while ago the village deities had been worshiped, 
in a beautiful little grove, was the first Christian 
church built entirely without foreign aid by the 
Koreans themselves. The work of Mr. McKenzie 
and the life that he led in this village has left its 
indelible mark upon the place and the surrounding 
country. 



HIS DECEASE. 

He who ''doeth all things well" took him 
home to himself. This church is left as his 
work. It was his plan that no foreign funds should 
be used in its construction. He denied himself the 
privilege of giving. He told the people what they 
ought to do. One gave all the wood except the twelve 
main stanchions, which were given by another. 
Others gave rice ; many gave labor ; one poor 
widow who had nothing, although a Korean lady, 
walked to the seaside, and up to her knees in mud, 
dug clams, sold them and gave all the proceeds to 
help in the Lord's house. Every Sunday this 
same woman walks forty odd li (thirteen English 
miles, to church, and when I was there she had not 
missed a Sunday, rain or shine, since her conver- 
sion almost a year before. This work has not gone 
on unhindered. 

PERSECUTED. 

Persecutions of a petty kind have not been 
entirely wanting. During the Tong Hak disturb- 
ance many were the threats by the Tong Hak 
leaders of death to the Christians and to their for- 
eign teacher ; but in the strength of God they 
trusted, and God so honored their faith that though 
on three different occasions the day was set for the 
razing of the village and the death of their foreign 
teacher, not once did they get there, and strangest 
of all, if we have a right to call God's doings 
strange, this village of all the villages for miles and 
miles around was the one that did not suffer from the 
Tong Hak depredations. God seemed to cause a 
fear and awe to fall on all who would oppose their 
simple childlike faith in him. 

NEW CHURCH. 

When but a few funds were in they commenced 
work on the new church, a poor widow having 
given the site. Slowly they pushed forward the 
work. At first it was to be only a straw-thatched 
house. Funds came in and they decided to make 
it with a slate roof ; but more funds came in and 
now a nice, substantial tiled house is their church 
home, where they meet from time to time to wor- 
ship the one true and only God. It is all their own 
work, built through sacrifice and self-denial to show 
their love to their Heavenly Father for the gift of his 
son Jesus Christ. For some time past a good work 
had been going on among the people. Mr. Saw 
Hyeng Jo, their leader, positively refused to accept 
a salary from Mr. McKenzie, either as a teacher or 
Christian worker, for fear the people would think 
he was a Christian for what he was getting. Mr. 
McKenzie had been carefully instructing the peo- 
ple in Bible truth, and had asked me to come down 
and with him, catechise and baptize a number of 
applicants. 

BAPTISMS. 

Those whom he thought ready were not more 
than about one-half of those who desired baptism, but 
he wished to go slowly. Those of whom he had 
spoken were examined in the presence of Dr. Wells 
and the three leading Christians there. Nine women 
and ten men were baptized while I was there. The 
communion also was administered. While there, 
too, we also had the privilege of dedicating the 
church, organizing a Sunday-school and putting the 
work on such a basis that, with two or three yearly 
visits by missionaries, the natives can carry on the 
work. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 




College AvcniK 

PRINCETON COLLEGIATE INSTI- 
TUTE. 

EEV. J. M. RICHMOND, D.D., PEESIDENT. 

A beautiful plot of ground lying within 
the town limits was donated by Dr. T. L. 
McNary, and the present fine college edifice 
was erected thereon in 1860. 

During the war the work of the college 
was temporarily suspended. In 1881 the 
property was purchased for the Presbyte- 
rians by Dr. H. H. Allen, then pastor of 
the First Church of Princeton ; Dr. E. P. 
Humphrey and Mr. L. L. Warren, of 
Louisville, and other eminent Presbyterians 
of the State, giving substantial encourage- 
ment. 

Dr. Allen became principal and, gather- 
ing about him an efficient corps of teachers, 
made the institution a power for good, and 
laid foundations upon which future genera- 
tions may safely build. 

The trustees are appointed by the Presby- 
tery of Louisville, under a liberal charter 
granted by the Legislature of Kentucky. 

The location of Princeton is in its favor. 
There are extensive territory and large 
population to draw from, and railroads 
bring the whole valley of the Mississippi 
within a few hours of its classic shades. 

Our aim is to make Princeton Collegiate 
Institute a first-class academy. The aca- 
demic stage of an educational course is in 



many respects the most important. It 
receives young people as they take their 
first determined step towards a liberal educa- 
tion. Here many get their first experiences 
of life away from home. Here the founda- 
tions of learning are laid, habits of study 
are formed — the pupil learns how to learn 
— and, more important than all, habits of 
life and character are moulded. If proper 
associations are entered into, wise methods 
of study adopted, right habits formed and 
thorough and honest preparation made, in 
the academy, the subsequent life of the 
student in college will be a delight and an 
inspiration. 

The work of the academy is twofold. 

First, to provide thorough preparation for 
college. Our four years' course is designed 
to fit students for Sophomore or Junior year 
in college, if desired. 

Another and hardly less important object 
is to give to those who cannot go to colli ge 
the fullest possible furnishing for their life's 
work. To meet this need, we have intro- 
duced some studies that strictly belong to a 
college course. 

A prejudice against coeducation exists in 
some quarters: but the trend of thought 
among advanced educators is in favor of 
coeducation, and many colleges and univer- 
sities of this and the old world are opening 
their doors to both sexes. This has its 
decided advantages. It furnishes to both 

47 



48 



PRINCETON COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE. 



[January, 






I* . « • ' 



sexes a stimulus to study. It has a refiniDg 
and ennobling influence, largely precluding 
rowdyism. Where young ladies and gen- 
tlemen are together in the daily exercises of 
the college, the notions of life obtained, the 
conception of the relations of the sexes 
formed, the manners acquired and the char- 
acters developed are more normal than could 
be hoped for in separate schools, and pupils 
are better prepared for society in which the 
sexes mingle freely. Princeton Collegiate 
Institute, like all educational institutions, 
has many needs, and friends of Christian 
education will find here opportunities of 







placing their money so that every dollar will 
do good and result in blessings to coming 
generations. The great need, however, is 
more earnest, ambitious students. The fac- 
ulty consists of nine teachers — earnest, 
refined, cultured, Christian and thoroughly 
equipped for their work. The life of the 
institution is that of a refined Christian 
home — a safe and in every way desirable 
home, In which parents and guardians may 
place their children with confidence, and in 
which the surroundings, appointments and 
atmosphere are elevating and educating 
in the highest degree. 



^'^wHIifllXt 



EDUCATION 




Magdalen C< 



;e, Oxford, England. 



COLLEGE TRAINING FOR DIVIN- 
ITY STUDENTS. 

Our Form of Government expresses the 
settled judgment of the Church as to the 
kind of preparation which should be re- 
quired of candidates for the holy ministry 
in Chap, xiv, 6, as follows: " That the most 
effectual measures may be taken to guard 
against the admission of inefficient men 
into the sacred office, it is recommended that 
no candidate, except in extraordinary cases, 
be licensed, unless, after his having com- 
pleted the usual course of academical studies, 
he shall have studied divinity at least two 
years under some approved divine or 
professor of theology." 

" The usual course of academical studies " 
evidently means the classical course pursued 
at college. This is made plain by the recom- 
mendation in section three of the same 
chapter that " the candidate be required to 
produce a diploma of bachelor or master of 
arts from some college or university ; or at 



least authentic testimonials of his having 
gone through a regular course of learning." 

The obvious reason for this recommenda- 
tion is that the college furnishes the best and 
most truly complete training which our 
resources can provide. The minister of 
Christ fills the most honorable, exalted, and 
responsible office which exists among men. 
He is the ambassador of Christ, the 
prophet of God, the spokesman of the 
Almighty, the agent and instrument of the 
Holy Spirit. He is sent forth to be a leader 
and guide of the people. It is a dishonor 
offered to God and an injury done to men 
when the Church fails to give to such a man 
the best training within her power. 

It is perfectly true that God loves to take 
" the foolish things of the world," that is 
the things which in the world's esteem are 
foolish, " to put to shame them that are 
wise," and " the weak things of the world 
that he might put to shame the things that 
are strong." It is evident, however, that 
he never intended to put a premium upon 

-1!) 



50 



COLLEGE TRAINING FOR DIVINITY STUDENTS. 



[January. 



imbecility, stupidity, laziness or ignorance. 
When he wanted a man to bring Israel out 
of Egypt and to constitute a nation, to 
frame its laws, and establish its religion, he 
caused the man of his selection to be taught 
all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and sub- 
jected him to the discipline of a forty years' 
sojourn in the desert. And it was still 
true, when he sent that man to Pharaoh with 
the demand, " Let my people go that they 
may serve me," that he was taking that 
which was weak, and that which was 
despised, to put to shame that which was 
strong and confident and proud in conscious 
supremacy. When Ave have selected the 
brightest and most promising of our young 
men, when we have given the very highest 
training which our best colleges can afford, if 
God accepts them for his service, it will still 
be true that he is taking that which is weak, 
utterly weak, in comparison with the " prin- 
cipalities," and " powers," "the rulers of 
the darkness of this world," and " the spirit- 
ual wickedness in high places," which they 
will be commissioned to overthrow. If our 
ministers at their best are, relatively, utter 
weakness, what folly would it be not to adopt 
God's method in the case of Moses ; not to 
give them the very best furniture for their 
work which our means can command! 

MANLINESS A PRODUCT OF COLLEGE LIFE. 

A candidate for leadership among men 
needs to be a man himself. It is not the 
discipline of books ; it is not the discipline 
exercised by the faculty; but rather the 
discipline to which the student is subjected 
by his fellows, which makes college life so 
helpful in developing the manliness of those 
who have the privilege of sharing it. A 
college graduate of observation and intelli- 
gence once asked us whether a young man, 
in whom we were both interested, intended to 
omit the Freshman year. He hoped we 
would exert our influence to prevent such a 
mistake. Sometimes the experience of a 
Freshman is not pleasant ; but, taking it for 
all in all, it is wholesome. The foibles of 
all kinds, the conceit, the ignorance of the 
world, the general freshness, the half- weaned 
attitude of mind, which the new-comer dis- 
plays in greater or less degree, find a cure, 
if a cure is possible, in the rough-and- 
tumble of contact with those who have 
experienced the cure before them. The 
deep interest in athletic sports, now universal 



among college men, and a measure of par- 
ticipation in them, tend to promote vigor of 
body, and a corresponding healthful tone of 
mind and feeling. It is no mean advantage 
when a candidate for the ministry is able to 
consecrate a well-developed body, and a 
manly spirit governing it, to the work of 
his divine Master. 

THE COLLEGE A SCHOOL OF DUTY. 

What the tendency of college life is may 
perhaps best be learned by an observation of 
its products. A very large proportion of col- 
lege graduates have been the faithful servants, 
the liberal benefactors of the general public. 
This has been largely due to the fact that 
true religion has been ever so important a 
factor in our American colleges. Their 
founders have commonly been men whose 
great object was the glory of God and the 
good of mankind. These men, in their work 
of prescribing the curriculum, and ordering 
the life of these institutions of learning, made 
them schools of religion in a most distinctive 
and characteristic sense. It can be well 
understood that men trained to live and 
move and act and think under the eye of 
God, and a sense of responsibility to him, 
will be men free from the temptation to spend 
their lives in easy self-indulgence, men 
prompt to respond to every call of duty, 
men in sympathy with that great love of 
God which gave his Son for the redemption 
of the world. And such has been the 
experience of our American colleges with 
reference to her graduates as a class. It is 
no mean advantage when a candidate for 
the ministry is permitted to spend four years 
breathing the atmosphere and subject to the 
influences which prevail in such institutions; 
for, above all other men, ministers of the gos- 
pel, as their very name implies, are set apart 
for service ; even as their Master, and their 
Model, " the Son of Man, came not to be 
ministered unto, but to minister, and to give 
his life a ransom for many." 

THE COLLEGE A SCHOOL OF CONSERVATISM. 

In a new country like ours the danger is 
specially great that we should, as a people, 
commit some serious blunder, in the zeal and 
rush of our headlong progress, through sim- 
ple ignorance of the lessons of experience. 
A knowledge of the history of other peoples 
and of the olden times, a familiarity with 
the ancient classics, the literature which has 



1897.] 



COLLEGE TRAINING FOR DIVINITY STUDENTS. 



stood the test of time, and brings to us the 
thoughts which belong to humanity in gen- 
eral ; an intimate acquaintance with the 
experiments which have been tried, the fail- 
ures which have been experienced, the suc- 
cesses which have been achieved, through 
the long centuries of the past, must be the 
means of guarding our generation from mis- 
takes which might prove disastrous in the 
extreme. 

The world is not still in its childhood, 
although each individual comes as an infant 
upon its scenes. The accumulating treas- 
ures of the storied past are put at the dis- 
posal of each successive generation, and the 
children take up the work at the point where 
the fathers laid it down. Only the foolish 
and the thoughtless make sport of a con- 
servative spirit, or speak contemptuously of 
it as though inconsistent with progress. He 
w T ill make progress most safely and surely 
who takes advantage of foundations already 
laid, and who directs his work according to 
principles which have been tested in the 
world's long history. The classical, histori- 
cal, and philosophical studies of the college 
course, give to the student the benefit of 
the experience of the ages, and of the high- 
est culture to which the human mind has 
attained. Dr. Arnold of Rugby has well 
written with regard to the study of the 
ancient classics: " Expel Greek and Latin 
from your schools, and you confine the views 
of the existing generation to themselves and 
their immediate predecessors ; you will cut 
off so many centuries of the world's experi- 
ence, and place us in the same state as if the 
human race had first come into existence in 

the year 1500 The mind of the 

Greek and of the Roman is, in all the essen- 
tial points of hs constitution, our own ; and 
not only so, but it is our own mind devel- 
oped to an extraordinary degree of perfec- 
tion. Aristotle and Plato and Thucidides 
and Cicero and Tacitus are most untruly 
called ancient writers; they are virtually 
our own countrymen and contemporaries; 
but have the advantage which is enjoyed by 
intelligent travelers, that their observation 
has been exercised in a field out of the reach 
of common men; and that, having thus seen 



in a manner with our eyes what we cannot 
see for ourselves, their conclusions are such 
as bear upon our own circumstances, while 
their information has all the charm of nov- 
elty, and all the valueof a mass of new and 
pertinent facts, illustrative of the greai 
science of the nature of civilization." - The 
italics in this extract arc ours.; President 
Noah Porter, in his book on American 
Colleges, expresses the wish that the taste 
for classical studies " should be fostered in 
the colleges of our country as one of the 
essential conditions of a generous and refined 
culture." 

THE COLLEGE AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS. 

Interest has centred largely of late years 
upon questions of political economy and the 
agitation for social changes. Our young 
candidates for the ministry are under train- 
ing to become leaders of the people at a 
most interesting and important epoch of our 
national experience. Xo one who is 
acquainted with a minister's life, both in 
our rural and city charges, will fail to recog- 
nize the extent of the influence which he 
has the opportunity of exerting, not only 
over his own parishioners, but throughout 
the community in which he resides. If 
there has ever been a time when he should 
have the help which the true conservatism 
of college training affords, that time is the 
present. In college he has the opportunity 
to learn " the ripe thought of the world, 
the thought which it has tested and estab- 
lished, the principles which have stood 
through the seasons and become at length 
part of the immemorial wisdom of the 
race." From the college halls he comes 
forth prepared to communicate what he has 
learned, by patient and toilsome study of 
the past, to his less favored fellows, to save 
them from foolish experiments and fatal 
mistakes, to guide them in such a way that 
any changes made may be in line with the 
steady progress towards the ideal life in the 
ideal community which the race has been 
making under the leadership of the able 
and wise statesmen and ministers of religion 
who have preceded him in a life of toil and 
service for mankind. 



PUBLICATION AND SABBATH-SCHOOL WORK. 



CHILDREN OF THE SOUTH. 

At the first Synodical S. S. Convention of 
the Synod of Catawba, held last September, 
the Sabbath- school missionaries were invited 
to speak to the question, " What the Pres- 
byterian Church is doing for the children of 
the South. " and the subject was very suc- 
cessfully handled. The work during the 
summer of 1896 was particularly trying 
owing to the extreme heat even for the 
Southern States, w r here sunstrokes among 
the Negroes were unusually prevalent, but 
the missionaries organized during the season 
in the Synods of Atlantic and Catawba no 
fewer than twenty-five new Sabbath-schools 
among the poorest portions of the population. 
They also organized and conducted several 
institutes for the training of teachers. In 
the light of these results the churches through- 
out this region are manifesting increasing 
interest in this work. Children's Day was 
more extensively observed last year than 
•ever before, and our synodical missionary, 
Dr. Dillard, has conducted many revival 
services. 

A SCHOOL IN A SORGHUM MILL. 

Mr. James M. Bain recently organized 
two Sabbath- schools in a district in Wiscon- 
sin which, although it had been settled for 
many years, had never enjoyed the blessing 
of a preached and taught gospel. One of 
these schools was organized in an upper 
room in a sorghum mill, used also as a feed 
and saw-mill. Willing hands, with fork, 
shovel and mop cleaned the flooring. Many 
of the seats were of boards resting on bun- 
dles of shingles. A sorghum mill and 
barrels of sugar were disposed of in corners, 
and the music of the school recitations was 
intermingled with the noise of the water 
rushing over the wheel underneath the floor. 
But the people came promptly on time with 
their families and completely filled the room, 
and many were the " God bless you's " that 
followed the missionary as he took his 
departure, with the promise of visiting the 
school in the near future. 
52 



A CHURCH ASKED FOR. 

Our missionary, the Rev. C. T. McCamp- 
bell, in Iowa City Presbytery, joyfully 
reports that at a recent meeting of the pres- 
bytery a petition signed by fifty-eight persons 
was presented for the organization of a 
Presbyterian church, the outgrowth of Sab- 
bath-school work. He feels confident that 
a church of one hundred members will soon 
be gathered, consisting of Germans, Scotch, 
Irish, Welsh, English, Norwegians and 
American-born citizens. This is the best 
possible way of harmonizing and assimilat- 
ing a foreign-born population. Win them 
to Christ by a loving presentation of the 
gospel, and there will be no room for a false 
socialism. 



NEW WORK ON OLD FOUNDA- 
TIONS. 

Rev. William Travis, our missionary in 
the Presbytery of Portland, Oregon, gives 
interesting particulars about the beginning 
of a new enterprise at a place called Buxton, 
a straggling village about forty miles north- 
west of Portland. A Sabbath-school was 
organized here in 18w2, and about a year 
ago the people petitioned the presbytery for 
stated preaching. The presbytery was 
unable to do anything, but a gentleman in 
Portland, not a professing Christian, who 
owns land in the village, gave an acre in 
trust for a Presbyterian church, and the 
village people took up a subscription of 
money, lumber and labor, and the pros- 
pscts are th it a neat chapel will be put 
up. The pulpit is the joint gift of two 
Seventh- Day Adventists, and denomina- 
tional differences are being forgotten in the 
zeal for a house of prayer. This is what 
comes of a liberal Sabbath-school policy. 
Our missionary will do his best to keep 
up the school and preaching services un- 
til the Home Mission Board can intervene, 
and he is meanwhile trying to collect $150 
in Portland to furnish the interior with sit- 
tings and other accessories. 



1897.] 



GATHERING IN SPIRITUAL RESULTS — AN APPEAL FOR CLOTHINC 



53 



PIONEER WORK IN MISSOURI. 

Mr. S. A. Meredith, our missionary iii 
Palmyra Presbytery, has had a trying year. 

What with the extreme heat of last summer, 
the numerous destructive storms, the hard 
times, and other drawbacks, he has often 
felt discouraged. At some points the pre- 
cious work of years seemed on the eve of a 
break-up. Some good people seem to think 
that Missouri is too greatly afflicted with 
denominational ism in the existence of scores 
of little sects to give a fair field to Presby- 
terian Sabbath-school missions. In reality 
this is one of the strongest reasons for per- 
severing in our work. By dint of strenuous 
labor and constant vigilance our missionary 
has averted disaster from several of our 
mission schools and the churches which have 
sprung from them, and if he were to give 
his entire time for the next year to strength- 
ening and saving these posts he would cer- 
tainly find plenty to do without organizing 
a single new school. He has also kept the 
subject of Sabbath-school missions before his 
presbytery and synod, being greatly aided 
and counseled in this by the chairman of the 
Synodical Sabbath-school Committee, Rev. 
J. R. Gass, and other brethren. It is grat- 
ifying to know that the outlook for the future 
is getting brighter in Missouri. The church 
building at Enterprise was completely 
wrecked by a hurricane last August, and the 
mission school had for a season to be sus- 
pended, but the people set to work and re- 
built their church and the cause will receive 
a new impetus from this very blow. 



GATHERING IN SPIRITUAL RE- 
SULTS. 

Traveling back and forth among the scat- 
tered towns and settlements of the territory 
of Oklahoma, our missionary, Mr. William 
Davis, finds abundant proof of the fruit- 
fulness of Sabbath-school work. At one 
place, where our mission school is the only 
means of grace in an extensive region, he 
lately spent four days, canvassing and hold- 
ing revival meetings. At one of these an 
old lady of seventy-five and a young girl of 
ten stood up to confess their faith in Christ, 
and several others expressed deep interest in 
the subject of a personal salvation. He 
reports a good opening there for preaching 
and the organization of a church. It is 
truly hard to leave such places when the 



gospel seed is beginning to spring up with- 
out the prospect of Boon returning to carry 

on the good work. Synodical missionary 
Rev. Theodore Bracken recently spent a 

week with Mr. Davis visiting some import- 
ant localities, preaching nightly, and gather- 
ing in spiritual results. Upon many ears 

the word preached falls with welcome sound, 
and many hearts are touched. Not a few 
rise up and express their desire to become 
Christians, and who can tell the train of 
influences with such efforts are sure to set in 
motion? Several communities throughout 
this interesting region are almost ripe for 
church organization. 



AN APPEAL FOR CLOTHING. 

Our Presbyterian Sabbath-school mission- 
aries, in their house-to-house visitations on 
their fields, are finding, this winter, many 
families in need of clothing. These families 
consist of persons who do not beg. Though 
they suffer, they hide their poverty as long 
as possible. They are willing to work. 
They hate idleness and sloth. But in some 
places crops have failed, times are hard, and 
the wolf is at the door. Many of them 
have seen better days, but now dark clouds 
rest upon their homes. Suffering abounds. 
The children and the parents also cannot 
attend the mission Sabbath-school, which is 
their only stated means of grace, because 
they have not decent clothes in which to go. 

Our Sabbath- school missionaries have been 
found accurate in their accounts of destitu- 
tion. They personally visit the homes of 
the poor. They know when, where and 
what to distribute, and they know when to 
withhold. They know how to help the 
deserving, and how not to encourage or sup- 
port the unworthy and the indolent. They 
do not pauperize while they assist. Cloth- 
ing in their hands is made to go as far as 
possible. Our experience has confirmed our 
confidence in their common sense and care. 

We have in former years witnessed the 
willingness and generosity of our Presbyte- 
rian women toward worthy objects of char- 
ity, and we know they only desire certainty 
as to the need, as to the desert and as to the 
reliability of the persons distributing their 
gifts. 

A note of inquiry addressed tome will be 
answered by my sending the name and 
address of a Presbyterian Sabbath -school 



54 



CONTENDING WITH IGNORANCE AND PREJUDICE— DOES IT PAY? [January, 



missionary to whom the barrel or box may 
be sent. Please state the part of the coun- 
try to which you prefer to send assistance. 
James A. Word en, 

Suj)t. S. S. and Misery Work, 
1 334 Chestnut street, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Approved: E. R. Craven, 
Secretary. 



CALLED HOME. 

Mr. William Henry, one of the little band 
of our devoted Sabbath-school missionaries 
laboring in West Virginia, departed this life 
October 7, 1896. He had, only about two 
months before his death, followed his be- 
loved wife to the grave, being summoned 
hurriedly from his missionary travel to her 
deathbed, and arriving only four hours be- 
fore her departure. Grief and exposure to 
malarious influences brought on typhoid 
fever, under which he succumbed. He was 
a faithful and successful worker, and held 
in high esteem and affection throughout a 
wide extent of country. A few days before 
his death he received an urgent invitation to 
assist in the dedication of a chapel on his 
field, and especially to sing, he being an 
excellent singer, but on the day named he 
was singing the song of Moses and the Lamb 
in the Temple made without hands, eternal 
in the heavens. 

Mr. Henry was in his fifty-fourth year at 
the time of his death. During his connec- 
tion as a missionary with the Sabbath-school 
work in West Virginia, a period of eight 
years, he organized no fewer than 148 Sab- 
bath-schools, gathering into them 709 
teachers and 6094 scholars. He traveled 
the State, mostly on foot, 28,438 miles, 
visited 10,504 families and distributed 
10,368 volumes, 384 Bibles and Testaments 
and 769,768 pages of tracts. 



CONTENDING WITH IGNORANCE 
AND PREJUDICE. 

In some parts of the country the Presby- 
terian Church is very little understood. Our 
missionary, the Rev. D. N. Good, writes 
from Tennessee: " I am pushing out into 
the neglected regions as fast as I can, 
though in one sense I find no neglected 
regions, for a certain kind of religious 
teaching has been going on almost every- 
where; but it is often very poor in quality. 



We need to have more patience here than is 
required in the West and Northwest. Many 
of the people are very ignorant about our 
Church and full of prejudices against it. I 
have in many instances been able to over- 
come these prejudices and in time they will 
disappear. I have been able during the 
spring and summer of 1896 to plant sixteen 
schools, and have put our Presbyterian 
Lesson Helps in every one of them. 

DOES IT PAY ? 

In discussing this question from the stand- 
point of Sabbath-school missions, among the 
colored people of the South, Missionary 
Yancey calls attention to a wonderful change 
in the character of the population in Patrick 
county, Va., since these missions have been 
widely organized there. He writes: " The 
people who used to spend their Sabbaths 
hunting, fishing, drinking and frolicking, 
have learned to value and love the Sabbath- 
school and many of them spend most of the 
Lord's day in learning to read the Bible 
and in its study. Recently about fifty con- 
versions have taken place in that county, 
and these will be the means of bringing 
many others to Christ. The Sabbath -school 
work was the prime agent in bringing about 
this reformation." 

ONLY INSTRUMENTALITY 
POSSIBLE. 

Writing concerning a settlement in the 
extreme western part of Nebraska, where a 
Presbyterian church has just been developed 
from our Sabbath-school mission, the Rev. 
J. B. Currens says: " This neighborhood, 
composed of thirty families and situate on 
the Upper Platte Valley, now under irriga- 
tion and destined to be one of the richest 
and most thickly settled districts in Ne- 
braska, existed fourteen years without the 
gospel. Seven years ago we planted a 
Sabbath-school which has now a membership 
of about sixty. We are working other 
neighborhoods in the same valley. A stu- 
dent from Hastings College is preaching at 
three points and will have charge of the 
church for the present. Our work in this 
valley will result in several churches. No 
instrumentality in our Church can minister 
to the spiritual wants of this region in its 
present condition but the Sabbath-school 
missionary. ' ' 




EXCEPTIONAL CASES. 

One of the most constant experiences of 
the Board is to be confronted with what are 
represented as " exceptional cases." Not 
simply every month, but more commonly 
every week, letters are received concerning 
pending applications in which the statement 
is confidently made that the case in hand is 
exceptional, and therefore should receive 
peculiar consideration and privileges in 
excess of those designated in the rules laid 
down by the Assembly for the Board's 
guidance. 

Three such appeals have reached the 
Board this week. One writer says: " If 
the Board can ever make exceptions, is not 
this case the most peculiarly exceptional that 
has ever come before it ?" Another writes: 
" This church, it is no exaggeration, is an 
exceptional case." And a third replies: 
" We seem to have utterly failed in our 
attempt to impress upon you the fact that 
we are not an ordinary case or instance." 

Now the interesting fact is that all these 
brethren are right. All alike give reasons 
that are eloquent and convincing for the 
claims they make. There is not one of 
them that does not present some feature that 
is exceptional and which appeals strongly to 
the imagination. But what no one who did 
not have the privilege of correspondence 
with all parts of our wide missionary field 
would apprehend is also the case, viz., that 
wherever there is an earnest, whole-hearted 
minister, giving himself unselfishly to his 
work, there there will always be an excep- 



tional case. The work will grow spiritually, 
and its promise will ripen faster than can be 
properly sustained by the material resources 
at command. 

Soon to the aroused and zealous pastor it 
will be evident that unless exceptional help 
can be secured, there must be a partial fail- 
ure in results. In truth, it is hardly possi- 
ble that any man will be inspired to do his 
best, unless he is burdened with the thought 
that his field is an exceptional one, and that 
every day is the supreme day, or, as Car- 
lyle puts it, " the day of judgment." 

The reason that so many cases that come 
to this Board are exceptional, is simply be- 
cause the Board was organized to help in 
exceptional cases. If they are not so, if 
they are to be measured according to the 
ordinary rules of church progress and 
church support, then they should not come 
to the Board at all. It is this, too, that 
makes the service the Board tries to render 
so interesting and that should make it appeal 
so eloquently to the churches for their 
support. 

Take the cases that we give below, drawn 
from the applications of the current month, 
and who would not say of any one of them 
that it is exceptional ? 

Having said this much, it is hard to have 
to add that inasmuch as the rules of the 
General Assembly for the Board's guidance 
were framed, in the first instance, to meet 
these exceptional cases, it is not open to the 
Board, which has to face them all alike, to 
violate the rules in particular instances. It 
must act within the explicit directions of its 



56 



TYPICAL YET 



EXCEPTIONAL' CASES. 



[January, 



charter even though in so doing it has to 
deny itself the privilege of meeting in full 
the wishes and expectations of brethren who 
are nobly bearing the burden and heat of 
the day. But let such brethren be assured 
that in every instance of failure to meet 
their wishes, the reason is found in the in- 
ability of the Board and not in the lack of 
sympathy and appreciation upon the part of 
its members. 



TYPICAL YET " EXCEPTIONAL" 

CASES. 

Lago, Utah. — We have recently organ- 
ized a church in southern Idaho, in what is 
known as Gentile Valley. It is a Mormon 
settlement, but in this valley there are sev- 
eral families who have abandoned Mormon- 
ism and a few perhaps who have never been 
Mormons. It is a region which has been 
developing for years, families moving in, 
ranches improved, people growing sick at 
heart of Mormonism, and yet nothing but 
Mormonism on the ground, unless we plant 
the agencies of the gospel there. That has 
been done, and the Master has sent us an 
earnest consecrated minister who speaks the 
Danish language — it is a Danish settlement. 
He also preaches in English. We must ask 
you for a sum beyond your usual appropria- 
tion, for there is not a Christian church 
building nearer than twenty miles. 



Hebron, III. — Our church proper is 
two and one-half miles in the country. The 
drift of change and removal is towards the 
town. When I came here five and one-half 
years ago, I had but one family in the town. 
Now I have seventeen, with fifty-two mem- 
bers. The parsonage proper is in town. 
The town is growing very fast, and the Ger- 
mans are buying up the farms while the old 
farmers are moving to town. I believe that 
if we had not commenced services in town 
at night and commenced building the chapel 
(for which aid is asked) there would not 
have been ability in the country church to 
maintain services out there much longer. 
Now we have a new spirit and a little bit of 
rivalry that is healthful and I have larger 
congregations there than ever. 



products, orchards and small fruits in great 
abundance, it will always be the centre of a 
considerable population. 

In the mountains, from two to four miles 
away, coal is found in unlimited supply for 
rail shipment or local use. Manufactures 
may therefore be increasingly expected. 

The great elevation of the Cripple Creek 
region, which is from twenty to forty miles 
north and connected by railroad, compels 
family residence at a lower point, and Flor- 
ence is especially favorable for this purpose 
and steadily grows in desirable population. 

The climate here is admirable in its mild- 
ness, and for invalids with pulmonary 
affections presents special excellence. As a 
result we have a large population of those 
who are here because they have to be — not 
a few of them our best Christian workers, 
giving us really an exceptionally capable 
corps of members. Most of these, how- 
ever, are of very limited financial ability — 
some of them, indeed, dependent often upon 
the church for common supplies. 



Florence, Colo. — This town is but a 
few years old. Located in the unusually 
fruitful valley of the Arkansas, with farm 



Warsaw, Mo. — You will notice that the 
church is an old one. Before the war it was 
a church of some importance. We have 
had no building since the war, as at that 
time it was sold and the money went, I 
think, to the Jefferson City Church. Since 
then the town has been left outside the 
march of progress and the church's exist- 
ence has been hardly more than nominal. 
There is now said to be a good prospect for 
growth. The Ladies' Aid Society are giv- 
ing constant assistance. In its behalf one of 
the ladies writes as follows: "You may 
know of our struggle to build a little church 
in Warsaw. We have only twenty-five 
members, and mostly persons of small 
means. Thus it is a great task for us to 
raise the necessary money. One of our 
ladies has composed and had published 
' The Osage Valley March,' a copy of 
which we mail you with this. This music 
is to be sold at twenty-five cents per copy as 
a benefit to said church fund. We very 
earnestly appeal to you to aid us in dispos- 
ing of this music by giving us the names of 
a few persons who might permit us to mail 
to them four to eight copies for disposal. 
The music is a bright little teaching piece 
and well worth the money to any one who 
plays. ' ' 



FREEDMEN. 



OUR LETTER FILE. 

A brother, laboring to build up a school in Ar- 
kansas, without other aid from our Board than his 
own salary, writes : 

We are in the building, but without ceil- 
ing or windows. Will the Board please 
advance the remainder of my salary for this 
year to the amount of eighteen dollars per 
month. This will be close living, but I will 
do that, believing the Lord will soon send 
help. Please send the amount at once, as 
we canuot get credit for brick to build flues. 
One of the members of our Board of 
Trustees — a colored man — has given us his 
services, and also the lumber to build a 
blacksmith shop, and harness shop, which 
will be built on the grounds by the first of 
January. It is true I am forced to live 
very close, but this is a life of a true mis- 
sionary. I cannot see my people suffer, and 
not try to help them, although I have to 
suffer with them. A young man came to 
us Monday who wishes to stay with us at 
least three years, and work his way through 
school. He has only fifteen dollars to pay. 
He is also poorly clad for the winter. But 
I think of this text and can turn none away : 
John 7: 37. I really think that God has 
given me these people that are so anxious to 
come. Therefore I should in no wise turn 
them out. 

Help us to help eacli other, Lord, 

Each other's cross to bear, 
Let each his friendly aid afford 

And feel each other's care. 

I cannot sing this verse, and then say to 
them that have no money, " You cannot 
come." 

Another brother, who has been very sick, but on 
whose heart the burden of his people rests, writes : 

I am truly glad to say to you, thanks to 
the Lord, that I am recovering from my 
illness through the mercies of God. We 
are trying to shelter ourselves from the cold. 
On my work I have not any building for my 
people to worship in, and I hardly know 
what to do. This year they have bought a 
fine lot at a station, but are unable to build. 



So I wish to ask a favor of the Board, in 
the name of the Lord. Please send me the 
sum of $25, and deduct the same out of my 
salary, at the rate of S3 per month, until 
the same is returned, in order that I may 
take this amount and help build a little 
shelter for my people Dear brethren, 
please give this matter your serious atten- 
tion. Believe it is a matter of life and, 
death. I am willing to suffer in order that 
my people may live. I have nothing to 
mortgage for the money ; only I will remain 
in the cause of Christ, and the service of 
the Board. 

The brother who writes the following "will not 
consent to be discouraged even in the face of diffi- 
culties that would depress a less hopeful soul: 

I received the $150 granted by the Board 
to pay the last note due on the new church 
lot, and the matter was attended to at once. 
On this note interest was due to the amount 
of $28.60. My people were to raise the 
interest last night, and only raised one dollar 
of the amount. When I received the §150 
from you, I went and had it credited on the 
note, and also had the same credited upon 
the bond for title. So just as soon as they 
raise the interest I will then have the deed 
made and will send it to the Board. Many 
thanks for what you have done for us. 
May the Master crown your labors with 
unbounded success, by sending you that 
which will supply your great need, in push- 
ing forward the noble work which you 
represent. 

I have about worked up a new church 

seven miles above , aad hope we may 

organize it into a church before long. We 
cannot stop our work because the Board has 
not the money with which to put new men 
on the field. I feel that the ministers on 
the field should not stop until they can count 
at least one church in each county in every 
State. I have often carried this matter to 
the Master, and the only answer I can get 
is the need of consecrated ministers and 
more of them; more churches over the field 
and then, and not till then, will we redeem 

57 



58 



OUR LETTER FILE. 



[January, 



our State. Our people are on wheels, and 
we must have a church here aud there to 
save them. 

A brother who labors in a large and growing 
<3ity in the South, where his people are making 
great sacrifices to secure for themselves a much 
needed church home, writes : 

Enclosed please find deed. We are very 
grateful to the Board for the warm interest 
manifested in us. We shall endeavor to 
show our appreciation by pushing the work 
to completion. Our plan now is, to concen- 
trate all our forces, and if possible build 
the basement. We shall have an ' ' ingath- 
ering " of what we have individually gotten 
together, on the thirtieth of this month. 
We hope it will be sufficient to complete the 
basement and allow us to move out of the 
hall into it, and save the Board further 
expense. Our people are all working and 
putting forth their best efforts. Each fam- 
ily in the face of these hard times will give 
$10 at a great sacrifice. We shall write 
you after the 30th what we have done, and 
what we purpose to do. We trust you will 
continue to be interested in this field, be- 
cause it has the opportunity of doing so much 
for our people in the South. 

Another brother pleads for continuance of sup- 
port where the Board for economy's sake thought 
of giving up the work. 

It troubles me day and night that men 
will not love the Lord Jesus Christ, and join 
the Church faster ; but should we give up 
this work because we have so few additions ? 
I think not ; one may sow and another reap. 
This Church is as helpless as the babes of 
Egypt and Bethlehem were. Now I cannot 
remain here and support my family without 



your aid. If I could I would. We have 
the church here that will grow after a while 
in membership. Please save the children, 
and do not put them to death ! Do what 
you will with me, but save the children to 
our Church. I have had the roof which 
was blown oft' put back upon the church. I 
myself am in debt $40 for it. I do not 
know just what I will do to pay it; but I 
know this — all things work together for 
good to them that love God. If I do not 
work enough, please save the church by 
sending a man who will work more. Please 
save the church and do not cut it off. 

Another brother, after living for several years in 
a miserable hut, rejoices at last over the fact that 
he has moved into his new manse : 

We fail of words to express our thank- 
fulness to the Board for all it has done for 
our field. Through the kind providence of 
God we were enabled to move into the par- 
sonage last Wednesday evening. It is a 
building 18 x 28 feet, two stories high; 
three rooms on the upper floor, and two on 
the lower floor, with halls; an adjoining 
shed, 12 x 19 feet, with kitchen and study. 
It is a comfortable and convenient house. 
Our people are in a very needy condition ; 
thus the whole responsibility of erecting fell 
on me. I did not fail to labor with my 
hands from beginning to end. Thanking 
God for bringing me through thus far, and 
trusting him for the future, I hope the way 
may open to finish paying expenses. Now 
we certainly feel like working with pleasure. 
We opened school last week and have en- 
rolled forty-two scholars. Through our 
school last year about sixteen were added to 
the Church on profession of faith. Pray 
for God's blessing to rest upon us this year. 



—The Commissioner of Education, W. T. Har- 
ris, gives these statistics in a recent issue of Edu- 
cation : The number of cities within the United 
States containing 8000 inhabitants and upward 
was in 1790 only 6 ; in 1840 the number was 
44 ; in 1890 it had increased to 443. The urban 
population in this country in 1790 was one in 
thirty of the population ; in 1840 it had increased 
to one in twelve ; in 1890 to one in three. But 
if we count the towns on the railroads that are 
made urban by their close connection with the 
large cities and the suburban districts, it is safe 
to say that now one-half the population is urban. 



" My pastor's discourses are not very brilliant," 
said an intelligent lady, " but his daily life is a 
sermon all the week." The " living epistle " of 
Paul was as sublime and convincing as any words 
that fell from his lips on the hill of Mars ; for Jesus 
Christ lived in him. Our people look at us when 
out of the pulpit to discover what we mean when 
we are in our pulpits. Piety is power. Your 
aim is to produce Christian character, and what 
argument so strong, so constant, so pervasive, so 
heart reaching as the beautiful example of a life 
copied even imperfectly after Jesus Christ? — Theo- 
dore L. Ouyler. 



Young People's Christian Endeavor. 



"The book to read," said Dr. McCosh, " is not 
the one that thinks for you but the one that makes 
you think." 

* 

There are in the city of New York 6777 mem- 
bers of Christian Endeavor societies. In numbers 
the Presbyterians lead. 

The Moderator of the General Assembly has a 
stirring New Year message in our pages this month 
for the young people of the Presbyterian Church. 

* * 
* 

Plans that have been successfully tried are re- 
ported in our pages called " Presbyterian Endea- 
vorers." They are sure to stimulate others to new 
endeavor. 

* 

An Endeavorer in the Northwest Territories re- 
ports to the Golden Rule : "I am now in missionary 
work among the Indians, as a result of the mission- 
ary rally at the Boston Convention." 

A creche, where parents may leave their children 
while they are at work, is conducted by a Christian 
Endeavor Society in Toronto. These same En- 
deavorers have opened a public reading room in 
the church building. 

* 

The Presbyterian Christian Endeavor Manual 
contains suggestive thoughts on the weekly topics, 
practical plans of work, helpful counsels, as well as 
a compact description of the nature, characteris- 
tics, growth and history of Christian Endeavor. 
Our young people will find it a useful and satisfac- 
tory handbook. 

* * 
* 

The late Dr. Jowett once expressed the opinion 
that we shall come in the future to teach almost en- 
tirely by the use of biography. Certain it is that 
this is a most attractive method of study to-day. 
Some who have taken up the Christian Training 
Course find that the biographical method awakens 
new interest in the work of missions. 



A Christian Endeavor Society in Scotland, as 
reported in the Free Church Monthly, purchased a 
calf for £3. A young lady member living in the 



country took charge of it, and the society provided 
the necessary outlay of '-"-, 10s. The animal was 
sold after a few months for £8, 10s , and the whole 
amount was handed over to the Livingstonia 
Mission. 

What prayer does for the Christian is forcibly 
expressed in these lines by Archbishop Trench : 

Lord, what a change within us, one short hour 
Spent in thy presence will prevail to make — 
What heavy burdens from our bosoms take— 

What parched grounds refresh as with a shower. 

We kneel, and all around us seems to lower : 
We rise, and all, the distant aud the near, 
Stands forth in suuny outline, brave and clear. 

We kneel, how weak, we rise, how full of power ; 

Why, therefore, should we do ourselves this wrong, 

Or others, that we are not always strong, 
That we are ever overborne with care, 
Anxious or troubled, when with us is prayer, 

And joy and strength and courage are with thee? 

* 

A few young ladies in a Philadelphia Presbyte- 
rian church, wishing to share with their poorer 
neighbors some of the love and good cheer of the 
Christmas season, began thirteen years ago by 
distributing twelve baskets of provisions. The 
work has developed so that now fifty such baskets 
are used each year. Each family is personally 
visited, delicacies for the sick as well as coal and 
clothing are distributed when needed, rents are 
supplemented aud much kindly sympathy and 
advice given. And yet so modestly and unobtru- 
sively has this beautiful work been carried on that 
very few members of the church knew of its ex- 
istence. 

*** 

Pastor Caruthers, of Delmont. Pa., has frequent- 
ly asked, when making an address to young peo- 
ple, ''How many in the audience can name the 
countries in which their own denomination is en- 
gaged in foreign missionary work ?" Except in 
a single instance, the largest proportion of affirma- 
tive replies was nine in an audience of more than 
three hundred. He makes this suggestion : That 
those who are beginning to learn of t lie work of 
the Presbyterian Church commit the names in 
geographical order, thus — Chinese and Japanese 
in America, Mexico, Guatemala, South America, 
Africa, Syria. Persia. India. Siam and Laos. China. 
Korea. Japan. 

5!) 



60 



1897 AND THE YOUNG PEOPLE OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. [January,. 



CATECHISM FOE JANUARY. 

Man's chief end is to glorify God and to enjoy 
him forever. 

The Word of God, which is contained in the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, is the 
only rule to direct us how we may glorify and 
enjoy him. 

The Scriptures principally teach what man is to 
believe concerning God, and what duty God re- 
quires of man. 

God is a spirit, infinite, eternal and unchange- 
able in his being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, 
goodness and truth. 

1897 AND THE YOUNG PEOPLE OF THE 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

^T^' JOHN LINDSAY WITHROW, D.D., LL.D. 

Was the poet's thought ever so true — "Life is 
real, life is earnest"— as it is now? With ongoing 
years everything human intensifies. In many par- 
ticulars and respects it intensifies prodigiously. 
The sluggard has only the snail for his companion. 
The lubber and laggard are lost out of sight in the 
race for place, progress and power. It is those 
who are quick-witted, light of foot, fervent, self- 
denying and determined who win the prizes and 
help push the world's interests upwards. There 
are those who say that young people of the present 
have not the opportunities that were open to begin- 
ners a hundred years ago, because we have reach- 
ed the stage of crowding when ' ' struggle for ex- 
istence "and "the survival of the fittest" are prac- 
tical and painful realities in the realms of enter- 
prise and endeavor. True it is that our day is un- 
promising for the poke who prefers his bed to the 
workbench, books, or whatever other thing he 
should set about using with the dawning of the day. 
There are far too many young people who consider 
themselves put upon if required to work more than 
six or seven hours for a day. Such should never ex- 
pect to rise higher than humble stations of service. 
They are not developing leadership who dawdle 
rather than drive. There is ardent discussion of 
ways and means for meeting the industrial exigency 
which the increase of labor-saving machines has 
evolved. : We produce more than can be sold ; and 
that shuts down mills and turns men out of doors. 
Different, and some dreadful remedies are recom- 
mended ; fiat money for financial reform, and co- 
operative instead of competitive methods of com- 
merce, all under the paternal direction of govern- 
ment. But unless those who propose such schemes 
are bad, bats were never blinder at noonday than 
these are to the best interests of man. They think, 



or say they foresee in such a reorganization a bliss- 
ful time when no one will need to work more than 
two or three hours for a day's wage. Inquire among^ 
the most illiterate, debased and depraved tribes and 
peoples on all the planet and the lower you descend 
the less will they be found to labor. It is not less 
work that will do the world good The needed 
thing is, a development of new wants. Imagine 
the result if all the labor-saving machines of the 
present had been suddenly introduced and set going 
the morning after the adoption of the Constitution 
of the United States. There would not have been 
hand labor enough left to occupy more than a paltry 
percentage of the people. Our respected ancestors 
could not have used but a very small part of the 
plethoric product which must have piled up on all 
sides. But with passing years new wants were 
created and so we have got on until now. But to- 
day production has overrun consumption ; and the 
only healthful and happy method of relief is in dis- 
covering additional occupations, and thus develop- 
ing new wants. We must all be kept at work or 
the old adage will come true, that Satan finds work 
for idle hands to do. 

And for this stern and stirring emergency a wide 
door of opportunity stands ajar for young people to 
enter. Ever since the angels sang to the shepherds 
and the star stood over the place where the young 
child lay, the world has been growing more hospit- 
able toward the young. And to the extent that 
Immanuel has become redeemer and ruler in any 
part of the earth the possibilities of youth have broad- 
ened until in our age and hour almost everything 
goes your way. They used to say : ' ' Children should 
be seen, not heard." Now the ear is quickest to 
hear what the children say. Young men crowd 
the older, so that a gray beard and bald head has 
hardly standing room, in either business or profes- 
sional affairs. The spirit of youth is imperial in 
state and in church. As much deference is shown 
to it as was in the day of Rehoboam. And with 
that we find no fault, if there is only very much 
more conscience and character than was in the 
council chamber of Solomon's son. The country 
and the Church need the courage, the faith and the 
fervor that are current in the hot blood of late boy- 
hood and early manhood. In the Church the 
young can do much more than the older to keep the 
leader alive. The writer of this has a throng of 
young folks around him, fervently interested in 
various Christian activities, and his ardor is much 
due to their kindling influence. 

Does some one evince a disposition to distrust 
you young people of our Church ? Then change 
such a disposition by proving your denominational 
loyalty as clearly as your Christian consecration. 



1897.] 



CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR IN MADISON, WIS. — AN ITALIAN Y. P. C. K. 



61 



In an experience of thirty years of pastoral work I 
never have encountered the first, least inclination 
in young Presbyterians to act independently of 
their elders. But more than negative goodness is 
needed for this great hour and auspicious day. 
Positive and aggressive and enthusiastic cooperation 
is called for, with all the emphasis that pressing 
need can lay upon the call. And it need not de- 
tract the least from Christian loyalty for us to 
make new and deeper vows of denominational fealty 
for the coming great year of 1897. 



CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR IN MADISON, 
WIS. 

MARY ELIZABETH YOUNG. 

Last spring the Christian Endeavor societies of 
Madison took a new and, perhaps, unique step in 
the field of Christian activity. Dr. Philip W. 
Ayres, Secretary of the Charity Organization 
Society of Chicago, lectured before the students of 
the University of Wisconsin, at Madison, upon the 
need of wide-awake, intelligent workers in the asso- 
ciated charity work of great cities. His lectures 
were earnest and practical, and were listened to by 
a large body of students. Dr. Ayres stated that he 
was to conduct a summer class in Chicago, where 
those who attended would gain an intelligent 
knowledge of the work to be done and the forces 
engaged in it ; and where they would learn the 
value and need of concerted action on the part of 
those who would be in the highest sense char- 
itable. 

One of the students of the university had already 
agreed to give an illustrated lecture before the 
Presbyterian Christian Endeavor society on 
"Children of the Slums." The idea was after- 
wards conceived to try and secure funds through 
this lecture to establish a scholarship whereby one 
of the university students should be sent to Chicago 
to attend Dr. Ayres' class. The matter was laid 
before the local union by the pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church, with the result that they joined 
heartily in the project, and "The Christian En- 
deavor Society Scholarship of the University of 
Wisconsin" enabled a bright, Christian young 
woman to start in what she hopes to make her life 
work. 

This union of the religious and educational forces 
of a community is one of the most encouraging 
signs of the times. The writer believes that this 
cooperation on the part of church and stnte, in 
a field which at once demands the attention of 
patriot, philanthropist and Christian, will hasten 
the coming of the kingdom for which we daily 
pray. 




Rev. Francesco Pesaturo. 
AN ITALIAN Y. P. S. C. E. 

P. A. CAVICCHIO. 

The young people of the First Italian Presby- 
terian Church of Newark, N. J., organized a 
Christian Endeavor society, March 2, 1896, with 
ten members. This number has now increased to 
twenty-eight active and four associate members. 

The constitution was translated from English 
into Italian by the pastor, Rev. Francesco Pesaturo 
and Mr. Albert Treichler. 

The meetings are very interesting to both young 
and old, especially to new-comers who, with few 
exceptions, are Catholic, and have been brought 
up in ignorance of the gospel. 

This society meets with a great deal of opposition 
from the Italian Roman Catholic priests, but this 
only serves to encourage the young people to work 
harder for " Christ and the Church." 

Much credit is due to the Rev. Francesco Pesa- 
turo for the success of this society. 

This is the first Christian Endeavor society ever 
organized in an Italian Church. It intends to 
communicate with the churches of Italy and the 
United States in an endeavor to form new societies 
and supply them with the constitution. 
¥ 

The conversion of the world is suggested as the 

subject of prayer during the month of January, lor 
the World's Christian Endeavor Prayer Chain. 
Pray that the beginning of the New Year may 
witness the beginning of a universal revival of re- 
ligion. Pray for a great manifestation of the power 
of the Holy Spirit throughout the world, and that 
the unsaved everywhere may be turned to Christ. 



62 C. E. IN BINGHAMTON, N. Y. — GRACIOUS HABITS — THE BOYS' BRIGADE. [January, 




CHKISTIAN ENDEAVOR IN BINGHAMTON, 
N. Y. 

The Christian Endeavor Union of Bingham- 
ton, N. Y., writes Mr. George J. Michelbach, 
the president, cares for twelve Fresh Air children 
from New York each summer. The expense for 
the same is borne by the different societies that 
compose the Union. 

Bimonthly public meetings, held in some one of 
the large central churches, are addressed by promi- 
nent Christian workers. The purpose of the meet- 
ings is to show the importance of Endeavor work, 
and to arouse enthusiasm. 

During the fall and winter months members of 
the Union hold evangelistic services in the neigh- 
boring towns and villages, which are productive of 
great good. 

¥ 

GRACIOUS HABITS. 

Miss Ruth L. Hulin, of Niles, Mich., having 
noticed the disinclination on the part of some young 
people to attend the regular church services, and 
believing that such attendance is necessary to in- 
telligent Christian progress, writes us as follows : 

Is it not just possible that in our desire to avoid 
monotony and sameness, we become too restless and 
anxious for unusual methods ; forgetting that in 
cheerful, prompt attendance upon the regular and 
established church services we are forming habits 
that will be a "strong tower" to us all our lives? 
Steady growth in any one direction is not secured 
by change. An eminent divine has said, " Pure 
religion is simply gracious habits ;" and while we 
earnestly and assiduously cultivate this gracious 
habit of regular church attendance let us do it gra- 
ciously. Let us declare that we will find something 
of love and helpfulness at every service. Look for 
it, pray for it, expect it, and we shall get it. 

In a similar strain Dr. F. E. Clark has written in 

The Golden Rule : 

What is our whole system of Christian Endeavor 
if it is not a series of unconscious steps up invisible 
mountains? The prayer meetings, in a sense, are 
routine affairs ; fulfilling the pledge, in our dis- 
couraged moments, may seem like a perfunctory 
obligation ; the committees, like the lifeless parts of 
a machine ; but one great object of the society is to 
form habits of well-doing, habits of confession, of 
devotion, of service. Walking itself, after a while, 
becomes an unconscious act, and moral hill-climb- 
ing an unconscious habit. 

¥ 
THE BOYS' BRIGADE. 

The committee to which was referred certain 
matters relating to the Boys' Brigade reported at 
the last General Assembly that great good has been 
realized from the employment of this agency in 
many of our congregations ; that many Presbyte- 
rian ministers hold it in high esteem, and regard it 



1897.] 



THE CHILDREN'S IN-TITITK. 






as a very helpful instrumentality in conducting the 
work of the Church. 

The Rev. William A. Reid, Ph.D., who has had 
an experience of several years with the Boys' Bri- 
gade, both in Scotland, Canada and the United 
States, writes as follows : 

The elements of success lie almost entirely in the 
officers. They need to be Christian men who love 
boys and who will not spare any trouble to reach 
and influence them. To use a colloquial expres- 
sion, the officers must "have a way" with hoys, 
and yet be firm, rarely threaten, always truthfully 
keep their promises, seek variety in the work, and 
always remember that boys will be boys. 

Above all, success depends on continual insistence 
on the Christian aim of the Boys' Brigade. Let it 
be clearly known that drill, games, campaigning, 
are only means to reach the boys for Christ. At 
the same time let it be made clear that drill and 
baseball and football and skating and such like are 
right things for Christian boys to engage in, if they 
do not quarrel nor swear nor neglect their school 
duties or their work. 

Wisely managed, the Boys' Brigade never fails. 
I am thoroughly in favor of it, and as time goes on 
I believe in it as a help for boys more and more. 

¥ 
THE CHILDREN'S INSTITUTE. 

An artist who had painted a Scriptural scene 
was much praised by his fellow-artists for the 
beautiful faces he had placed on the canvas. 
"Where did you get those angel faces?" they 
asked. Pointing to a group of ragged Italian 
children, the painter replied, " I got my angel 
faces there. ' ' 

A Presbyterian pastor in Philadelphia made a 
visit to that portion of the city where most of the 
60,000 Italians dwell. He went through the 
narrow courts and alleys with their reeking tene- 
ments and tumble-down rookeries where the 
sunlight seldom falls and pure air is unknown. 
Then in a sermon he described what he had seen. 
This led a Christian Endeavorer in the congrega- 
tion to go and see for herself that she might devise 
some practical method of relief. In an atmos- 
phere of moral and spiritual degradation she 
found little children whose faces the spirit and 
love of Christ can transform and make beautiful. 
Those who possess most of the spirit of him who 
" sees with other, larger eyes than ours," are al- 
ways able to discern beneath an unpromising ex- 
terior the possibilities of manhood and woman- 
hood. 

Esteeming it a privilege as well as a Christian 
duty to walk nearer to "the other half," lending 
to their darkness and gloom some of the bright- 
ness heaven has given us, this Endeavorer began 
the work which is now known by the name at 
the head of this article. 



Afltok 


, >_- 


1 X 



One purpose of the Children's Institute is to 
make the unhappy child happy. The group on 
the opposite page represents the Italian boys and 
girls while enjoying a delightful outing in the 
country given them by the Christian Endeavor so- 
ciety at Wyncote, Pa. 

At present the services of teachers are given 
without compensation. It is hoped that as the 
work develops a regular night school may be held, 
^vitk kindergarten, boys' and girls' clubs, etc. 

Believing that "the children of to-day are the 
nation of to-morrow," the founder of this enter: 
prise and those associated with her in the work are 
bringing to homes of wretchedness and ignorance 
and superstition the light and blessing of the gos- 
pel of Jesus Christ. 

Mr. H. L. Pound, of Wyncote, Pa., is treasurer 
of the Children's Institute. 




64 



A "GAME OF MISSIONARIES. 



[January, 




Through the courtesy of the F. H. Kevell Com- 
pany we present the face of that heroic missionary 
to the New Hebrides, John G. Paton. The fasci- 
nating story of his life, as related in the autobiog- 
raphy, may now be read by a still larger number, 
since the two volumes are issued in one, at a re- 
duced price, as noticed on another page. 



A "GAME OF MISSIONARIES." 

A children's mission band in central Pennsylva- 
nia has combined study, work and entertainment in 
making a game of missionaries similar to a game of 
authors. The opportunity for study was given 
when the leader put into the hands of each boy and 



girl a blank paper with a different missionary's 
name at the top of each one, and the following 
questions with space for written answers : 

Where was he born ? 

From what society, to what country and at what date was 
he sent out ? 

Mention two events in his life, or two things that he did. 

Name the place where he is now. if living, or the place and 
date of his death. 

The information was nearly all found in files of 
The Church at Home and Abroad, Woman's 
Work, Over Sea and Land and Missionary Review. 
From the written answers, after revision, cards 
were printed for the game and the children found 
more work and profit to their treasury in arranging 
the games and selling them. 



1897.] 



CHRISTIAN TRAINING COURSE!. 






CHRISTIAN TRAINING COUESE. 
For Young People's Societies and Other Church Organizations. 

[Prepared by the Rev. Hugh 1!. MacCauley and the Rev. Albert B. Robinson, and approved l>y General Afl» mhly, May, 
1896. See Outline B, witb Helpful Hints, in the August issue ol The Chubi ii a I HOME aWD Abboad, pp 1 16, 147.] 



General Remarks. 

1. Certainly now is a good time to do something for 
the Young People, and begin this training work. 
Why not get ready and begin in January ? Do six 
months good work before summer. Is the litera- 
ture too expensive? Let us see : Speer's Man Christ 
Jesus, sixty cents; Smith's Short History of Missions, 
eighty cents; The Church at Home and Abroad, 
$1.00. If your society thinks this is too much, 
then do this : Get subscriptions for Speer's book at 
the sixty cents ; have the society purchase two 
copies of Smith's Short History for the Training 
Course Committee's use, and subscribe for two 
copies of The Church at Home and Abroad, 
one for the Committee's use, to be cut up if neces- 
sary, and the other for the society's copy of the mag- 
azine, to be kept on file. But by all means begin. 

2. The material of this Course will furnish all 
that is needed at the Monthly Missionary Concert. 
Why not have young people meet with the adults 



Outline B. Programme No. 7, January, 1897. 

1. Hymn. Pastor to open meeting. 

2. Praver. Biblical Leader in charge. 

3. Biblical, Jesus, Study VII— Some Active and Passive 
Traits of His Character, Part 2. 

Required reading Speer's The Man Christ Jesus, pp. 87- 
105 ; Questions 32-37 on pp. 247, 248. 

Ques. 32. How did he treat bis enemies? Ans. pp. 87, 88. 
Ques. 33. What is tenderness? Wherein did Jesus show it? 
pp. 89, 90. Ques. 34. What special word or treatment had he 
for the poor ? for children ? for widows ? for the bereaved ? 
pp. 90-94. Ques. 35. What were the elements and evidences 
of Christ's courage ? pp. 95-98. Ques. 36. Was he a patient 
man or impatient ? p. 95. Ques. 37. Illustrate his knowledge 
of the weather and nature, pp. 99-104. Let the Biblical 
Leader look up the Scripture texts and give out a few impor- 
tant ones, the reference being marked on a slip of paper. 
Read the poetry. Sing hymns on forgiveness, mercy, care. 

4. Hi inn. The Historical Leader in charge. 

5. Historical, The Development of the Missionary Idea, 
Study VII— Patrick and Ireland ; Missions in the Fifth Cen- 
tury. 

Required reading. Smith's Short History of Missions, pp. 
59-64. Britain a Missionary Fountain, p. 59. The Early 
British Church, p. 60. Gildas, the Wise (A.D. 520), and 
other early workers, pp. 60, 61. Ireland, " the Isle of Saints," 
" the University of the West," p. 62. St. Patrick, the first 
and greatest of Ireland's missionaries (395-493). pp. 62-65. 
Sing "There's a voice from Macedonia," "I gave my life 
for thee," "Take thou my hand," etc. 

fi. Hymn. The Missionary Leader in charge. 

7. Prayer. 

8. Missionary, Modern Missionary Heroes, Study VI — 
Robert Morrison and China. 

Required reading. The Church at Home and Abroad, 
January, 1897, on Robert Morrison, pp. 68-70; also Questions 
on Robert Morrison, p. 73. Sing hymns on patience, etc. 

9. Prayer. 

10. Hymn. 

11. Dismissal. 



on that night, and then have the second programme 
of the month two weeks later, and have the adult- 
with the young people and all stay a while for a 
shortsocial with inexpensive refreshment-. Try it. 

3. Junior leaders are looking for a Course for 
Juniors. We say, take tbis Course, just as it 
comes for the Seniors, but omit the harder part-. 
and shorten the prograrntue to one hour, and you 
will find some food that will make the Juniors 
grow. 

4. There is no reason why five minutes could 
not be spent on the Catechism Drill either at the 
weekly C. E. prayer meeting or at the Training 
Course meeting. See this suggestion in December 
number, page 465. It is also to be kept in mind 
that our Outline A includes the whole Catechism 
for its Biblical department. 

5. The headquarters for the literature required 
is the Foreign Mis>ions Library, 156 Fifth avenue, 
New York. Enclose two-cent stamp for complete 
circular of Outline B, present year. 



Outline B. Programme No. 8, January, 1897. 

1. Hymn. The Pastor to open the meeting. 

2. Prayer. Biblical Leader in charge. 

3. Biblical, Jesus, Study VIII— Some Active and Passive 
Traits of His Character, Part 3. 

Required reading. Speer's The Man Christ Jesus, pp. 105- 
119 ; Questions 38-40 on p. 248. 

Ques. 38. What traits of character were combined in him. 
Ans 1 Thought, p. 105 ; 2. Action, p. 106 ; 3 Feeling, p. 106 ; 4. 
Teaching, p. 107; 5 Taciturnity, p. 108; 6. Discernment, p. 
108; 7. Traits difficult to com Line, dependent aud indepen- 
dent, doing and suffering, majesty and humility, joyousness 
and seriousness, pp. 1U8-116; 8. Jewish and Universal, pp. 
117,118. Ques. 39. Was he a happy man? p. 117. Ques. 
40. Was he a meek man ? p. 114. There are many hymns 
on these traits, thus, " One there is above all others," " Je- 
sus, whom angel hosts adore," " What grace, O Lord, and 
beauty shone," "O Master, let me walk with thee." It would 
be well to sing one for each trait, perhaps. 

4. Hymn. The Historical Leader in charge. 

5. Historical, Development of the Missionary Idea, Study 
VIII— Columba and Scotland ; Missions in the Sixth Cen- 
tury. 

Required reading. Smith's Short History <>f Missions, pp. 
65-76. Columba, pp. 65-70. The Culdees, p. 67. The Roman 
English Church, p. 71. Pope Gregory ; " Not angles, but 
angels ;" Augustiu, the Missionary, pp. 71-73 The British 
Church absorbed by the Papal, pp! 73-75. other workers, p. 
76. Two beautifulhymns of Gregory's are Morning Praise, 
"Behold the shade of night is now receding," and Evening 
Praise, '' 'Mid evening shadows let us all be watching.'' 

6. Prayer. 

7. Hymn. 

8 Dismissal. 



SUGGESTIONS. 

Our subject for the Historical department might be entitled " The Coming of the Kingdom." While 
it is well to have lively, popular hymns, be sure to have " the great hymns." The Church Hymnal is 
the best book for the Training Course. When the Society can't sing the hymn, have it as a solo or read 
it. Carefully scan the poetry in the text-book with a view to reading it. Our Programme 8 has no Mis- 
sionary Hero. This will give a place for the overflow from No. 7. Look at our January work — St. 
Patrick and St. Columba, Ireland and Scotland. Surely our "stout Presbyterians" will study this 
11 Presbyterian history, doctrine and polity." 



ee 



Presbyterian endeavorers. 



[January, 



PRESBYTERIAN ENDEAVORERS. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

The missionary committee of Trinity Presbyte- 
rian Endeavor society has devised a unique 
method of distributing missionary literature, 
which is thus described in the Golden Rule : 
Several leaflets bearing on the topic, and a bright 
story or two, are bound together in pasteboard 
covers, ribbon-tied. Eight or ten names are 
written on the back, and each member, when he 
has read the booklet, passes it on to the person 
whose name is next in order, the last one receiving 
it returning it to the committee, which places a 
new booklet in circulation. Several of these budgets 
of missionary information are now going the 
rounds of the society, and the plan promises help- 
ful results. 

Denver, Colo. 

The Active Member reports a Christian Endeavor 
missionary meeting, held November 15, in the 
South Broadway Presbyterian Church ; the time 
was divided into periods of ten minutes each. The 
first period was devoted to the most interesting 
phases of mission work in Siam, Mexico and China. 
During the next ten minutes interesting and thrill- 
ing experiences in the lives of missionaries were 
given. The last period was devoted to miscella- 
neous reports, one of which — a list of statistics — was 
made full of meaning and interest, as given by the 
society's vice-president. 
Chicago, III. 

The Christian Endeavor society of the First 
Presbyterian Church during the present year, as for 
the past two years, have taken the two-cent-a-week 
pledge for foreign missions. For the next year it 
is proposed to make the pledge five cents a week, 
three cents for home and two for foreign missions. 
The society has the nucleus for a circulating mis- 
sionary library. They also hope to have as circu- 
lating magazines for next year, The Church at 
Home and Abroad and Woman's Work, with 
perhaps another. 

This society is now giving a series of five 
socials. Course tickets are sold for fifty cents, the 
money therefrom being used to defray expenses of 
the entertainments. — E. C. R. 

A missionary social, held recently by the Belden 
Avenue Presbyterian Christian Endeavor society, 
was thus reported in the Interior: Each mem- 
ber of the missionary committee had gathered 
curios regarding a specified country, and for 
the evening was in charge of a missionary table, 
and gave all the information possible about the 
country. 

Detroit, nich. 

In addition to their prayer meeting before ser- 
vice on Sabbath evening, the Young People's 
Society of Christian Endeavor meets every Tues- 
day evening. One evening in the month is devoted 
to Bible study, another to parliamentary law and 
the direction of public meetings, another to the 
business of the society, and another to social gather- 
ings and entertainments. — Michigan Presbyterian. 



The Christian Endeavor Mission Circle of the 
Woodward Avenue Mission meets every other 



Tuesday evening. The chairman of the Missionary 
Committee of the Endeavor society is the presiding 
officer, and this committee arranges each pro- 
gramme, advising with the Musical Committee and 
that member at whose home the circle is enter- 
tained. The various mission fields are to be studied 
one after the other till the past history, the natural 
features, the customs, the people and efforts of mis- 
sionaries are thoroughly known. These facts are 
brought out by carefully prepared papers, by in- 
formal talks and occasionally (as last Tuesday 
evening, November 24, when a native Armenian 
was with us), by some worker from the field. Re- 
sponse to roll call is given by using some Bible 
verse that bears on missions. The whole programme 
is enlivened by instrumental music, so that we enjoy 
all the pleasure of an entertainment, the bene- 
fits of a missionary training school and the devo- 
tion of a religious service. We make no effort to 
make money in these meetings, but to secure new 
endeavorers and enlarge missionary interest. — F. 
G. E. 

Lansing nich. 

Mrs. Zimmerman, wife of the pastor of the 
Franklin Street Presbyterian Church, has been for 
two and one-half years superintendent of the 
Junior Endeavor society. At the first meeting she 
said: " Children, I have neither leisure, inclina- 
tion nor ability to come here once a week to enter- 
tain you. You can get entertainment elsewhere ; 
but if you want to meet to sing and pray and read 
the Bible, and talk about God and Jesus, I shall be 
glad to meet with you." Starting in this way, the 
interest has steadily increased. At a recent meeting 
when forty -six were present, forty- four took part — 
speaking, praying and reading the Scriptures. And 
now, of their own free will, many are asking to be 
received into the church, and some are bringing 
their parents with them. — A. S. Z. 

Tecumseh, nich. 

The Christian Endeavor society of the First 
Presbyterian Church gave an afternoon reception 
to the older members of the congregation, Novem- 
ber 13. The infirm ones were brought to the 
church and taken home in carriages. The church 
was prettily decorated, and easy-chairs and cush- 
ions were provided in abundance. A dainty 
luncheon was served. It would be hard to tell 
which enjoyed the afternoon more, the old people 
or the Endeavorers. — C. E. in TJie Golden Rule. 

Good Will, S. D. 

The Christian Endeavorers of the Church of 
Good Will, most of whom are connected with the 
Indian Mission School, have promptly forward- 
ed their contribution to the debt fund of the Board 
of Home Missions, and, better yet, have made it up 
to seventy-five cents per member instead of twenty- 
five. — H. P. C. in The Presbyterian. 

New Hartford, N. Y. 

The Christian Endeavor society in this ancient 
church (founded August 27, 1791— the oldest 
church in all central and western New York) is 
neither very large nor very vigorous. It preserves, 
however, a measurably healthy life, and it is beyond 
doubt doing good to its members. We are giving stat- 
edly, in connection with other societies in our pres- 



1897.] 



PRESBYTERIAN ENDEAVORERS. 



67 



bytery (Ctica), toward the support of Rev. Frank 

Oilman, at Hainan, China ; and also toward the 
support of Rev. Mr. Bilman, a home missionary. 

During the summer the society sends frequent 
contributions of flowers to the charitable institu- 
tions of Utica, and as often as possible boxes 
of flowers to New York city. 

Besides our Sunday evening prayer meeting, we 
have occasional social gatherings, some of these in 
union with the young people's societies of the 
Baptist and M. E churches in our village. A 
very cordial feeling exists between these societies. 

One of our needs is to enlist the activities of 
more of our young men. For this we are hoping 
and planning and praying. — 0. A. K. 

Troy, N. Y. 

The Music Committee of the Endeavor society in 
Memorial Presbyterian Church provides special 
music for the prayer meetings, and has a leader 
who stands near the pianist to lead the singing. 
Our Missionary Committee has pledged $20 for 
foreign missions. The society contributes also to 
the Synodical Aid Fund, the Board of Aid for 
Colleges and to city mission work. The young 
people hold a meeting at the County House once a 
month, and are active in many other good works. 
— W. B. 

Presbytery of Blairsville, Pa. 

The Christian Endeavor societies of the Presby- 
tery of Blairsville are supporting Rev. John B. 
Dunlap in Bangkok, Siam. They relieved the 
Foreign Board of his support more than a year ago 
and have had no difficulty in raising the required 
amount. Mr. Dunlap sends the bimonthly letter of 
the Siamese mission to all the societies, which is 
read with interest. — J. A. M. 

Greensburg, Pa. 

The missionary interest of the Christian Endeavor 
society of the Westminster Church of Greensburg 
has received a great impetus from the presence of 
Miss Martha E. Hunter, who returned from Barran- 
quilla last spring. Miss Hunter was one of the 
original members of this society at the time of its 
organization almost five years ago. In the fall of 
1892 she was appointed by the Board as missionary 
to the Republic of Colombia, South America. 
Last spring a severe attack of typhoid fever made 
her return to this country a necessity. She is en- 
tirely recovered and expects to sail for her field of 
labor December 19. During the summer she spoke 
to the society frequently and has been the instru- 
ment of quickening the interest of all the members. 
During the four years of her absence her name was 
called at every consecration meeting of the society, 
and was responded to by some one leading in prayer 
for her welfare and success. 

The society adopted shortly after its organization 
the " two-cent-a-week" method of missionary con- 
tributions. It has succeeded admirably. — /. A. M. 

Presbytery of Lehigh. Pa. 

As one result of the Italian mission in the Presby- 
tery of Lehigh, towards which the Christian En- 
deavor societies are liberal contributors, three 
Italian young men are under the care of the pres- 
bytery as students for the ministry. Two of them 
are in Princeton Theological Seminary, and one is in 



Mr. Bloody' s school at Mt. Sermon, Massachusetts. 

Two of these students did good missionary work 

during their vacation among the 50, Ltaliai 

Philadelphia.— A'. N. M'K. t in The Golden 11 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Gaston Junior Society inaugurated a nfcw 

method of working on Sunday. October 18th, foi 
the purpose of securing better work, and to keep 
all interested in specific work. It is undeniably 
true that the best work can only be Becured by a 
grouping of members of the same age. With a 
membership ranging in age from eight to fourteen 
years, four sections (A, B,C,D) have been formed 
to occupy certain portions of the room. From 
Section A, presidents will be selected. From 
Section B, secretaries. From Section C, vice- 
presidents, and Section D, treasurers. Each sec- 
tion will be divided into four parts for representa- 
tion on the Lookout. Prayer Meeting. Social and 
Missionary committees. Each section of each 
committee will have its chairman, and these 
chairmen will compose the general committees. — 
J. B. R. 

The money raised by the missionary committee 
of the Endeavor society in Oxford Presbyterian 
Church, Philadelphia, is about equally divided 
between home and foreign missions, and until 
two years ago it was our custom to hold an enter- 
tainment, the proceeds of which were devoted to 
mission work. We now have, however, a much 
better plan, namely that of voluntary subscriptions 
on the part of our members. We have found that 
when approached in a tactful and careful manner our 
members not only regard giving to missions a duty 
but a privilege. The results last year were quite 
satisfactory, and this year we hope to double our 
amount given to missions. I might mention that a 
wide-awake chairman is a necessary requisite for 
such work, as indeed the success of any committee 
depends on the life of its chairman and the support 
of individual members. — W. B. H. 

Mediapolis, la. 

The Juniors of the Presbyterian Church in 
Mediapolis have a scholarship in one of the Alaska 
mission schools. — The Iowa Endeavorer. 

Poynette, Wis. 

The two young men from Poynette Academy who 
are engaged in evangelistic work among the woods- 
men of Wisconsin are encouraged by the results of 
their effort. Beaching a small lumber town one 
stormy afternoon they first secured permission to 
hold a service in the schoolhouse ; then, after 
making the room comfortable, they started out 
through the slush and mud to invite the men to the 
service. Fifty-five responded, and were so much 
interested that they insisted on having another 
meeting on the following evening, when there were 
one hundred present, in another place, where 
about one hundred people gathered, the mission- 
aries were told that it was the tirst preaching ser- 
vice ever held in that village. A much needed 
Sunday-school was organized in one village. Dur- 
ing the first week in November nine religious ser- 
vices were held, and the gospel was preached to live 
hundred men, of whom twenty-two earnestly re- 
quested prayer. — A. T. 



68 



ROBERT MORRISON. 



[January, 




KOBERT MORRISON. 

MRS. ALBERT B. ROBINSON. 

[Prepared for the Christian Training Course. See Pro- 
gramme No. 7, Study vii, page 65]. 

Robert Morrison was the first to pave the way 
for the entrance of the gospel into China. He was 
born at Morpeth, Northumberland, January 5, 
1782. Three years later the family removed to 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where the father established 
himself in business as a manufacturer of lasts and 
boot trees. Both parents were devotedly pious, and 
carefully trained their eight children. Robert was 
tenderly attached to his mother, who was possessed 
of unusual force of character and intensity of relig- 
ious feeling. The faithful pastor, Mr. Hutton, also 
carefully taught the boy from the Scriptures. At 
the age of twelve he was able to recite Psalm 119. 
When fourteen he began to work as an apprentice 
in his father's shop, and, by diligence and attention 
to business, soon became his father's dependence in 
his failing health. He was converted when six- 
teen, and daily grew more and more interested in 
religious subjects. He now decided to enter the 
ministry, and with reference to this began to study 
systematically. Faithful as ever in business, he 
worked at his bench by day, with his open book 
before him, and also studied far into the night, and 
in eighteen months was well prepared to enter 
Hoxton Academy, London. A fellow-student said 
of him, " Others possessed more brilliant talents, a 
richer imagination, a more attractive delivery or 



more graceful manners, but .... there was no one 
who more happily concentrated in himself the three 
elements of moral greatness — the most ardent piety, 
indefatigable diligence, and devoted zeal in the 
best of causes." 

Here he began to study the condition of the 
non-Christian world, and his sense of duty led him 
to choose a missionary life. He offered himself 
to the directors of the London Missionary Society, 
was at once accepted and sent to the Missionary 
Academy at Gosport, where he was soon found to 
be well prepared for his work. " It had just been 
proposed that a mission to China should be be- 
gun, limiting its immediate objects to acquiring the 
language and translating the Bible as the basis of 
future work for the evangelization of that country." 

Mr. Morrison was appointed to this new enter- 
prise, and in August, 1805, went to London to study 
astronomy and medicine and to gain an elementary 
knowledge of the Chinese language. His prayer at 
that time was, that God would station him in 
that part of the mission field where the difficulties 
were the greatest, and to all human appearance the 
most unsurmountable. 

From Yong-Sam-Tak, a Cantonese, residing in 
London, he gained some knowledge of the spoken 
Chinese language. In the British Museum there 
was a manuscript harmony of the Gospels and the 
Pauline epistles translated into Chinese. Day 
after day this earnest young student was seen in 
the museum transcribing the entire manuscript, 
which formed the basis of his subsequent translation 



L897.J 



ROBERT MORRISON. 






of the New Testament. His study of the written 
language was further promoted by his copying the 
manuscript of a Latin and Chinese dictionary lent 
him by the Royal Society. 

It was at length decided that he should go to 
China, via America, and he was ordained and con- 
secrated to the missionary work January 8, 1807. 
No one was found to accompany him, and he 
wrote, " I am alone : to go alone. Oh ! that I may 
not be alone, but that the good hand of my God 
may be upon me, and that the angel of his 
presence go before me. What is my object in leav- 
ing friends and country ? . . . . The glory of 
God in the salvation of poor sinners." 

This first Protestant missionary to China sailed 
January 31, 1807, and after a stormy voyage 
reached New York April 20. During his short 
stay in this country he made many warm friends 
both in New York and Philadelphia, and obtained 
a letter from Secretary of State Madison to Mr. 
Carrington, United States Consul to Canton, solicit- 
ing his kind interest and protection for Mr. Morri- 
son. 

It is related that just before embarking on the 
Trident he stopped at* the counting house of the 
ship owner. At the conclusion of their busi- 
ness interview, the ship merchant turned to 
Morrison and said arrogantly: " And so, Mr. 
Morrison, you really expect that you will make an 
impression on the idolatry of the great Chinese 



empire 



No sir ! " said Morrison, with dignity ; 



'I expect God will." He sailed from New York 
the middle of May, and first landed at Macao, an 
island under the Portuguese government, ninety 
miles from Canton. After an interview with lead- 
ing men of the East India Company, he realized 
even more fully than before the difficulties attend- 
ing his enterprise. 

The Chinese, he was told, were prohibited from 
teaching the language to foreigners under penalty 
of death, and the East India Company forbade any 
one to remain in the country except for purposes of 
trade. At Macao he met Sir George Staunton, 
President of the Select Committee of the East 
India Company, who became his life-long friend 
and promised to assist him in the furtherance of his 
plans. He arrived at Canton September 8, 1807, 
and at once presented Mr. Madison's letter to the 
United States Consul, who welcomed him cordially 
and received him into his own house ; but he soon 
after removed to a more quiet, less expensive place 
in the basement of the French factory, whose super- 
cargoes treated him with the utmost kindness. 
Anxious to be as little expense as possible to the 
London Missionary Society, he exercised the most 
rigid economy, and, to attract less attention, 
adopted the dress, food, and habits of the na- 
tives. But he soon found that this only made 
him look singular in their eyes and aroused their 
suspicions. So he abandoned this plan and 
afterward dressed like the other foreigners in straw 
hat and white jacket. His health soon failed 
under the pressure of anxiety regarding his position, 
his many privations and his unremitting study 
without food and exercise. He therefore went to 
Macao for a change of air ; and here his depressing 
loneliness was relieved by a newly formed 
friendship with a Christian family, and later by 
his marriage with the daughter, Miss Morton. His 
difficulties had constantly increased till it became 



impossible for him to remain as a missionary in any 
p irt of China. He had just decided to leave the 
country altogether, and from a distant point 

(Penang) to continue hi> study of the language 
till the way should open for him to reenter China. 
On his wedding day, February 20, 1809, a 
great surprise afforded him immediate relief, 

when he received an invitation from the East India 
Company to become their official translator, with 
a yearly salary of five hundred pounds. This offer 
was accepted with the full approval of the directora 
of the London Missionary Society, and "decided hid 
destiny, and, to a great extent, the future of Chris- 
tian missions in China. He could now remain in 
the country protected by his position from the 
hostility of the natives and the Romish emissaries." 
While faithful in the discharge of his duties to the 
company, he could also work in a quiet way for the 
advancement of the cause to which he had conse- 
crated his life, and without being a tax upon the 
resources of the missionary society. Through all 
the subsequent years of his life he was never able 
to preach Christ publicly, but his godly example 
was in itself a sermon, and he privately labored 
with his teachers and servants, reading to them on 
the Sabbath the harmony of the gospels which he 
had transcribed in the British Museum. Then, 
as his knowledge of the language increased, he 
preached to a few Chinese in his own house behind 
locked doors. " These private ministrations gradu- 
ally became well known throughout the limited 
circle of natives connected with foreigners, and dur- 
ing a course of years gave his household a religious 
character, the more noticeable from its peculiarity." 
It was not till seven years after his arrival in China 
that he saw any fruit of his unobtrusive labors, 
when he secretly baptized the first Chinese convert 
to the Christian religion. This man remained 
faithful till his death five years later. Another 
convert, Leang Afa, became the first native 
preacher of the gospel. 

The imperial edict prohibiting the teaching of 
Christianity did not deter this dauntless man from 
his one great purpose, though he was obliged to be 
cautious in his movements. He was constantly 
hampered, also, by the fact that "the Direc- 
tors of the East India Company, both in Eng- 
land and in China, considered it a visionary en- 
terprise to attempt the conversion of the Chinese 
to Christianity, and also feared that such efforts 
might be opposed to the commercial interests of the 
company." He wrote to the society at home : "I 
must go forward, trusting in the Lord. " About 
this time he printed one thousand copies of the 
Acts of the Apostles, the Gospel of St. Luke, some 
tracts in explanation of gospel truth, and a cate- 
chism for inquirers. A grammar, printed at Ser- 
ampore in 1815, was of signal service to many 
who hitherto had found the acquisition of the 
knowledge too difficult for them." 

Sir George Staunton was removed from China in 
1812, and added responsibilities fell upon Mr. 
Morrison. The East India Company increased his 
salary one thousand pounds, which enabled him to 
contribute liberally in many directions to the cause 
he loved. In 1817 the University of Glasgow con- 
ferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 
token of their appreciation o{' his labors :is a 
philologist and a Christian teacher. Previous to 
this, in 1813, he gladly welcomed Mr. and Mr?. 



70 



ROBERT MORRISON. 



[January, 



William Milne from the home land, to share his 
labors. That Mr. Milne was a man of kindred 
spirit with Mr. Morrison is manifest from his 
words to the missionary committee at Aberdeen. 
"I am willing to be anything so that I can be in 
the work. To be a hewer of wood and a drawer of 
water is too great an honor for me when the Lord's 
house is building." The arrival of Mr. and Mrs. 
Milne caused great excitement among the English 
and Portuguese, and they were compelled in 
eighteen days to go from Macao to Canton ; 
but it soon became evident that they could not 
prosecute the work in China. Mr. Milne traveled 
through the Indian Archipelago in search of a 
suitable location for a mission. It was finally de- 
cided that he should settle at Malacca, where he 
could labor publicly and without opposition. From 
this point he was able to assist Dr. Morrison in 
his great work of translating the Bible and in carry- 
ing out his long cherished plans for an outside, 
central point for the Christian evangelization of 
China. In Dr. Morrison' s own words, ' ' He served 
with courage and fidelity ten years, and then, worn 
out by useful toils and hard service, died at his 
post. ' ' 

The printing of Dr. Morrison's translations had 
been greatly hindered by want of Chinese type. 
Therefore type was made by hand, with a chisel, 
on small blocks of type-metal, cast in suitable sizes, 
and the font was added to as the work required. 
It was employed in many books and gradually in- 
creased till it contained nearly thirty- five thousand 
characters and about a hundred thousand type of 
two sizes. 

In 1819 Dr. Morrison, with the assistance of Mr. 
Milne, had completed the translation of the whole 
Bible, which caused widespread rejoicing among 
the friends of missions throughout Europe and 
America. Dr. Morrison was engaged sixteen years 
on the Anglo-Chinese dictionary, which was pub- 
lished in 1823 by the East India Company at a cost 
of twelve thousand pounds. Each of its six quarto 
volumes exceeded in size a large family Bible ; it 
contained four thousand five hundred and ninety- 
five pages, and recorded forty thousand words ex- 
pressed by the Chinese character. 

His literary labors were but part of his work for 
China. He was deeply interested in the Anglo- 
Chinese College at Malacca, long under the care of 
Dr. Milne, and in a similar institution at Singapore. 
Filled with pity for the sick and suffering poor who 
crowded the streets of Canton, lacking intelligent 
medical care, he established a free dispensary, 
which was stocked with good Chinese medicines. 
Two hours daily he was himself in superintendence 
there. He placed it in charge of a reliable Chinese 
physician, and supplemented its value by a Chinese 
medical library of eight hundred volumes. 

Dr. Morrison's home had been made desolate 
by the death of his wife in 1821 and the departure 
of his two children for England. He now decided 
to visit his native land after an absence of sixteen 
years. He was attended by a faithful Chinese 
servant who had become a Christian. He took 
with him a valuable Chinese library of ten thousand 
books, which was finally deposited in University 
College, London, for the benefit of all who might 
desire to study the language, and was called 1 1 The 
Morrison Library." Many honors awaited Dr. 
Morrison on his return home. He was presented 



to the king, George IV, who graciously accepted 
a copy of his translation of the Bible and the map 
of Peking. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society and one of the directors of the London Mis- 
sionary Society. He greatly enjoyed a visit to his 
old home, Newcastle, where a public dinner was 
given in his honor. He wrote : " It is interesting 
to me to revisit the streets and fields where I lived 
happily as a poor bashful boy, thirty years ago. ' ' 

' ' Probably no missionary ever received so 
marked an ovation by all classes of his country- 
men as did Kobert Morrison in the year 1824, 
owing partly to the combined religious and politi- 
cal duties he had fulfilled in China." He visited 
France, Ireland and Scotland, also, and was 
warmly received by leading men everywhere, "as 
he sought to create a deeper interest in the spirit- 
ual condition of China and other oriental nations." 
With this in view he wrote for leading magazines 
and papers. In 1824 he married Miss Eliza Arm- 
strong, and in 1826 again set sail for China. He 
was gladly welcomed back by the faithful native 
evangelist Leang Afa, whom he had left in charge 
of the religious work of the mission, and he soon 
gathered around him his old servants and hearers. 
For eight years after his return, Dr. Morrison 
labored with the same fixed intensity of purpose 
as before, constantly busy in his official duties, 
with his Chinese writings, and in a multiplicity 
of ways by which he sought to advance the king- 
dom of Christ in China, Debarred from pro- 
claiming the gospel publicly, he sought constantly 
to reach the natives through the press, and sent 
many Bibles and tracts to far-reaching points. 
Dr. Morrison once wrote to Dr. Mason of New 
York for missionaries to be sent to China by the 
American Church, and the reply was that it would 
be thought chimerical. No missionary to any 
foreign land had then left our country, but in 1830 
Dr. Morrison joyfully welcomed to Canton the 
American missionaries Abeel and Bridgman, and 
others followed later. At the termination of the 
charter of the East India Company in China, Lord 
Napier was appointed chief ambassador of the 
English court to China, and on his arrival con- 
firmed Dr. Morrison's appointment as Chinese in- 
terpreter to the Crown. In this capacity he ac- 
companied Lord Napier to Canton. On the way 
exposure to a storm of wind and rain brought on 
a severe cold which resulted in his death, twenty- 
seven years after his first landing in Canton. 

"The dawn of China's regeneration was break- 
ing as his eyes closed on the scene of his labors, 
and these labors contributed to advance the new 
era, and his example to inspire his successors to 
more and greater triumphs. ' ' 

"He lives to-day in the deep and growing 
interest in the Chinese empire and in the intense 
enthusiasm which is being manifested for its con- 
version." 

" His was the work of a wise master builder, 
and future generations in the Church of God in 
China will soon find reason to bless him for the 
labors and example of Robert Morrison. ' ' 



— To the Chinese, Christianity means clean 
clothes, one day of rest in the week, better houses, 
better food, and a higher standard of living in all 
respects. — Dr. William Ashmore, 



1897.] 



BOOK NOTICES. 



71 









Mission House at Aniwa. 



Book Notices, 



John G. Paton. An Autobiography. Complete 
edition — two volumes in one. 

In the introductory note to the first volume, Rev. 
A. T. Pierson, D.D , said : " Even among the riches 
of missionary biography few such volumes as this 
are to be found." In a similar introductory note to 
the second volume the same writer said : " We 
have no hesitation in pronouncing this second part 
the most fascinating narrative of missionary adven- 
ture and heroism and success we have ever met." 

This eulo°:ium has been so well justified by the 
many thousands of delighted readers, that the 
publishers— Fleming H Revell Company— have 
issued this new edition of the two volumes in one in 
their usual handsome style. By their courtesy we 
are able to give our readers the portrait of Dr. 
Paton on page 64, and a view of the Mission House 
at Aniwa on this page. 

Japan : Its People and Missions. By Jesse 
Page. Fleming H. Revell Company, New York, 



160 



5.] x 32 inches. 



Chicago, Toronto. 
Price, 75 cents. 

The promise of its title is as well fulfilled as so 
large a title could well be in so small a volume. It 
is largely a compilation from larger works, but its 
extracts are well chosen and are connected by judi- 
cious observations weaving them into a very read- 
able narrative. We commend it to those who have 
not time to read extensively. 

. The Zenana, volume III, is a bound volume 



of the monthly magazine of the Zenana, Bible, 
and Medical Mission for 1896. Its illustrated 
pages are filled with fact and incident regarding 
woman's work in India. The mission was found- 
ed in 1852, and has its offices at 2, Adelphi Ter- 
race, London. Price of the volume, half a crown. 

Judson, Duff, Mackenzie and Mackay are the 
four typical missionaries of whom Mr. Harlan P. 
Beach has written in his Knights of the Laba- 
rum. These were chosen, says the author, from 
among the many mighty men on the mission field 
because they represent four different lines of mis- 
sionary effort, as well as four different countries. 
We heartily recommend this book to those who 
are taking the Christian Training Course, since 
Judson and Duff are our missionary heroes for 
April and May. [Student A'olunteer Movement, 
Chicago. Cloth, 40 cents ; paper, 25 cents. ] 

11 Every member of the Anglo-Saxon race, who 
studies Gordon's life and character, must feel a 
thrill of pride that he is of the same blood as that 
immortal Englishman," writes Mr. G. B. Smith 
in the preface to his General Gordon. The 
publication in February, 1896, of Slatin Pasha's 
"Fire and Sword in the Soudan," and the grace- 
ful act of Li Hung Chang, who placed a memorial 
wreath on Gordon's monument at Trafalgar 
Square, have added new interest to the life story 
of this Christian soldier and hero. [Fleming 11. 
Revell Company. 100 pages, 75 cents.] 

Mr. Willis Boyd Allen has written for American 
boys and girls a story of the days preceding the 



72 



BOOK NOTICES. 



[January, 



American Kevolution, called A Son of Liberty. 
In its prominent incidents the story is a true 
one. The author has attempted to weave in with 
the fortunes of his hero. Will Frobisher, the actual 
occurrences of the stirring times immediately pre- 
ceding 1776, and to give a vivid picture of the 
home life of the colonists. [Congregational Sun- 
day-school and Publishing Society. $1.25.] 

The Rev. Charles M. Sheldon, pastor of Central 
Congregational Church, Topeka, Kans. , states that 
His Brother's Keeper was written during the 
winter of 1895, and first read, one chapter at a 
time, on successive Sunday evenings to his con- 
gregation. Some of the scenes are based upon 
events which occurred during a strike among iron 
miners, and which were witnessed by the author. 
The book relates how a rich young man was led 
by the perplexities of a labor trouble to see that 
his money was not given him for his own individ- 
ual pleasure aud profit alone. [Congregational 
Sunday-school and Publishing Society. $1.50.] 

As a recognition of the worth of his little 
volume, The Testimony of the Land to the 
Book, Dr. David Gregg, pastor of Lafayette 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, has been 
made a member of the Philosophical Society of 
Great Britain and Victoria Institute. In present- 
ing this ''outside argument" in favor of the 
Bible, the author points out three correspondences : 
between the land and the book as both universal ; 
between the statements of the book and the physi- 
cal features of the land ; between the land and the 
prophecies of the book which relate to the land. 
The argument from the discoveries of modern 
exploration are stated with great force and clear- 
ness. Three witnesses that confirm the statements 
of the book are enumerated., viz., the great 
foundation-stones of the old temple of Solomon ; 
the Moabite stone ; the tablet found at Lachish. 
In conclusion Dr. Gregg says : ' ' Our religion is 
the religion of the book, and the book is absolutely 
safe. It is tried and proved. " [E. B. Treat, 
New York. 35 cents.] 

The pastor of the Presbyterian Church of the 
Covenant, Chicago, has issued one of a series of 
studies of the Christian doctrine of prayer as a 
booklet of 56 pages entitled, Prayer and the 
Healing of Disease. Conceding the reality of 
the alleged cures of those who reject remedial 
agencies and claim supernatural powers, Dr. 
Bryan shows that the cures may be accounted for 
by the healing power of nature, the power of con- 
centrated attention, and the exaggerations of 
human testimony. After pointing out that sad 
aspect of the work of these healers, their silence as 
to failures, he maintains that the claim of special 
supernatural power, made on the ground of these 
cures must be denied. [Fleming H. Revell 
Company. 25 cents.] 

With the Magazines. 
Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly for Janu- 
ary contains articles on "The Order of the King's 
Daughters and Sons" and " Bryn Mawr College." 

" The Sunday-schools, Their Shortcomings and 
Their Great Opportunity," is the title of an article 
in the December Review of Reviews, by Walter L. 
Hervey, President of the Teachers' College, New 
York. 



Among the articles in the beautifully illustrated 
December issue of TJie Biblical World are ' " The 
Home of Our Lord's Childhood, " " The Child Jesus 
in Painting," "Christianity and Children." 

Facts illustrative of dominant traits in President 
Lincoln's character, particularly his solicitude for 
the welfare of the private soldiers of the Union 
army, are narrated in an article in the December 

North American Review. 

The article in the December Forum by Dr. J. M. 
Rice, on "Obstacles to Kational Educational Re- 
form," is the first of a series of papers likely to 
prove valuable contributions to pedagogical science. 
The same issue of the Forum contains an article on 
"Princeton in the Nation's Service." 

Among the many attractive features of Scribner's 
Magazine for 1897 are the following : a group of 
articles, richly illustrated, on "Japan and China 
since the War ;" a series on "Undergraduate Life 
in American Colleges;" "London as seen by 
Charles Dana Gibson ;" two articles on " How to 
Travel Wisely." The magazine is published at 
$3.00 a year. 25 cents a copy. Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons, 153-157 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

It is a well-known fact that many of the per- 
manent contributions to American literature first 
appeared in the pages of the Atlantic Monthly. 
During the year 1897 articles are to appear in the 
Atlantic interpreting our great educational move- 
ments ; also a series of papers on six " Masters of 
American Literature," Irving, Cooper, Bryant, 
Hawthorne, Emerson and Longfellow. In a series 
of articles surveying the great activities of the 
nineteenth century will be one on "A Century of 
Exploration." Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 
Boston, Mass. 

LittelVs Living Age, the eclectic weekly, founded 
in 1844, has occupied a prominent place among the 
foremost magazines of the day. Its aim has been 
to winnow the wheat from the chaff, and give to 
the American reader each week a fresh compilation 
of gleanings from the field of British periodical 
literature. An important new feature recently 
introduced is a monthly supplement devoted to 
American literature. This supplement, which 
adds three hundred pages annually to the maga- 
zine, consists of readings from American maga- 
zines, readings from new books and a list of the 
books of the month. No addition has been made 
to the price, which remains at $6.00 per year. 

The Youth's Companion, which celebrates its 
seventy-first birthday in 1897, is to give its readers 
a series of articles on the national events of the 
coming year, by such writers as Secretary Herbert, 
Postmaster-General Wilson, Attorney-General 
Harmon, Senator Lodge and Speaker Reed. The 
non-partisan editorials in the Companion, as well 
as the departments of Current Events, Nature and 
Science, are of especial interest to students and to 
all who wish to keep informed of the doings of 
the world. Successful men in various walks of 
life are to furnish practical articles based on their 
own experience. The first of these is by Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie, on " The Habit of Thrift." A 
beautiful four-page calendar, lithographed in four 
colors, is sent to new subscribers. $1.75 per 
year. The Youth's Companion, Boston, Mass. 



1897.] QUESTIONS — TWENTY QUESTIONS ON THE BIBLE AND FOREIGN MISSIONS. 






QUESTIONS FOR THE JANUARY MIS 
SIONARY MEETING. 

[Answers may be found in the preceding pages.] 
WORK AT HOME. 

1. Give an outline of the life and work of Miss 
Sue L. McBeth. Pages 17-19. 

2. What States and Territories are included in 
the region known as the New West ? Page 20. 

3. Give facts and figures showing population and 
Presbyterian growth in this region. Pages 20-22. 

4. What are the special needs to-day of the 
Board of Home Missions? Pages 16, 23. 

5. Tell the story of the Indian boy and the 
feather pillow. Pages 19, 20. 

6. What incident from Alaska illustrates the 
persistence of old burial customs? Page 24. 

7. Plow does a home missionary illustrate the re- 
fining influence of the gospel? Page 25. 

8. How do Indian medicine men in Colorado be- 
lieve that they receive help from the stars? Page 
26. 

9. Relate the story of the death of an Indian 
girl. Page 27. 

10. What has been accomplished during the past 
year among the aid-receiving churches in Minne- 
sota? Page 27. 

WORK ABROAD. 

11. Name six motives for foreign missions. Pages 
33-35. 

12. State the Biblical argument for foreign mis- 
sions. Page 38. 

13. What is the work of the Holy Spirit in mis- 
sions ? Page 39. 

14. By what reasoning is it shown that the mis- 
sion of Christianity is world-wide ? Pages 40, 41. 

15. What four forms of missionary work are un- 
dertaken in Persia ? Pages 42, 43. 

16. How do Nestorian Christians state the diffi- 
culties and needs of the native church ? Page 44. 

17. Tell the story of the two Bibles in Chilian. 
Page 29. 

18. What new mission is to be established among 
the dwarfs of Africa ? Page 31. 

19. What is the present conditiou of the Church 
in Madagascar ? Page 31. 

20. The Church of Christ in Japan is engaged in 
what home mission work ? Page 31. 

21. In how many languages and dialects have 
complete versions of the Bible been made ? Page 
33. 

22. Tell of the boyhood of Robert Morrison. 
Page 68. 

23. What three elements of moral greatness did 
he possess ? Page 68. 

24. What field of labor did he desire ? Page 
68. 

25. How did he prepare himself for work in 
China ? Page 68. 

26. Relate the conversation with the ship owner. 
Page 68. 

27. What mode of living did he adopt and then 
abandon ? Page 68. 

28. What were the difficulties in the way of his 
missionary labor? Page 69. 

29. How is the spirit of his associate, William 
Milne, illustrated? Page 69. 



.'id. What literary work was accomplished by 
I >r. Morrison? Page 69. 

31. What were the results of hifl work a- a 
teacher of the gospel ? Page 70. 



TWENTY QUESTIONS ON THE BIBLE AND 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

For the use of Sabbath-schools and Young People's Societies. 

1. Give an Old Testament and a New Testament 
passage setting forth God's reign over the whole 
world. 

2. Give an Old Testament and a New Testament 
passage showing God's love for all men. 

3. Give verses to the effect that God is no re- 
specter of persons. 

4. Tell briefly the story of Jonah, the first for- 
eign missionary. 

5. For whose sins is Christ " the propitiation?" 
Give several parallel passages. 

6 Give a passage setting forth Christ's expecta- 
tion and desire that all men should come unto him. 
Give an example. 

7. Repeat Christ's last command. Give parallel 
passages and describe circumstances. 

8. What condition is attached to Christ's prom- 
ise to be with his disciples always? 

9. Repeat God's words to Ezekiel regarding the 
punishment of disobedience. 

10. What were the disciples to do before they 
went forth in obedience to Christ's command? 
Why? 

11. What was the relation of the Holy Ghost to 
the sending out of Paul and Barnabas? To all 
missionary work ? 

12. Which book of the New Testament is virtu- 
ally a history of apostolic foreign missions? Out- 
line the narrative. 

13. Where and by whom was foreign missionary 
effort in Europe begun ? 

14. State three foreign missionary motives. 

15. Why did Paul become a foreign missionary ? 
Are the reasons applicable to us? 

16. In what ways can those of us who cannot 
personally go to heathen lands obey Christ's com- 
mand to teach all nations ? 

17. What "people and nation" did John hear 
singing the " new song" in heaven? 

18. What countries were meant by foreign mis- 
sions at the death of Christ ? 

19. How far had the apostles carried Christianity 
by the end of the first century? 

20. To what extent did the missionary spirit 
pervade the apostolic Church ? Give an illu>tra- 
tion. 

— A religious tramp is no more to be desired, and 
is no more likely to have settled habits of action, 
than a civil one. The rolling stone on the hillside 
has its counterpart in the Church amoDgthoae who 
are here to-day and there to-morrow. The branch 
must be literally grafted into the vine and remain 
there if there is to be any budding and blossoming 
and the bearing of fruit. Every Christian in ad- 
dition to having a name to live should have also a 
local habitation, and be found at home when there 
is a call for his services, and be ready for work 
when he is called. — Wm. L. Ledworth, D.D., in 
the Oxford Journal. 



74 



MINISTERIAL NECROLOGY. 



[January, 



Ministerial Necrology. 

4SF* We earnestly request the families of deceased min- 
isters and the stated clerks of their presbyteries to forward 
to us promptly the facts given in these notices, and as nearly 
as possible in the form exemplified below. These notices are 
highly valued by writers of Presbyterian history, compilers 
of statistics and the intelligent readers of both. 



Dimond, David, D.D. — Born at Groton, N.H., 
April 26, 1819. An only child, he grew up on 
the farm with his mother, until fifteen years of 
age ; united with Congregational Church in 
Brighton, Mass., February 8, 1835; fitted for 
college at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. ; 
graduated from Dartmouth College, 1842 ; 
Andover Theological Seminary, 1845 ; licensed 
by the Andover Association, April 8, 1845 ; 
with nine other young ministers started west, 
led by Rev. Artemus Billiard, resting every 
Sabbath on the two months' journey ; ordained 
in St. Louis, Mo., April 21, 1846, by the 
Presbytery of St. Louis ; preached a few 
months in St. Charles, Mo , then in Troy, 
Mo. ; ' ' kept college' ' and supplied the Presby- 
terian church, erecting a new house of worship 
free from debt; called to Collinsville, 111., 
1850 ; united with Alton Presbytery, April 
17, 1852 ; professor of Latin and Greek in 
Webster College, ten miles west of St. Louis, 
and acting pastor of Rock Hill Church, 1855- 
1859; called to Brighton, 111., 1859; to 
Shelbyville, 111., 1865; to Anna, 111., 1866; 
there built a new and commodious house of wor- 
ship ; from overwork in heat of summer lost 
eye-sight, 1870 ; D. D. from Dartmouth Col- 
lege, same year ; called back to Brighton, 111., 
as pastor ; adding soon after preaching every 
other week in Monticello Seminary at God- 
frey, 111., which continued fifteen years; re- 
signed the pastorate in Brighton, 1885 ; made 
pastor emeritus. On the death of his mother, 
1888, conveyed the home farm, 150 acres, to 
his Alma Mater, ' ' that had honored him with 
three degrees in letters." 

Married, August 8, 1848, Miss Augusta 
Coffin, Hanover, N. H. ; five children. Wife 
died 1871 ; four children had previously died. 
Soon after the fifth died. Married, October 8, 
1872, Miss Mary W. Waldron, of Great Falls, 
N.H. She died May, 1896. He died Sab- 
bath, November 22, 1896. 

Distinguished for modesty, humbleness of 
mind, intimate associates and friends under- 
stood and appreciated his scholarly attainments, 
his great ability and rare worth. Among these 
were Drs. Bullard, Nelson and Norton. With 
talents and acquirements sufficient for the 
highest stations, he cheerfully served for the 



most part in the humblest, His life was full 
of deep affliction. He buried one wife and her 
five children in the midst of his ministry. The 
second one he laid in the grave six months be- 
fore his call came. He ceased to read in 1870, 
and lived the rest of his days in almost total 
blindness ; continuing his ministerial labors 
nevertheless with cheerful courage and marked 
acceptance until old age prevented further toil. 
His end was peace ; his final words were, 
' ' Safe in him, " " Safe in him. " S. H. H. 

Hamilton, William E., D.D. —Born at Orange, 
N. J., May 30, 1822 ; graduated from Prince- 
ton College, 1849 ; ordained by the Presbytery 
of Florida at Tallahassee, 1850 ; pastor Monti- 
cello, Fla., 1850-63; twenty years on the 
Home Mission Field : Iowa, Nebraska, Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin, Colorado, Wyoming, 1868-88. 
Died October 17, 1896. 

Married, 1851, Sarah Sylvester; married, 
1863, Francis L. McRinne, who survives him. 
Of eight children — four by each marriage — 
only two daughters survive him, one by each 
marriage. 

McClung, John N.— Born in Adams county, O., 
September 24, 1831 ; graduated from Missouri 
University, 1856 ; admitted to the bar in 
Hamilton county, O., 1858; seventy- fourth 
regiment, Ohio volunteers, 1861 ; licensed by 
Presbytery of Portsmouth, 1873 ; ordained, 
1873 ; first charge, Decatur and Russellville, 
O., two years ; Decatur and Winchester, O., two 
years; Paola, Kans , 1878-81; Wellington, 
1881-85 ; Presbyterial Evangelist, Presbytery 
of Emporia, 1885 ; Junction City, Kans., 
1886-91 ; Oswego, Kans., 1891-93 ; Church of 
the Covenant, St. Louis, 1893 ; Monett, Mo., 
1894-96. Died at Springfield, Mo., Decem- 
ber 7, 1896. 

Married, at Bainbridge, O., September 30, 
1856, Penelope Taylor, who, with five children, 
survives him. 

Robinson, Wm. H.— Born at West Hebron, N.Y., 
1861 ; graduated from Princeton College, 
1885 ; and Princeton Theological Seminary, 
1888 ; ordained by the Presbytery of Emporia, 
at Wichita, 1888 ; pastor of the North Wichi- 
ta Presbyterian Church, Wichita, Kans , 1888- 
91, and of the Presbyterian Church at Paola, 
Kans., 1891-93; July, fell ill; 1894, Janu- 
ary, resigned. Died July 11, 1896. 

Married, August 29, 1889, Miss Sarah E. 
Walsh, who survives him. Also two children, 
George Edward, aged 6 last June 12, Anita 
Grace, aged 3 last March 14. 



Parle Church Tidings tells the story of a good 
man in a certain parish who regularly gave 
every Sunday five dollars for the support of 
the church. A poor widow, a member of the 
same church, who supported herself and her six 
children by washing, was just as regular in mak- 
ing her offering of five cents per week, which was 
all she could spare from her scant earnings. One 
day the rich man came to the minister and said 



the poor woman ought not to pay anything, and 
that he would pay the five cents for her every 
week. When the pastor called and told her of 
the offer she replied, " Do you want to take from 
me the comfort I experience in giving to the 
Lord ? Think how much I owe him. My health 
is good, my children keep well, and I receive so 
many blessings that I feel I could not live if I did 
not make my little offering to Jesus each week." 



RECEIPTS. 

FEEEDMEN, November, 1895 and 1896. 





Churches. 


Sabbath-schools. 


Woman's Ex. Com. Mis< i.i.i.ankous. 


i.k<.\( ras. 


Total. 


1895 

1896 


82,873 25 
4,079 76 


8233 82 
218 05 


$767 02 1 $8,326 67 
1,559 90 209 25 


8795 00 


112,995 76 
6,066 96 


Gain 

Loss 


$1,206 51 


$15 77 


$792 88 

$8,117 42 


$795 00 


$6,928 80 






Total Receipts to December 1, 1895 and 


L896. 






Churches. 


Sabbath-schools. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Miscellaneous. 


Legacies. 


Total. 


1895 

1896 


819,252 49 
18,303 23 


81,480 99 
1,358 42 


$13,777 09 
13,160 54 


$17,975 02 
10,812 48 


$2,061 67 
7,170 25 


$54,547 26 
'50,804 92 


Gain 

Loss 


$949 26 


$122 57 


$616 55 


$7,162 54 


$5,108 58 


$3,742 34 



FORE[GN MISSIONS, November, 1895 and 1896. 





Churches. 


Women's B'ds. 


Sab.-schools. 


Y. P. S. C. E. 


Legacies. 


Miscellaneous 


Total. 


1895 
1896 


$15,330 12 
17,976 74 


$18,218 35 
13,451 75 


$1,754 37 
2,001 49 


$1,263 61 
1,703 92 


$11,695 67 
938 20 


$2,456 47 
3,635 85 


$50,718 59 
38,707 95 


Gain 
Loss 


$2,646 62 


$4,766 60 


$752 88 


$440 31 


$10,757 47 


$1,179 38 


$12,010 64 




STA' 


rEMENT OF R 


eceipts, May 


1 TO NOVEM 


ber 30, 1895 


AND 1896. 





1895 
1896 



Churches. Women's B'ds. 



$75,707 23 
65,299 52 



$56,066 40 
55,276 84 



Gain 
Loss 



$10,407 71 



$789 56 



Sab.-schools. Y. P. S. C. E. I Legacies. Miscellaneous Total, 



$7,329 24 $10,116 96 $47,151 63 $40,819 85 1237,191 31 

5,562 39 10,772 38 43,722 27 32,358 43 212,991 83 

I 



$1,766 85 



$655 42 



$3,429 36 



$3,461 42 $24,199 48 



Gifts through Reunion Fund not included in this comparison. 



Finances, December 1, 1896. 

Appropriations made May 1, 1896 $904,224 78 Received from all sources to December 1, 1896.... 212,991 83 

Appropriations added to December 1, 1896 35,449 60 

Amount to be received before April 30, 1897, to 

_ , , . . , co ., cn . , Q meet all obligations S75S.936 05 

Total appropriated..... "SX'Sla -2 Received last year, December 1, 1895, to April 30, 

Deficit of April 30, 1896 32,2o3 50 1896......... .1 648 200 47 



Total needed for year $971,927 88 Increase needed before the end of the year 1110,785 58 

William Dulles, Jr., 

Treasurer. 

75 



76 



RECEIPTS. 



[January, 



CHUECH ERECTION. 

November, 1896. 

General Fund. 

Contributions $2,909 

Miscellaneous 1, 424 



General Fund Contributions. 

Eight months current year $22,314 01 

Same period last year 23,271 71 

Loss $957 70 



$4,333 10 



Loan Fund. 
Amount collected on loans 



1,634 15 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF. 
November, 1896. 

Churches and Sabbath-schools $6,679 00 

Individuals 2045 00 

Interest 4,133 94 



Manse Fund. 

Amount collected on loans $931 29 

Contribution 5 00 

Miscellaneous 25 40 



For Current Fund $12,857 94 

Permanent Fund 1,018 00 



Total Receipts $13,875 95 



961 69 



$6,928 94 



Total for the Current Fund since April 1, 

1896 $80,931 95 

For same period last year 86,255 88 

W. W. Heberton, Treasurer. 



HOME MISSIONS, November, 1895 and 1896. 





Churches. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Legacies. 


1 
Individuals, Etc.) 


Total. 


1895 


$22,205 78 
64,794 45 


$9,653 05 
14,286 35 


$11,170 10 
14,167 10 


$3,824 50 
5,693 98 


$46,853 43 
98,941 88 


1896 






$42,588 67 


$4,633 30 


$2,997 00 


$1,869 48 


$52,088 45 









For Eight Months Ending November 30, 1895 and 1896. 





Churches. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Legacies. 


Individuals, Etc 


Total. 


1895 


$100,163 43 
135,536 25 


$94,011 80 
106,490 23 


$126,325 96 
49,836 53 


$24,221 39 
36,538 12 


$344,722 58 


1896 


328,401 13 






$35,372 82 


$12,478 43 


$76,489 43 


$12,316 73 






$16,321 45 





EDUCATION. 

November, 1896. 

Churches, Sabbath-schools and C. E. So- 
cieties 

Miscellaneous sources 

Invested Funds 



PUBLICATION AND S.-S. WORK. 

November, 1896. 

Contributions from Churches $1,601 10 

$5,493 32 " " Sabbath-schools.... 1,506 20 
84 80 " " Individuals 358 05 

138 63 



Total $5,716 75 |3 ' 465 35 

Previously acknowledged 23,532 81 Previously acknowledged 71,796 88 



Total since April 15 $29,249 56 



$75,262 23 



The Church at Home and Abroad. 

FEBRUARY, 1897. 

Contents. 

Current Events and the Kingdom, HI 

Circular from Secretaries, 83 

Editorial Notes, 84 

Missions at Borne and Abroad, * r > 

Death of Mrs. Eakin, 88 

1I03IE MISSIONS. 

Notes.— Model Committeeman—" Old Dwight Mission "—Model Home Mission Church— Whole- 
some Words— Mrs. A W. Stowell's Work, 89 

Concert of Prayer.— The Indians, 90 

Puyallups, 93 

A Day with Red Men (From Pocatello Tribune), 94 

Report of Permanent Committee to Synod of Washington, D Qhormley, Chairman, . . 96 

Letters.— California, Rev. J. E. Anderson— Colorado, W. C. Buell— Missouri, Filippo Qnli— Min- 
nesota, Rev. W. H. Hormel, Rev T. V. Kelley— Nebraska, Rev. S. B. Meyer, Rev. T. L. 
Sexton, D.D., Superintendent— -New York, Rev. J. F. Robinson, Rev. N. B. Knapp—~S. 
Dakota, Rev. J. 8. Corkey—S. Dakota, Rev. J. P. Williamson, D.D., Rev. Pierre La Pointe, 
Samuel Bouillard—\Jt?d\, Miss Helen Walker— Appointments, 99-102 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

Notes.— China Mission Handbook— Turkish Refugees in Persia— Annual Mission Meetings- 
Wonderful Progress in China— Famine in India — Native Ministry in India— Some Korean 

Reporters— Sunday-school Lessons, 103, 104 

Fresh Facts. — Miss Nassau's Girls' School — Mr Schnatz's Narrow Escape from Drowning — 
Two Dwarf Boys— Joy in Pyeng Yang— Day Schools at Chefoo Station — Chinese Official 
at Chefoo Helping Generously — King of Siam's Birthday— Dr. Jessup on Affrays in Syria- 
Missionary Calendar, 104, 105 

Concert of Prayer.— Evangelistic Missionary Work, 106 

Street Preaching, Rev. John N. Forman, 107 

Revivals, 108 

Vastnessof Field, Rev. Hunter Corbett, D.D., 109 

Preaching the Gospel in Darkest Africa, Rev. Wm. S. Bannerman, . . . . . . 114 

IIouse-to-House Visitation, Mrs. Qerald B. Dale, 116 

Chapel Preaching, Rev. William S. Holt, D D., 118 

Evangelistic Work in Korea, Rev. S. V. Moore, 120 

EDUCATION. -Our Work for Spanish-speaking People 121-123 

COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES.— A Comparison— Three Scenes, Rev. II. D. Game, D.D., 124-126 

MINISTERIAL RELIEF.— Dr. Agnew's Introduction, 127-130 

CHURCn ERECTION.— "Should it be the First to Suffer ? "— How a Field is Developed, 130, 131 

PUBLICATION AND SABBATH-SCHOOL WORK.— A Children's Day Picture— Appalling 
Spiritual Need in Nevada— Iowa as a Sunday-school Mission Field— Delightful Surprise — 

Notes from Various Points, 152-134 

FREEDMEN.— Session of Presbyterian Church, Abbeville, S. C, 135-187 

The Reformed Church of Hungary, Rev. James I Good, DD., L37 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR.— Notes— Evangelistic Work, Rev. Charles 
A. Oliver— Robert Moffat (with portrait)— The Character of Christ, Questions and 
Answers— Education in Missions— Christian Endeavor and Christian Missions -Catechism 
for February — Dr. W. A. P Martin (with portrait)— Presbyterian Endeavorers— Christian 
Training Course— Home Missionary Heroes, Williamson, Riggs and Lyon— Questions- 
Worth Reading, 1 

Pleasant Words from Readers, . . . 152 Summary of Receipts, .... 153, 154 
Ministerial Necrology, 152 Officers and Agencies, .... 155, 156 



THE CHURCH 

AT HOME AND ABROAD, 



February, i897. 



CURRENT EVENTS AND THE KINGDOM. 



Stambuloff's flurderers. — It is a sig- 
nificant fact that the three men who were 
clearly proven guilty of the brutal assassina- 
tion, July 15, 1895, of Bulgaria's premier, 
were sentenced to only three years' impris- 
onment. 

Labor Pensions.— Krupp, the famous 
gun manufacturer, pensions those of his 
employes who are unable to work after 
twenty years' service, the pensioner receiv- 
ing about fifty per cent, of his last yearly 
earnings. Thus a laborer earning $300 per 
year receives SI 50, though the amount is 
increased proportionately if the pensioner 
has served longer than twenty years. In 
1896 there were nearly one thousand per- 
sons on the pension list, including widows 
and orphans. 

The Twentieth Century. — It was Dio- 
nysius Exiguus who, in the sixth century, 
proposed that the birth of Jesus Christ be 
made the starting-point of modern chronol- 
ogy. He, however, named the year of 
Rome 754 as the date of that event. If, as 
is now generally believed, our Lord was 
born as early as 750 (B.C. 4), the Chris- 
tian era began four years late, nineteen hun- 
dred full years have passed since the Ad- 
vent, and we are now living in the first year 
oi the twentieth century. 

Immigration in Germany. — Germany, 
since her victory over France and her unifi- 
cation probably the most prosperous country 
in Europe, has to pay the penalty of wealth 
by an alarming influx of immigrants. In 
the eastern provinces of Prussia the number 
of Polish and Russian settlers is so large 



that the German element is nearly swamped. 
The Government has now decided not to 
grant naturalization papers to foreign-born 
persons unless they have learned to speak 
German. — Literary Digest. 

The Value of Human Life. — During 
the year 1896 there were in the United 
States 10,625 homicides committed, an in- 
crease of 125 over the record for 1895. In 
1890 the number was 4290, and the aver- 
age for the past seven years has been more 
than seven thousand per year. The num- 
ber of suicides reported in 1896 was 6520, 
an increase of 761 over the previous year. 
Instruction in morals, the preaching of 
righteousness, vigorous opposition to every 
thing which contributes to crime, and the 
bringing of the gospel to the hearts and 
homes of all the people, are essential factors 
in the problem. We need also to empha- 
size the sacredness of human life. 

Rinderpest in Africa. — The // view of 
Reviews mentions this disease as one of the 
strange results of Italy's attempt to con- 
quer Abyssinia. Introduced by plague- 
stricken cattle, sent to supply the Italian 
army with food, it has steadily moved south- 
ward, destroying nine-tenths of the herds of 
Africa. The Zambesi did not prove a bar- 
rier, and only 15,000 cattle were left out 
of 200,000* in Rhodesia. In Khama's 
country 800,000 were destroyed. u So 
terrible a visitation, extending over so wide 
an area, is almost unknown in the annals of 
Africa. The grievous murrain that smote 
the herds of Pharaoh was but a parochial 
epidemic compared with this continental 
disaster." 

81 



82 



CURRENT EVENTS AND THE KINGDOM. 



[February, 



Central America.— The Greater Repub- 
lic of Central America, which includes Sal- 
vador, Nicaragua and Honduras, was for- 
mally recognized by President Cleveland, 
December 23. It is believed that Guatemala 
and Costa Rica will soon join this federal 
union, when the word " Greater" will be 
dropped from the name. The Diet, com- 
posed of representatives of each State, held 
its first session in Ampala, Salvador, and 
will meet in turn in the capital of each 
member of the union. Several similar at- 
tempts have been made, the first in 1824. 
The Central American States had been a 
part of the empire of Mexico under Itur- 
bide. Mexico became a republic and they 
formed a federation, which, however, con- 
tinued but a few years. The present union 
is the outcome of an effort made by Nicara- 
gua and Honduras after having entered 
into closer commercial relations. It is a 
union in the interest of peace. 

Italy and Abyssinia. — The special 
delegate whom Pope Leo sent to Menelek 
to persuade him to liberate the thirteen hun- 
dred Italian prisoners was not successful. 
He found the victorious ruler of the Swit- 
zerland of Africa determined to secure all 
the fruits of his victory over the invading 
Europeans. Finally, on October 26, 1896, 
Major Nerazzini, in behalf of Italy, signed 
the preliminaries of a treaty with Abyssinia. 
It revokes the treaty of Ucialli, never 
acknowledged by Menelek, in virtue of 
which Italy claimed a protectorate over his 
country ; it declares that the boundary be- 
tween Abyssinia and the Italian colony, 
Erythrea, shall be clearly defined within a 
year; it also provides that the prisoners 
shall be released when Italy has compen- 
sated Menelek for the expenses of keeping 
them. In honor of Queen Margherita the 
Negus liberated two hundred of these pris- 
oners on her birthday, November 20. 

Philip Melanchthon. — The four hun- 
dredth anniversary of his birth will be cele- 
brated February 16, 1897. He took his 
Bachelor's degree at Heidelberg at the age 
of fourteen, his Master's degree before he 
was seventeen, and when he had completed 
his twenty-first year he was already famous; 
but it was a fame, writes President Ethel - 
bert D. Warfield, of Lafayette College, in 
the January Presbyterian and Reformed Re- 
view, resting upon solid character and attain- 



ments. While he was the most irenic spirit 
among the noble group of the great reform- 
ers, he desired no peace at the sacrifice of 
conscience and truth. His Latin oration 
on taking the Greek chair in the University 
of Wittenberg was the cornerstone of the 
new education in Germany. He did not 
suffer Luther to forget that God has not left 
himself without a witness in any age or 
people. The continuity of Christian thought 
thus testified to is one of the most important 
services of Melanchthon' s life, and it was 
this which gave the Reformation its hold 
upon the educated and thoughtful men of 
Germany. But his most enduring work, 
his permanent contribution to the Reforma- 
tion, is the Augsburg Confession. 

Benevolent Gifts. — Writing of the 
bright side of 1896, the Advance says it was 
one of the most notable of all years for its 
generous gifts to colleges, churches and 
charities. Without taking account of the 
small sums collected by various organiza- 
tions through the usual methods, the aggre- 
gate of special contributions and large gifts 
was $33,670,000, nearly $5,000,000 more 
than in 1895, and $13,500,000 more 
than in 1894. Of this amount $10,854,- 
000 went to charities, $2,135,142 to 
churches, $16,814,000 to colleges, and 
$2,000,000 more to museums and art gal- 
leries. After specifying some of the larger 
contributions, this article continues: These 
large donations by the living and the dying 
show the strength of the benevolent sentiment 
which is spreading over the country. It is 
no longer possible for the rich to live respec- 
tably or die respectably without contributing 
to the many enterprises and causes which 
appeal for help. That so large a part of 
such contributions goes to colleges and 
similar institutions, is another proof of the 
profound faith of the American people in 
education. We are often sneered at by 
critics of the Old World as a lot of money 
makers, wholly absorbed in material things; 
but no other nation can point to such a 
multitude of generous givers to higher insti- 
tutions and higher causes. 

Peace with England. — Twice in our 
history has it been proclaimed through our 
land as tidings of great joy : once, when the 
treaty was made which acknowledged our 
independent nationality, and, again, at the 
close of the war of 1812. Now, without war, 



1*97.] TO THE MINISTERS, ELDERS, AND PEOPLE OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 83 



and in order that there may be none again, 
a treaty has been carefully negotiated and 
solemnly signed by the proper diplomatic 
representatives of the two powers, pledging 
them, for five coming years, to refer ques- 
tions of right between them to a judicial 
tribunal, representing the conscience of the 
two nations, instead of two armies or two 
navies representing only their strength. 

This treaty is now before the Senate, and 
we are not willing to entertain a doubt that 
it will be ratified by it and by the proper 
authority in England. 



That it excepts from it- provisions all 
questions affecting "national honor" puts 
its letter on the low level of the obsoli 

of honor " of the duelist8j a code qo 1 ■: 

honored in Christendom. Lei ua trusl that 
the spirit which i< in it -the public opinion 
of two great Christian nations will make 
that incongruous exception a dead letter 

within the five years, and make it impossible 
to continue it in the treaty of L902. Then 
let it evermore be true, that, in all Anglo- 
Saxon Christendom, silent arma inter leges. 
Laws, not arms, be our code of honor. 



The. following circular was intended by the 
gentlemen whose names are subscribed to it to 
appear in an earlier number of this magazine. By 
a misunderstanding as to the preparation of it, it 
was not made ready in season for our January issue. 

At their request, we gladly and thankfully place 
it upon this page of the magazine of which these 
brethren speak so kindly. 

May we not reasonably hope that those who read 
it here and those who receive it as a circular will 
unite with the Secretaries in their effort to extend 
the circulation of a magazine which men whose 
offical position and large intelligence judge to be so 
well fitted to promote all departments of the great 
work to which their time and strength are devoted. 



to the ministers, elders, and people 
of the Presbyterian Church. 

The New Year offers to our Church new oppor- 
tunities for mission work at home and abroad. 
But opportunity implies obligation. That the 
Church may discharge her obligations, there is 
needed among her members a wider diffusion of 
knowledge than at present exists concerning the 
doors open before her and the agencies by which 
those doors may be entered. We therefore would 
now call your attention to the magazine established 
and maintained by the General Assembly to pro- 
mote the great work of our Church administered by 
its Boards and Permanent Committees, viz : The 
Church at Home and Abroad. 

It is now ten years since the consolidation of 
several papers into that magazine. By some the 
consolidation was regarded with misgiving ; by all, 
even the most hopeful, it was felt to be an experi- 
ment. In quality, the magazine has grown better 
year by year. As an organ for presenting to the 
Church the work and needs of the Boards, it has 
been increasingly effective. To-day it stands in the 



front rank of missionary periodicals. We, there- 
fore, as secretaries of the Boards, commend it most 
earnestly to the friends of the vast and varied work 
of our Church. 

The magazine, however, that it may do for that 
work what it is capable of doing, and what it ought 
to do, should have many times its present circula- 
tion. That would mean fuller knowledge, deeper 
sympathy and larger contributions. It should have 
a place in every household of our Church. 

Will not every minister, every elder, every 
thoughtful Christian, strive to bring about this most 
beneficent result ? 

William C. Roberts, 
Secretary of Board of Home Missions. 

I). J. McMillan, 
Secretary of Board of Horn* Missions. 
F. F. Ellin wood, 
Secretary of Board <f Foreign Missions. 

Jxo. Gillespie, 
Secretary of Board of Won ign M 
Arthur J. Brown, 
Secretary of Board of Foreig M 
Edward B. Hodge, 
Secretary of Board of Edit 
E. R. Cb win, 
Secretary of Board of Pvblication and S. S. Work. 
Erskinb N. White, 
Secretary of Board of < 'hurc I ' 

\Y. C. Cattell, 
Secretary of Board of Ministerial R 
Kl'W LRD P. Cow AN, 

Secretary of Board for Freedmen. 
E. C. Ray, 
Secretary of Hoard of Aid for Colleges and Acad 

Although not a Secretary at the time it was to- 
solved to send out this circular, I cheerfully give it 
my endorsement. 

B. L. A(,\ i.\\ . 
Secretory of the Board of Ministerial Relief. 



84 



TOUR THROUGH HOME MISSIONLAND — SYSTEMATIC PRAYING. [February , 



Good News from Secretary Speer. — The 
cable message received by Treasurer Dulles, Jan. 
13, is: Will leave as soon as possible. All well. 

We understand this to mean that at that date 
Mr. Speer was able and nearly ready to go for- 
ward on his journey, from Ham ad an, where the 
fever arrested his progress, to Teheran. In read- 
ing this, our readers may think of him as in that 
capital, and may cheerfully hope that he will be 
able to continue and complete his round-the-world 
tour, and come home across the broad Pacific, 
through the Golden Gate, across the whole breadth 
of his native land — thankfully contrasting it with 
the oriental lands he will have traversed 

"All well" of course includes Mrs. Speer, who 
has shared with her husband the affectionate and 
prayerful solicitude of their fellow-Christians in 
both hemispheres. How thankfully will he and 
Mrs. Speer always remember Hamadan and the 
"beloved physicians" and other fellow-disciples 
who have thus ministered to them in his name ! 



A Personally Conducted tour through Home 
Missionland may be had cheap by reading the 
letters on pages 99-102. You will stop off to talk with 
the folks in as many as nine States ; and your tour 
will reach as far east as New York ; as far west as 
California, and as far north as North Dakota. Do 
not fail to call on that good woman in North 
Dakota, who engaged the missionary to preach a 
' ' funeral sermon ' ' for her father who died ten years 
before. 

You smile at this, but I see a tear in your eye. 
She had not seen a minister in all those years, and 
yet had not forgotten that ministers of Christ are 
" Sons of Consolation," sent to bind up the broken- 
hearted. 

You want also to call on Miss Walker in Utah, 
and get her to introduce you to the girl in her 
school who wrote on November 25 : "To-morrow is 
Thanksgiven. I' m agoin to thank the Lord and 
give the poor some grub." 



Then you want to turn back to page 95 and 
introduce yourself to Dr. Henry S. Little, and ask 
him to enroll you as one of the company of H. M. 
tourists whom he conducts over Texas. Had you any 
adequate idea of the size of that State ? It would not 
be a bad plan to study up the geography of Texas, as 
he pictures it. If any reader should catch him in 
any mistakes, he will take it with good humor. 
His article will remind old readers in Indiana of 
his father, Dr. Henry Little, who did for Indiana 
in its early H. M. days what Dr. Timothy Hill did 
for Kansas — the very same that this ' ' chip of the 
old block ' ' is now doing for Texas. 



up to the State of Washington. Better wear warm 
clothes, going straight from Texas ; but under the 
lead of D. O. Ghormley you will move so briskly, 
and be breathing such a tonic air, you need not fear 
freezing while you explore that ' ' magnificent ter- 
ritory as great as New England and New York," 
and find its incalculable resources and its vast 
variety of productions, and make acquaintance 
with its heroic men and women. 

But I must not give you here all the plums in 
that home mission pie — turn over to those pages and 
hunt them with your own thumb. 



NOW GO. Did ever any of our boy readers, or 
any old men when they were boys, have part in a 
foot-race ? Kemember how you all stood in a row, 
careful, each one not to have his foot uhfairly 
beyond the line, nor an inch short of it, and how 
eagerly you listened for the signal words ; ' l One 
to begin ; two to show ; three to make ready ; and 
four to— Go?" 

Want to see pictures of that? Find them on 
pages 110, 112 and 113. 



' ' Therefore let us also, seeing we are compassed 
about with so great a cloud of witnesses, lay aside 
every weight, and the sin which doth so closely 
cling to us, and let us run with patience the race 
that is set before us. " See Heb. 12 : 1, noticing 
the marginal reading. 

Volunteers, reading that article by Dr. Hunter 
Corbett, do you not feel that China is a grand arena 
for the running of that race ? 



On other pages before and after that Rev. John 
Forman, Rev. W. S. Bannerman and Rev. W. S. 
Holt will stir your blood with just as vivid pictur- 
ing of the race grounds they know about. 

And then you want to walk with Mrs. Dale in 
her round of " house-to-house visitation" (p. 116), 
or, not to disturb or embarrass that beautiful work, 
go to her home and draw her out in friendly, sym- 
pathetic talk about the Syrian people into whose 
homes and hearts her visits have carried so much 
light and so much holy comfort — not comfort in the 
sense of mere soothing, but in the better sense of 
strength and courage. 



Having thus done Texas, you may as well hitch 
on to that Permanent Committee (p. 96), and go 



Systematic Praying. — Rev. Henry S. Butler 
thinks that to systematic study and systematic 
giving should be added systematic praying. He 
says: "While nothing should interfere with the 
spontaneity of prayer, there are certain great 
interests which require frequent mention at the 
throne of grace to which it is difficult] to dojjustice 



181)7.] 



THE DEBT OF THE HOME MISSIONS BOARD. 



85 



without a plan. Such a cause as Foreign Missions, 
for example, needs to be mentioned with more or 
less of detail ; but this is likely to be difficult, if 
not impossible, if it has to be one of many special 
subjects of entreaty urged at the same time. A 
plan like the following will allow much more 
satisfactory mention of specific subjects and give a 
wider range of petition." He suggests the setting 
apart of each day in the week for special prayer 
for some one great object — Home Missions, Foreign 
Missions, Education, the Ministry, etc. — and adds : 
"Of course, such a scheme will be varied to suit 
personal convenience and sense of propriety ; the 
object is, so to divide these subjects of prayer as to 
mention each regularly and with greater detail 
than would be possible if the attempt were made to 
mention them all every day." 



From Aleppo a statement was lately received 
by missionaries in Syria, that a very large number 
of Christians in Aintab had agreed to turn Mos- 
lems, saying their lives were very bitter, and to 
become Moslems outwardly was better than death. 
But one of the professors in the college heard of 
this, and on Sunday afternoon preached a sermon 
to a congregation crowding the church from the 
text, "Will ye also go away? " As he talked 
and reasoned with them they wept aloud, and as 
he closed his discourse with this same question, 
"Will ye also go away?" they replied, almost 
with one voice : "To whom shall we go ? thou 
hast the words of eternal life." 



Rev. Dr. Josiah Strong furnishes the fol- 
lowing instructive figures and statements 
about the debts and retrenchment plans of 
the Mission Boards of several denominations 
which we commend to our readers as well 
deserving careful aud sympathetic study: 

The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions 
closed its fiscal year, April 30, with a debt of 
$32,253. Appropriations much below those of two 
years ago. Receipts for seven months show a decrease 
of $24,199 as compared with the corresponding 
period of last year. 

The Presbyterian Home Board at close of its fis- 
cal year, April 1, was in debt $299,062. Its receipts 
for the first eight months are $6321 behind those of last 
year for the corresponding period. 

The Baptist Missionary Union two years ago in- 
curred a debt of *203,000. Notwithstanding ex- 
penditures have been cut down over $100,000, the 
debt at the close of the last fiscal year, March 31, 
was $163,000. Receipts for the first seven month* of 
this year show a decrease of $103,316 as compared 
with the corresponding period of last year. 

The Baptist Home Mission Society closed its 
year (March 31) with a debt of $86,245. The re- 
ceipts for eight months of this year compared with 



the corresponding period a year ago show a decrease 
of £108,784. 

The debt of the American Board (Congregational 
Foreign Missions) August 31, 1895, was $] 1 4,632. 
During the past year this debt has been wiped out, 
but not without a retrenchment of $70,000. 

The Congregational Home Missionary Society 
closed its fiscal year, April 1, with a debt of $51,000. 
While this debt has been reduced by $16,000, the 
receipts for seven months have fallen off f 110,000 as 
compared with the corresponding period of last year. 

The American Missionary Association (Congre- 
gational) closed its year with a debt of $66,572. 
It had cut it* work down $26,000 below that of last 
year, and $75,000 bcloio that of three years ago. 

The Congregational Church Building Society 
borrows no money, but is in debt to its work 
$25,000. 

The Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society 
(Foreign and Home) opened no new work during 
the year, and after cutting the old work seven per 
cent, closed their fiscal year, October 31, with a debt of 
$175,000. 

The Board of the Reformed Church (Dutch) 
closed their year, April 30, with the debt reduced 
to $7500, having retrenched eleven and a half per 
cent. The Board undertook no new work, and was 
unable to commission new missionaries or to send 
back old ones. 

The great work of the American Bible Society is 
suffering. It needs at least $250,000 a year, and its 
receipts from all sources during the first half of the 
present fiscal year amount to only $32,307. 

While the debt of the Presbyterian Home 
Board is the largest, its falling off in re- 
ceipts is the smallest. By reference to the 
Treasurer's statement on another page it 
will be seen that there was a gain in receipts 
from all sources except legacies. For the 
nine months closing December 31, 1896, 
there were gains over last year in receipts 
from churches of $55,749.19; from Wo- 
men's Societies, $13,040.18, and from indi- 
viduals, 814,814.36; but there was a 
falling off in legacies of $88,632.01, which 
overtook the gains and made a small loss of 
$5028.28. Of course the receipts from 
legacies are variable and uncertain. 

But how did this Board get so deeply 
into debt ? The General Assembly trans- 
ferred Indian work from the Foreign Board 
to the Home Board to the amount of 
$21,000 a year, and instructed the Home 
Board to receive no further aid from the 
Government in the management and support 
of all Indian contract schools, and to assume 
support of the same. This cut off $32,000 
a year of income from the Government, 
which the Church has not made up. These 
two items for three years account for 
$159,000 of the debt, leaving a balance 
of $140,000 to be attributed to the same 



80 



MISSIONS AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



[Febi 



cause or causes which threw all the other 
Boards into debt. This amount is a great 
deal smaller than the debt of either the 
Methodist Society or the Baptist Mission- 
ary Union, and not much above that of 
the American Board or of the two Congre- 



gational Home Boards, doing similar work. 
It is in fact below the average debt of these 
four, which is $141,564. It is alike true 
of all these Boards that special efforts were 
made last year through their churches to 
pay their debts. 



MISSIONS AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



There is no better keynote for the anthem 
of missions than that which the ancient 
psalmist struck " to the chief musician on 
Neginoth," thus: " God be merciful unto 
us and bless us; cause his face to shine 
upon us; Selah — that thy way may be 
known upon earth, thy saving health 
among all nations ' ' (Ps. 67). 

Narrowly national, selfish, exclusive, 
have you imagined Judaism to be —caring 
only for Israel and disposed to despise, to 
hate, to curse the " uncircumcised ?" 

It surely was not so with the Judaism 
taught in the Old Testament — sung in the 
inspired psalmody of Holy Scripture. 
God's ancient promise to Abraham was: 
" In thee shall all the families of the earth 
be blessed" (Gen. 12:3). This promise 
was renewed to Jacob as he lay on that 
stone at Bethel, and looked up the stairs on 
which angels were going up and down. 
Two significant words were then added: 
" In thee and in thy seed shall all the fami- 
lies of the earth be blessed." Always a 
world wide blessing, a blessing for all the 
families of the earth, was that of which 
Jehovah's covenant made the people of 
Israel the custodians. Prophets and psalm- 
ists, in all the Hebrew Scriptures, wrote 
and sung in a tone and spirit suitable to 
that gracious covenant, representing " the 
wideness of God's mercy like the wideness 
of the sea," embracing all lands and laving 
all shores. 

JUDAISM SPOILED. 

When Judaism became narrower than 
that, it became sour and rotten. The genu- 
ine Abrahamic Judaism was restored by 
Christ, and exemplified in that sometime 
Pharisee, narrowest of that narrowest sect, 
whom his effectual grace transformed into 
an apostle of the Gentiles, proclaiming the 
salvation -bringing grace to circumcised and 
uncircumcised alike — to all mankind. 



If in the preceding centuries this world - 
wideness of the gospel call greatly lost its 
hold upon the Christian Church, certainly 
in the century now closing its power has 
been great ly a revived. Far from claiming 
that the entire Church " has done what she 
could," we should thankfully testify that 
" God hath done great things " in her and 
by her, as well as for her. This divine 
power vivifying and energizing the Church 
of Christ has indeed made this a wonderful 
century. In humbliag ourselves for what 
we so culpably have failed to do, let us not 
forget nor disown the grace of God which 
has wrought in us to will and to do so 
much. The thankful joy of this is surely 
the joy of the Lord which should be our 
strength for future and greater achieve- 
ments. 

A MISSIONARY CENTURY. 

It is not extravagant to call this a mis- 
sionary century. If it began with a gen- 
eral indifference and ignorance represented 
by the famous sneer of Sydney Smith, it 
is ending with a world-wide public opinion 
which holds that sneer famously contempti- 
ble, and honors, as it honors few other men, 
" the consecrated cobbler," at whom that 
sneer was flung. 

As to our American Christian sentiment, 
we believe it to have been rightly repre- 
sented by a minister whose home was be- 
yond the Mississippi, who said to a General 
Assembly, " We do not wish you to send 
into our western region, for its evangeliza- 
tion, any ministers who are not warmly 
interested in foreign missions, for we have 
no confidence in a kind of Christianity in 
which that element is lacking. ' ' It was so 
eminent a laborer for home missions as 
Timothy Hill, who said in a Missouri pres- 
bytery, " Home missions and foreign mis- 
sions are so blended that no man can tell 
where one ends and the other begins, and 



1897.] 



MISSIONS AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



87 



no man can have the true Christian spirit 
without being heartily interested in both." 

In the first year of the publication of this 
magazine, its editor received from a home 
missionary pastor of a very small congrega- 
tion in Kentucky, a contribution of that 
little flock to the treasury of the Board of 
Foreign Missions, as a thank-offering for a 
remarkable triumph of law and order over 
sons of Belial who had insolently disturbed 
their Sabbath-school in its Christmas festivi- 
ties. Was not that particular direction of 
that thank-offering significant of the inter- 
est in the " wide, wide world " which our 
home mission evangelism cultivates ? 

Within twenty-four hours of the reception 
of that letter, there came into our office 
from Teheran a letter written for the East- 
ern Persia Mission, enclosing a draft for ten 
dollars, to pay for seven copies of The 
Church at Home and Abroad, for them- 
selves, and for three copies to be sent as a 
brotherly gift from them to three home 
missionaries. The writer of that letter had 
himself labored with conspicuous energy in 
Nebraska for a few years before he went to 
Persia. Nowhere is there more intelligent 
zeal for foreign missions or more frequent 
consecration of young lives to foreign mis- 
sion service than in the colleges and schools 
and homes of the West; and nowhere is 
there warmer love for home missions, or 
more prayerful desire for the complete 
evangelization of our own country, than in 
the homes and hearts of our countrymen 
who are foreign missionaries. 

The time is past when the living Church 
can be justly charged with indifference to 
the work of God abroad in comparison with 
the work of God at home. 

OUR OWN LAND A FOREIGN MISSION FIELD. 

We usually think of foreign missions as 
missions to foreign lands — sent from our 
own land, not planted in it. 

Another providential aspect of the work 
of missions deserves serious consideration. 
The very first work of foreign missions to 
which Christians in this country were called 
was to the aboriginal pagans among whom 
they had come to dwell. That work, 
continued until now, has made such names 
as Eliot, Brainerd, Mayhew, Worcester, 
Whitman, Riggs and Williamson conspicu- 
ous in missionary annals; nor was his min- 
istry to the Indians an insignificant addition 



to the world-wide and enduring fame of 
Edwards. 

The very success of this work in Chris- 
tianizing the aborigines has gradually 
changed the aspect and the methods of it bo 
far as to render it proper to regard it as a 
home mission, and to transfer the superin- 
tendence of it to the Board of Home Mis- 
sions. The Board of Home Missions now 
has supervision of much other work in 
Arizona, New Mexico and Alaska, which is 
more foreign than American in most of its 
features, but which tends to Americanize, 
while Christianizing, those populations — 
fitting them at once for citizenship in our 
republic and in the kingdom of Christ. 

STILL COMINCJ. 

Nor is this home mission work for for- 
eigners limited to those regions which have 
been added by conquest and by purchase to 
the original national domain. Foreigners 
have come to us from their native lands 
across the seas, by millions. They are in 
our great cities — in some of them outnum- 
bering those whose ancestors came a few 
generations ago; they are serving in our 
kitchens ; they are delving in our mines ; 
they are grinding music along our streets. 
Some of them, not lacking in intelligence, 
industry and thrift, are doing business and 
acquiring wealth, social standing and politi- 
cal influence. 

With these, let us thankfully remember, 
have come not a few intelligent and faithful 
Christians, coming with thorough knowledge 
and appreciation of the regulated liberty of 
which we boast, and the Christian princi- 
ples which are its elements; desiring and 
qualified not only to enjoy, but to help us 
perpetuate our regulated liberty, and to save 
from corruption and decay the institutions 
which were framed to realize and protect it. 
Many such, in our mercantile, manufactur- 
ing and financial enterprises, in our civil 
and military service, in our educational 
institutions and in our pulpits and ecclesias- 
tical assemblies, are not a whit behind the 
foremost in intelligent piety and patriotism. 
None more intelligently than these appreci- 
ate the obligation and the opportunity to 
evangelize the greater number of immi- 
grants, whose coming, unless they are 
promptly evangelized, is an enormous peril 
to all that makes our country worth coming 
to or being born in. Endangered, as 



88 



MISSIONS AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



[February, 



doubtless the purity aud honor of American 
citizenship is, by the ignorant and degraded 
multitudes rushing into it from other lands, 
let us not forget that they are not a few 
who, of their own intelligent choice, have 
come hither to obtain this citizenship. 

Nor has this wholesome, helpful, valuable 
immigration ceased. Let us hope that it 
will not cease. 

A GROWING WORK. 

In such ways, the work of home missions 
has grown upon our Church, calling us to 
deal with various populations speaking 
divers languages — almost, if not quite, as 
many as our foreign missionaries encounter. 
The work, in its extent and variety, has 
overtasked the resources of the Board of 
Home Missions, and burdened it dangerous- 
ly with debt. 

But let us not take despondent views. 
We can pay that debt, and our self respect 
forbids us to leave it long unpaid. 

After such payment, what ? We see 
good omens and fairer prospects. The 



Board of Home Missions — twenty-one hard 
working faithful men in New York — are not 
to struggle alone with all the problems and 
demands of a work extending over a field of 
continental breadth and of so complex con- 
ditions. Synods and presbyteries are 
recognizing their responsibility for the 
evangelization of their own fields. Many 
of these are finding that they can relieve 
the Board at New York of all appropria- 
tions for the work within their bounds and 
all care and labor in the administration of 
it, and not discontinue nor diminish but 
actually increase their people's contributions 
to the general treasury. The simplest arith- 
metic shows what financial relief this assures ; 
and experience already shows what whole- 
some educational effect it has upon the synods 
that are able to be self-supporting and more, 
and upon those not able to do this in exciting 
them to healthy and honorable endeavor to 
become so at the earliest possible day. 

Such reflections as these cheer us, and 
give us hope and courage to bid Missions, 
at home and abroad, a Happy New Year. 




Muir Inlet, Alaska. 



Just as we go to press comes a letter from Rev. J. A. Eakin, of the Siam Mission, telling of the sudden 
death of Mrs. Eakin, at Anderson, Ind., January 2, 1897. He says: ™ 

" Her last days upon earth were spent in a constant struggle for life. She had a very strong determi- 
nation to get well. Only a few days before her departure, she was talking with me about something 
we were to do when we would go back to Siam next summer. I think she never relinquished that hope 
while she had consciousness." 

Two little children are thus left motherless, but Mr. Eakin' s sister, of the same mission, promptly 
offers to take motherly care of them. 



HOME MISSIONS. 



NOTES. 

A Model Committeeman. — He says: 
" It would seem as if a great deal of work 
requires to be done in the Territory, and if 
I am to remain a member of the Home 
Mission Committee of presbytery I will not 
rest until I have visited all the mission sta- 
tions and preaching places and seen for 
myself what work is being done, for I often 
feel at a loss to know what to recommend 
to the Board." 

" Old D wight Mission," in the Chero- 
kee Nation, which was established in 1829, 
where so much good has been done, where 
so much history has been made, has been 
practically abandoned as a boarding-school. 
Malaria developed and did dreadful work 
among teachers and scholars. It would 
have been inhuman to require them to 
remain there longer. It may be that the 
old graveyard just above the mission build- 
ings is a source of the trouble. It certainly 
is true that the increase of decaying vegetable 
matter is a prolific source of trouble. The 
clearing away of forests in the vicinity and 
all along the river in order to prepare the 
land for agricultural uses exposes large and 
increasing areas to the action of sun and rain, 
and thus rank annual growth springs spon- 
taneously from the rich soil, and decaying, 
impregnates atmosphere and water with 
disease and death. 

The boarding-school has been practically 
removed to Talequah, and consolidated 
with that flourishing school. The mission 
work at Old Dwight is confined to day- 
school and preaching service. 



A Model Home Mission church in Mis- 
souri. — Its pastor says: " The membership 
of our church is small, but every member 
is a part of what is undoubtedly to this 
community the little leaven. They are poor 
with respect to this world's goods, but I 
know that some are giving to the cause of 
Christ nearer one-fifth than one-tenth of 
their income. I am not aware of a single 
household in the church that is not a Bethel 
having its family altar." 



A Home Missionary^ Wife who loves 
the cause sends a small remittance, accom- 
panied with the following note: " On May 
23, our little .son, Robert May Clare, died. 
He was just one year old. At his birth a 
friend gave him a dollar. Here it is. We 
want it to go to the Home Mission Board. 
May his life live on among us." 



Wholesome Words. — Any one who be- 
lieves that home missionaries are not faith- 
ful in efforts to develop the giving power of 
their churches, may read with profit the fol- 
lowing extract from the sermon before the 
Synod of Washington by the retiring Mod- 
erator. They would be wholesome words for 
some churches that are not on the mission 
field, and for some people who reside in 
other parts of our country. Among other 
good strong things Dr. Lackey said: "And 
I believe, dear brethren, that if the eyes of 
our people were to be opened so they could 
see Jesus sitting there in one of the pews, 
the habit of our churches would appear to 
them awfully criminal. There are Presby- 
terians in the bounds of this synod whose 
taxes are $200 a year, who pay $5 a year 
to the support of the gospel. There is 
many a church where Jesus would give 
them such a look as he gave Peter — a look 
that ought to send them out to weep bitter- 
ly and to plead : ' Oh ! Master, we never 
knew before how it looked ! We are 
ashamed and conscience-smitten! Oh! 
Master, forgive us, and we will do so no 
more; we will be glad to deny ourselves a 
little and pay for our preaching ourselves; 
to bear at least a light cross for thee who hast 
borne so heavy a cross for us!' " 



Mrs. A. W. Stowell, of Vancouver, 
Wash., who is doing a wonderful work in the 
States of the remote Northwest, organizing 
women's missionary societies and encour- 
aging and strengthening those that are 
already organized, writes: 

On my stage trip of one hundred and live miles, 
we nooned one day at a station called Orondo, 
Washington. There was only a post-office with 

89 



90 



THE INDIANS. 



[February, 



eating house attached, and a landing for the "up- 
river" steamboats. I was the only lady passenger, 
and as I sat alone in the dining-room for two hours 
I had time to look around. 

The majesty of the mountains and the mighty 
rush of the river were in strange contrast with the 
barren sand and temporary dwelling without paint, 
porch or shade. The barren interior indicated 
nothing of comfort or rest, while a weary-looking 
young woman busied herself with preparations for 
the dinner. When the opportunity offered, I asked 
her how long she had lived there. "About five 
years too long," she said with a hopeless kind of ut- 
terance that made me long to know if she possessed 
the " indwelling presence" of joy and hope through 
which one is able to say "all things work together 
for good, ' ' etc. I learned that she was from a city 
in Pennsylvania, a Presbyterian, a former worker 
in the missionary society. She seemed so hungry 
to talk with a woman that, going without her din- 
ner, she sat by me until I left. ' ' I am afraid I am 
losing my religion ; I don't enjoy it as I used to. 
We have no church privileges ; our neighbors are 
so far away and we work so hard that when we 
could get out in the evening the distances are too 
great. We always used to have family worship, 
but I am the only one to do it. My husband is not 
a Christian, and I find it so hard I cannot do it." 
I told her my errand, and gave her sample copies 
of H. M. M. and W. W. She clasped them with 
such hungry eyes, and said as pen cannot say, ' ' Oh, 
I used to always read them, and I am so glad to see 
them again." After a while she gave me a dollar, 
asking that they be sent to her address, and I pre- 
sume that ere this you have a new subscriber at Oron- 
do. Holding my hand in both of hers as we parted, 
she said, ' l Don' t forget me, and if you have any 
influence with presbytery ask them to send at least 
an occasional minister." I am sorry that the 
Lord' s treasury is so empty that such fields cannot 
be reached. I wish there were more apostles who 
would go even though ' ' no scrip' ' were prepared 
for their journey, and among such a community the 
' ' two coats' ' would be an unusual comfort. 

I was entertained by a woman (in another place) 
who came to me the morning I left, and handing 
me one dollar said, ' ' I think we will have a mis- 
sionary society but I can't wait ; take this for your 
board. I couldn't say my prayers this morning for 
thinking of those poor Chinese women you told 
about, and I didn't know of the needs in our own 
land." This woman's husband is a saloon keeper, 
and alone she prays night and morn that God will 
take their business from them. " I would take in 
washing or do anything rather than have such 
money." 

These glimpses into the privacy of home and sor- 
rowing hearts are too sacred for unsympathetic eyes, 
but I ask that such needs be mentioned in your 
meetings for prayer. They will feel the answer, I 
am sure. 

Our oldest contributor writes from Fort 
Scott, Kansas: 

In the early part of November my aged and dear 
sister gave me five dollars to forward to the Board 
of Home Missions. She died at midnight, Novem- 
ber 11, aged ninety-one years and seven months. 



Mental occupation and pressing events and the in- 
firmities of age, being now four months in my nine- 
ty-seventh year, have delayed the transmission of it 
to you. 

Please find five dollars enclosed for the treasury of 
the Board. 



Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work at Home. 



JANUARY The New West. 

FEBRUARY The Indians. 

MARCH Alaska. 

APRII, The Cities. 

MAY The Mormons. 

JUNE Our Missionaries. 

JUI/Y Results of the Year. 

AUGUST The Foreigners. 

SEPTEMBER The Outlook. 

OCTOBER The Treasury. 

NOVEMBER Romanists and Mexicans. 

DECEMBER The South. 



THE INDIANS. 

The total Indian population of the United 
States, exclusive of Alaska, is 249,273, but 
it must be understood that these are not all 
in the native wild state, neither armed with 
bows and arrows, nor caparisoned with feath- 
ers, red blankets and beads, nor provided 
with tomahawks and scalping-knives. In- 
deed very few tribes remain to this day in 
the garb and habit of the typical Indian. 
The encroachments of the white race have 
narrowed his wild hunting grounds to the 
tame reservation and deprived him of the 
energy and the ambition of his forefathers. 
Contact with the whites has either elevated 
him by the agency of the missionary into 
intelligent citizenship, or degraded him, by 
the contaminating influences of the vicious 
adventurers, into a very degraded and 
treacherous creature. 

It is well, at the outstart, to consider 
the various classes into which our Indian 
tribes have been segregated by the various 
influences that have been at work among 
them. We can arrive more speedily at a 
fair conception of the Indian question at the 
present day by considering them in eight 
classes : 

1. The Six Nations, St. Kegis, and other 
Indians of New York, number at present, 
according to the United States census, 5304. 



1897.] 



'I UK INDIANS. 



91 



These have been so long removed from 
wild and savage life as to be tractable, and 

but little removed from the simpler life of 
our poorer whites. 

2. The Five Civilized Tribe* residing in 
the Indian Territory, namely, the Chero- 
kees, Chick asaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and 
Seniinoles, number in all 66,289. Among 
these tribes the gospel has been preached 
and schools have been maintained for sev- 
eral generations, so that among them are 
seen to-day few traces of the native Indian 
habit of life. 

3. The Eastern Cherokees of North 
Carolina who refused to go westward with 
the great body of their tribe sixty years 
ago, and remained among the mountain 
homes of their forefathers. This remnant 
numbers at present 2885. 

4. Indians who are self-sustaining citizens, 
taxed or taxable, living almost exclusively 
away from the reservations, and generally 
owning land in severalty. These number 
at present about 34,567. 

5. Indians on reservations under control 
of the Indian office, not taxed or taxable, 
numbering 131,382. 

6. The Pueblos of New Mexico, descend- 
ants of that ancient and remarkable people, 
who are neither war-like nor migratory, 
dwell in houses which they or their ances- 
tors have built of adobe bricks after a style 
of architecture peculiarly their own. They 
number at present 8278. 

7. Apaches who are under the control of 
the War department, prisoners of war, 384. 

8. Indians who are in State, Territorial 
or National prison*, numbering, according 
to the recent census, 184. 

This classification gives some intimation 
of the progress which has been made by the 
various agencies for the elevation of the 
American Indians. We cannot 'go verv 
fully into a discussion of the various theories 
of dealing with this people, but we can con- 
fidently affirm that the great problems that 
now confront us are their civilization, 
education and religious training. The first 
of these we have not space to discuss, but 
must pass it by with the single remark that 
it involves the breaking up of the tribal 
relation, the allotment of lauds in severalty, 
and the equal protection of the Indian with 
all other citizens under the laws of our 
common country. Very gratifying progress 
has been made in this direction. 



EDUCATION. 

The work of education belongs to the 
general government, upon whom tin- Indi- 
ans have indisputable claims, both as wards 

and as pensioners. It must be conceded, 
however, that the foundation of all real 
progress in educating the Indians was laid 
by the mission schools of the various relig- 
ious denominations who have wrought 
among them all through this centurv. In 
the earliest stages of such a work methods 
were needful which the government could 
not employ, but taking the educational 
work at a certain stage of its progress the 
government has wisely assumed the entire 
expense and control of a large part of it, 
while all the Protestant denominations have 
relinquished government aid, and have con- 
tinued educational work entirely at their 
own expense in the spirit of Christian 
missions. But with all the efforts of gov- 
ernment and mission boards, less than half 
of the Indians of school-going age are 
provided with instruction. The mission 
schools have led up to the organization of 
churches. 

SPIRITUAL INTERESTS. 

The spiritual interests of Indians are left, 
of course, to the care of the churches and 
their missionaries. The results have cer- 
tainly satisfied all reasonable expectations. 
The Presbyterian Church very early in the 
history of our country began its work among 
them. The first attempt seems to have 
been made among the Indians of Long 
Island 155 years ago, and the first mis- 
sionary was the Rev. Azariah Horton, who 
entered upon his work in 1741. He was 
followed two years later by Rev. David 
Brainerd, who began his work in Connec- 
ticut, but afterwards continued it in New- 
Jersey. He was succeeded by his brother, 
Rev. John Brainerd. Being encouraged 
by the results, the Synod of New York 
extended the work, supporting mission- 
aries as far west as among the Delawares 
in Ohio. At the beginning of the present 
century the Synod of Virginia sent three 
missionaries to certain tribes in Ohio and 
Michigan. In 1803 the General Assembly 
appointed the Rev. Gideon Blackburn to 
labor among the Cherokees in Tennessee. 
He established two schools within three 
years. In five years he had taught four or 



y*2 



THE INDIANS. 



[February, 



five hundred youths to read the English 
Bible. Among them were a number of 
hopeful conversions. But we need not 
speak in detail of the progress of the work 
from that time until the present. 

The facts and statistics of the Presbyte- 
rian Church among the Indians at the pres- 
ent time may be briefly summed up as 
follows : 

We have churches in ten States and three 
Territories, and among 1# different tribes. 

In the State of New York, among the 
" Six Nations," there are six churches with 
an aggregate membership of 469, and five 
Sabbath -schools with 364 scholars. Among 
these there are two white ministers and nine 
Indian helpers. 

In Wisconsin we have one church among 
the Stockbridge Indians with fifteen mem- 
bers, one among the Chippewas with fifty 
members, and a Sabbath-school with thirty 
scholars. 

In Minnesota there is one church with 
thirty-one members, and a Sabbath -school 
with forty-eight scholars. 

In Nebraska there is one church among 
the Winnebagoes, with seventeen members, 
and a Sabbath-school with one hundred and 
twenty scholars. Among the Omahas in 
that State there are two churches with fifty- 
one members and two Sabbath-schools with 
sixty-seven scholars. 

In North Dakota there are three churches 
among the Sioux with one hundred and 
three members, and three Sabbath-schools 
with forty-two members. Each of these 
churches has an Indian pastor. 

In Sjuth Dakota we have eighteen 
churches with 1146 members, fourteen Sab- 
bath-schools with 529 scholars. These 
churches are ministered to by fifteen Indian 
and three white ministers. The enrolment 
of the Sabbath-schools does not tell the 
whole story of the religious instruction of the 
youth. There are connected with all these 
churches schools for religious as well as the 
industrial training of the children. 

Among the Sioux iu the northeastern part 
of Montana we have one church with fifty - 
two members, and 243 scholars in the 
Sabbath -school. An Indian minister has 
charge of this church. The churches and 
ministers of North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Minnesota and Montana constitute an Indian 
presbytery. 

Among the five civilized tribes of the 



Indian Territory, we have twenty -two 
churches with 1144 members, fifteen Sab- 
bath-schools with 700 scholars, all under 
the care of seventeen white ministers and 
eleven Indian ministers, evangelists and 
helpers. There are scores of Indian mem- 
bers connected with our white churches in 
this Territory that are not enumerated in 
the membership given above. 

Among the Pueblos of New Mexico, situ- 
ated at the Pueblo of Laguna, we have a 
church of eleven members, a Sabbath - 
school at the same place and one at the 
neighboring pueblo of Seama with an 
aggregate enrolment of fifty scholars. 

Among the Pimas and Papagoes, affiliated 
tribes, we have one church of 203 members 
with half a dozen mission stations under the 
pastoral care of Rev. Charles H.Cook and two 
Indian helpers. The Sabbath -school in con- 
nection with this church has 200 scholars. 

Among the Nez Perce Indians in Northern 
Idaho we have five churches with 425 mem- 
bers, four Sabbath-schools with 301 scholars. 
Nine Indian ministers are in charge of 
these churches, all of whom were trained by 
that remarkable woman, Miss Sue L. 
McBeth. Just over the line in Oregon 
there is a church among the Umatillas of 
sixty members and a Sabbath -school of 
fifty-four scholars, and over in eastern 
Washington, among the Spokanes, another 
tribe closely affiliated with the Nez Perce, 
we have two churches with seventy-six 
members and two Sabbath- schools with 
eighty scholars. This work all rests upon the 
solid basis of sixty years of faithful training 
which was begun by those faithful mission- 
aries, Drs, Whitman, Spaulding and Eells. 
In the western part of Washington near the 
city of Tacoma, among the Puyallup Indians, 
we have three churches with 170 members 
and two Sabbath-schools with 294 scholars, 
all under the care of one white minister. 

So far as these great results can be tabu- 
lated, the aggregates are sixty-nine 
churches, 4030 members, fifty-four Sab- 
bath-schools, with 3078 scholars, fifty 
Indian ministers and twenty-eight white 
ministers laboring among the Indians. 
They contributed last year to congrega- 
tional expenses and the Boards of our 
Church, $12,745.05. 

In all this statement no account has been 
taken of the school work, and only occa- 
sional reference has been made to outlying 



1897.] 



PUYALLUP INDIAN RESERVATION. 



mission stations among the tribes. There is 
not space to mention individually' the noble 
missionaries who are carrying on this great 
work. At best, cold figures convey an 
inadequate idea of the religious, social and 
moral results among the aborigines of our 
country. They give a sadly inadequate 
conception of the general uplift of the tribes 



wl 



ii. iii we arc 



la!) 



93 

In it all no 



Doring. 

mention is made of the many tribe- that are 
as read}- for the missionary as these, and 
among whom no missionary of the Ct 

has ever yet been sent, and who in the vcrv 
heart of this great, rich, Christian land are 
passing on to death without a knowledge of 
the Saviour who died for them. 




Mt. St. Elias, Alaska, 18,000 feet high. 



PUYALLUP INDIAN RESERVA- 
TION. 

REV. JOHN M. PAMMENT. 

At the beginning of the fall work the 
missionary decided upon a series of special 
preaching and prayer meetings in the houses 
of the Indians, which continued through 
October and November. The first happy 
effect was seen in rallying the people to- 
gether in a remarkable way. Many came 
to the meetings who had long neglected 
the services of the sanctuary. One young 
Indian of considerable influence, and for 
whom much prayer had been offered, began 
to show a deep interest in the things per- 
taining to the kingdom of God, and at the 
weekly prayer meeting at the manse, he 
confessed his faith in Christ and has thrown 
himself most heartily into all the work and 
services of the church. Many times have 



we thought that should he become con- 
verted he w r ould be a great blessing to the 
young men around him, and now we grate- 
fully praise the Lord for what he has done. 
Another case is that of an older man, 
father of a grown family, and for many 
years considered one of the best men of this 
tribe. But seven years ago he became 
addicted to the use of strong drink, and 
became a poor drunkard. Fierce and pas- 
sionate, he seemed like one possessed with 
an angry demon, and repelled all efforts to 
try to lift him up. But the death of his 
only son seemed to touch his heart and pre- 
pared him for our visits, and for reading the 
Scriptures and praying with him. He soon 
professed a desire to lead a different life be- 
fore all his people at the Sabbath service. 
Knowing the terrible hold drink has had on 
him, we made earnest prayer that God 
would keep him, and to this time he has 



94 



A DAY WITH RED MEN. 



[February, 



been continually with us at church and 
prayer meeting. At the last prayer meet- 
ing of the old year he brought with him an 
Indian and his wife, both of whom have 
been falling into the sin of drink, and these 
confessed their sin and stated their earnest 
desire to lead a new life. Thus, like the 
poor demoniac of old, out of whom the 
Saviour cast the legion of devils, this Indian 
is going to his own people and telling them 
what great things the Lord hath done for 
him and hath had compassion on him. 
Others are receiving spiritual blessing and 
our prayer is that God will continue to bless 
his word among these people. The prayers 
of those who read this short account are 
desired to the same end. 



A DAY WITH RED MEN. 

[Condensed from the Pocatello Tribune.] 
Messrs. Goodwin and Hoyt, of the com- 
missioners to treat with the Indians of the 
Fort Hall Reservation, and Senator F. T. 
Dubois, met the chiefs and headmen of the 
Shoshones and Bannocks in council at the 
Ross Fork Agency. The chiefs, headmen 
and leading Indians of the two tribes to the 
number of 200 were present at the confer- 
ence, which lasted about two hours, and was 
most satisfactory in every particular. An 
excellent feeling prevailed; the Indians were 
friendly and anxious to discuss the questions 
pertaining to the reservation ; to give their 
views and ask for information on points that 
they did not understand. Most of the 
chiefs and headmen remembered Senator 
Dubois from the time when he was an 
employe at the agency. They knew his 
present position and accepted his statements 
as authoritative. 

The conference with the chiefs was held 
in the big council hall, beginning at 2 
o'clock and lasting until after 5 o'clock. 
The chiefs sat silent and dignified until 
Captain Jim, a powerful Indian, with the 
calm and benevolent face of a philanthro- 
pist, opened the council. The guttural 
tones of the Shoshone tongue fell from his 
lips in sentences that were not without rude 
eloquence of their own, and the assembled 
chiefs grunted their approval. 

Senator Dubois spoke substantially as follows : 

"As a member of the Great Father's 
Council at Washington, I am for the Indian 



as well as for the white man. The Great 
Father wishes for the best for the Indian 
and white man. All are his children alike, 
and his protecting care is given to all alike. 
Your treaties are now expiring, and the 
Great Father wishes each of you to take his 
own land and to improve it so that your 
children may have something after you are 
gone. In order that you may improve your 
lands, the Great Father is building a big 
irrigation ditch, and has sent three wise men 
with whom you may arrange to sell part of 
your lands so that you may have money 
with which to build homes and buy tools. 
Your treaties are expiring; game is get- 
ting scarce; the laws are made for both 
white men and Indians. You must now 
prepare to become self-supporting. What- 
ever arrangement you make with the com- 
missioners, I shall be in the Great Father's 
Council to see that your wishes are carried 
out exactly according to the terms of the 
agreement. ' ' 

Two men of the Bannock tribe, called Jim Bal- 
lard and Big Joe, spoke with " rugged eloquence 
and force" in " dignified but firm opposition to the 
sale of any of their lands," and " with mournful 
disquietude for the future of their race. ' ' 

SPEECH OF POCATELLO JIM, A BANNOCK 
CREEK SHOSHONE. 

"All our old chiefs are dead. I scarcely 
know what to do. I want to do what is 
best. I am old, and for me it makes little 
difference, but I wish my children to rise 
above me. All things change. Laws and 
customs change as men go forward. The 
coat I wear was once new, but now it is old. 
The game I once hunted is now gone. 
The law of the white man has taken the 
place of the law of the red man. I know 
not what is best. Once the red men spoke 
tongues that ran all the same way; now 
their tongues talk in lines that lead them far 
apart. I believe that the Great Father 
wishes for our good, and, for my part, I 
am in favor of doing as the Great Father 
asks us to do. ' ' 

In spite of the guttural tone, Pocatello 
Jim's voice was musical, his gestures were 
graceful and his bearing dignified. He 
wore a full suit of citizen's clothes, made of 
clay-colored overall stuff. He was followed 
in much the same strain by Captain Jim 
and by Pat Tyhee, a son of the old chief of 



1897.] ANNUAL REPORT OF REV. PI. S. LITTLE, D. D. , MISSIONARY TO SYNOD OF TEXAS. 95 



that name, and many others. Jack Iloyt, 
the war chief of the Bannocks, and a 
number of the young Bannocks, expressed 
themselves in much the same way — anxious 
to do what was right, and confident in the 
friendship and good will of the Great 
Father, and willing to do what he thought 
best. The only opposition to selling a part 



of their lands came from Jim Ballard and 
Big Joe. 

The scene was a most interesting study. 
Nothing could exceed the dignity of tic- old 
chiefs as they rose, laid aside their blankets 
and solemnly shook hands with the Senator 
and the commissioners, and then delivered 
their orations. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF REV. H. S. LITTLE, 

D.D., SYNODICAL MISSIONARY TO 

THE SYNOD OF TEXAS. 

It is with special satisfaction that I make my re- 
port to the Synod of Texas this year. We have 
multiplied causes of gratitude. For instance, the 
synod gave seventeen per cent, more to home mis- 
sions this year than last, and more than any 
previous year, save one, in its history. 

But there is another type of facts that are both 
surprising and interesting. Some of the things that 
I say hinge on the fact that deep water has been se- 
cured at Galveston and at Sabine Pass, or Port 
Arthur ; and there are good reasons to believe that 
it will be secured in two other places. Vessels of 
the largest size have actually been loaded at both of 
the above places. 

I have a surprise for you and I wonder if it will 
impress you as it did me when my attention was 
first called to it. St. Paul, Minn., Bismarck, Dak., 
Helena, Mont. , and Salt Lake City, Utah, are not so 
far from the northwest corner of Texas as that same 
corner is from Brownsville, in southern Texas ; 
these two points are 800 miles from each other. 
Chicago and Cincinnati are nearer to Dallas county, 
Texas, than is Galveston, on the Gulf ; St. Louis is 
nearer to Lipscomb county than is Galveston ; Texar- 
kana is nearer to western Virginia and North 
Carolina than to El Paso, Texas ; San Diego is a 
nearer neighbor to El Paso than is Galveston. In 
fact 1000 miles of the Pacific Coast is nearer to El 
Paso than is any part of the Gulf Coast. Kansas 
City is distant from New York 1333 miles ; from 
Galveston, Texas 885, and from Port Arthur, or 
Sabine Pass, 767 ; from Savannah 1186 ; New 
Orleans, 881. The tonnage during the past year of 
grain in bulk was 311,931 tons, against 217,468 
tons the previous year, being an increase of 124,466 
tons, or fifty-seven per cent. ; and arrangements 
have recently been made by various transatlantic 
steamship lines for regular service to Galveston. 
This service includes the North German Lloyd, 
Hamburg-American, Harrison and the West Indian 
and Pacific companies. 



All this means that shipping from the North and 
Northwest is to be taken away from the East and 
given to Texas. New Orleans already begins to 
feel the influence of deep water at Galveston, and 
when the direct line of railway, almost completed, 
from Kansas City to Port Arthur is finished, the 
impression will be vastly deeper. Texas now has 
three railways across the western border ; three 
into the Southern States ; six into the Northern 
States, with two more in prospect, one of them, the 
Kansas City, Pittsburg and Gulf Railroad, almost 
completed to Port Arthur. 

What does it all mean ? A population as 
dense as Illinois would give us 14,650,000 ; as New 
Jersey, 63,800,000. Only six per cent, of the area 
of Texas is under cultivation, and there are but 
eight persons to the square mile ; for while Dallas 
county has seventy- four persons to the square mile, 
Castro county has but one person to 100 square 
miles. "Winter wheat can be planted from Sep- 
tember to January, corn and cotton from February 
to June, millet and sorghum from February to 
August, fruit trees almost any time between Octo- 
ber and April." Vast sections are splendidly 
adapted to fruit. All this means that Texas is to 
be trodden under foot of the Gentiles ; Palestine 
under Solomon was not more the centre of things 
than Texas is to be, if only we can regulate the 
water supply ; and thousands of acres have been 
redeemed already, and time will solve the question 
for other thousands. But other facts are beginning 
to manifest themselves. Fruit grows in the gulf 
region most wonderfully ; its variety, its quantity 
and its early season are to be noted. In the latter 
respect we can rival California. 

There are manufacturing interests developing in 
various places, inviting many to settle here ; 
instance oil mills, cotton mills, car shops and coal 
mines. Half of a Northern crop is necessary for 
winter feeding which we escape, together with ex- 
penses for fuel common to the North. Then our 
climate is unrivaled : thousands come to Texas for 
health's sake. 

Moreover, great revolutions are taking place in 
Texas ; party lines are being broken up, a great 



96 REPORT OF HOME MISSIONS PERMANENT COM. OF SYNOD OF WASHINGTON. [February, 



variety of people are locating here, new sets of ideas 
and methods are constantly appearing, men farm 
differently, are more industrious ; there is more en- 
terprise than ever before. And what is much 
to us, more people of Presbyterian proclivities, and 
disposed to our type of Presbyterianism, are coming 
to Texas than formerly. Of course we are not 
blind to the fact that Presbyterianism is greatly in 
the minority as compared with other leading de- 
nominations, nor do we close our eyes to the fact 
that many of our people drift into other churches, 
but it is refreshing to know that, as never before, 
new-comers prefer Presbyterianism and desire our 
phase of it. We have lost what we can never re- 
cover as a result of the financial restrictions of the 
past three years. And yet prejudice has been al- 
layed by this delay and we are in better position to 
push now than ever, if only we had the means to do 
it with. More and better ministers are offering to 
come to Texas than ever before ; there is a very 
great change in the world's treatment of Texas. 
We could easily double our ministerial force in a 
single month, if only we had the means to do it 
with. And you would be surprised to know who 
they are that offer to come to Texas. Could we 
have gone on to supply the large cities, as we in- 
tended before the financial strain came, we could 
have had several competent men for each place. 

I have preached 183 times; have written 1198 
letters ; have held thirteen protracted meetings. 
At Denison I preached two months when that 
church was vacant and in confusion. A pastor was 
secured the 1st of January, since which time Deni- 
son has had the most prosperous period in its 
history. The Rev. A. F. Bishop is now its pastor. 
Lampasas has been vacant and has been frequently 
supplied by your synodical missionary. That 
church is now greatly delighted by its new pastor, 
Rev. R. C. McAdie. A few sermons at Corperas Cove 
brought eight persons into the Lampasas Church 
and gave to Austin Presbytery a preaching point 
that is destined to develop into a church some day. 
It has been a pleasure to secure for El Paso the 
Rev. Henry W. Moore, a man of very rare ability. 
He enters upon his work next Sunday. Fort Davis 
and Marfa on Mr. Bloys' field secured a part of a 
week of my time in another of the annual camp 
meetings that have proved such a blessing for 
several years. Of the ten he received into the Fort 
Davis Church, nine were men. Sloan and Sweden 
on Mr. Irvine's field employed my time for two 
weeks with good results. Deep Water, Texas City 
and Clear Creek, on Mr Olmstead's field, demand- 
ed some of my time, and in the latter place a 
church of nine members was organized. Wichita 
Falls and Henrietta have received the services of 



Rev. E. H. Hudson, from Danville Seminary, and 
Seymour and Throckmorton are being supplied by 
Rev. J. F. Walton from the same seminary. 
Gainesville has called Rev. W 7 illiam McPheeters, 
of Guthrie, I. T., and Taylor L. D. Noel, a gradu- 
ate of Princeton Seminary last year, a rare man. 
In closing let me offer the following resolutions : 

1. We express our confidence in the management 
of the affairs of the Home Board ; and we as a 
synod assure our brethren at New York, through 
their representative here, that we approve of their 
methods, confide in their wisdom, appreciate their 
faithfulness and commend their diligence. 

2. That we express our sorrow at the death of 
the Board's faithful Treasurer, Mr. O. D. Eaton, 
and extend to the Board and to the bereaved family 
our deepest sympathy. 

3. That we approve of the ten per cent, cut and 
are willing to bear our part in meeting the present 
emergencies. 

4. That we heartily approve of the rule that re- 
quires two lists of names to accompany applications 
for aid, and that we instruct presbyteries to rigidly 
enforce the rule. 

5. That we request Presbyterial Home Missionary 
Committees to adopt some plan to develop self-sup- 
port in every church as far as possible, and we 
suggest that just before the time for a church to 
make a new application the Committee should find 
some method to instruct and exhort the church to 
liberal giving. 

6. That we request Home Mission Committees 
of presbytery to use special effort to see that churches 
meet their financial pledges to ministers before ap- 
plications are approved. 

7. That ordinarily an application ought not to 
be approved until a collection has been taken by 
the church applying for home missions, and that 
churches be required to state whether this has been 
done before an application is considered. 

8. That we recommend that Home Mission Com- 
mittees undertake new work even at the expense of 
some of their feeble churches. Of course this is to 
be temporary, to be continued only so long as there 
is a necessity for it. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

H. S. Little. 

REPORT OF THE PERMANENT COMMIT- 
TEE ON HOME MISSIONS OF THE 
SYNOD OF WASHINGTON, MOSCOW, 
IDAHO, 1896. 

The trials and perplexities of the missionaries 
and mission churches for the past year will never 
be written with pen and ink. 



1897.] 



REPORT OF HOME MISSIONS PERMANENT COM. OF 8YNOD OF WASHINGTON. 



97 



Only the great Head of the Church has recorded 
these things in his book of remembrance. Probably 
no year in this quarter-century has more thoroughly 
tested the loyalty of missionaries and mission 
churches than this one. How to meet necessary ex- 
penses upon the most economical basis, has been the 
daily problem for three hundred and sixty-five 
days, and the end is not yet. Some persons affirm 
that ministers are not safe financiers. We venture 
the assertion that the Presbyterian home missionary 
who has lived on his meagre salary and brought 
his church through the past year without involving 
himself or his church in debt may be safely intrust- 
ed with any reasonable sum of money without fear 
of it being squandered. But some have done even 
more than this. They have lived and paid inter- 
est and some back debts. 

HOW LONG? 

No man knoweth, yet they hold on, keep up 
courage and continue to preach the gospel as faith- 
fully as in the years when prosperity encouraged 
them to do their best. Brave men and women, 
these home missionaries and their loyal wives. 
True servants of him whose reward is unaffected by 
financial depression. They have preached the com- 
forting gospel of Jesus Christ faithfully to the poor 
and oppressed of this world. Truly the Master's 
words, "to the poor the gospel is preached," have 
been fulfilled in the home mission churches for the 
past twelve months. Nor is the end reached. The 
future is not propitious. If the past has been try- 
ing, the future promises to add to the perplexities of 
life. Already the meagre salaries are placed 
between the mill-stones to be ground down one- 
tenth. The debt of the Board must be paid, and 
the missionaries and mission churches must be taxed 
to meet the emergency. Three hundred thousand 
dollars must be raised before the home missionary 
can hope for relief. It will require a vast amount 
of faith, fortitude and consecrated patience on the 
part of the fifteen hundred home missionaries of the 
Presbyterian Church to stand in their several 
places and preach the gospel while this great sum of 
money is being raised. 

THE MEN TO DO IT. 

These men can safely be trusted to hold the 
outposts while the Church is coming up "to the 
help of the Lord against the mighty." It is not our 
purpose to comment upon the causes of this debt. 
We have no criticisms upon the course pursued by 
our Board of Home Missions. We leave that to 
the General Assembly and the religious press. Our 
confidence is unshaken. We believe that the 
brethren who compose that Board are in full sym- 



pathy with the missionaries and their work. We 
believe farther that these brethren are giving of 
their time, judgment, means and prayers for the 
relief of the missionaries. And we would take 
this opportunity to assure the Board that the Synod 
of Washington, which is one of the great mission- 
ary synods of the Church, has not lost confidence in 
the wisdom of its methods and believes it is faith- 
fully discharging the trust committed to its care by 
the great Church it represents. And farther that 
we will cheerfully assume our share of the great 
burden of debt which now rests upon the Board's 
treasury. 

WAYS AND MEANS. 

With this expression of confidence let us consider 
ways and means of relief. To meet the debt is the 
present problem. In this the whole Church should be 
interested. There is neither North nor South, East 
nor West, but all should be one. Each synod, each 
presbytery, each church and each member ought to 
feel their responsibility, and assume it cheerfully 
and promptly. If this were done the burden 
would be lifted and the debt vanish, vanish like 
the fog bank before the morning sun. A contribu- 
tion of thirty-five cents from each member of the 
Presbyterian Church would wipe out the debt. But 
this is difficult to get. 

As a synod we have our part to bear. We are 
strictly missionary in character. We have a mag- 
nificent territory stretching from the Bitter Root 
Mountains westward to the Pacific Ocean, and 
from the Columbia and Snake rivers on the south 
to the British possessions on the north, with Alaska 
thrown in. A territory as great as New England 
and New York, with all of Alaska for our play- 
ground. 

Our resources are incalculable — mountains ribbed 
with precious metals, forests of unbounded extent, 
plateaus, table lands, and valleys of richest soil, pro- 
ducing every variety of grain, grass, vegetable and 
fruit indigenous to a mild climate in the greatest 
abundance. Our fisheries are but in the beginning 
of their productiveness. Such resources, under 
genial skies, make us an empire the future of 
which no man knoweth. In this vast heritage, 
the Presbyterian Church, through the earnest, self- 
sacrificing efforts of her home missionaries, has a 
fine foothold. Her 118 churches have been organ- 
ized by home missionaries, and so far as we are in- 
formed each one has received aid for a time from the 
Board of Home Missions. 

Too much of service for Christ and consecrated 
mercy have been expended in our territory to allow 
us for one moment to think of yielding a single 
point. The future also promises too much to allow 



98 



REPORT OF HOME MISSIONS PERMANENT COM. OF SYNOD OF WASHINGTON. [February, 



a moment's doubt as to present duty. With such 
a heritage, we have everything to gain by pressing 
forward even under the most depressing circum- 
stances. We dare not be idle. The fields are 
white for the harvest, we are the reapers, and the 
great Head of the Church waits to see how faithfully 
we will enter in and gather the golden grain. The 
How is the question. The information at the com- 
mand of the committee assures us of the anxiety and 
faithfulness of the brethren in this matter. To 
meet present de mauds churches are being grouped. 
The voluntary assumption of more work on the part 
of the missionaries, that fields may not be left en- 
tirely without the ministrations of the sanctuary, 
indicates the heroic spirit which prevails. We are 
happy also to note the willingness on the part of 
the people to do what they can to make the burden 
light. 

But we are persuaded that even greater profi- 
ciency in reaching and interesting the people must 
be expected. After the grouping and reductions 
by presbyteries, pastors and sessions must seek the 
best methods to reach and interest the members. 
The work must be organized in each church with a 
view to having each one bear a just proportion of 
the whole burden. The day is past when any 
church can afford to depend upon the few to do 
everything. One of the demands of the present 
crisis is more efficient organization in each church 
to the end that each member may be brought in 
touch with the needs of Christ's causes and realize 
that the Master is personally calling each to a 
special service. It is as true now as ever in the 
history of the Church that the gospel must be 
preached. It must be preached with greater em- 
phasis than ever before to church members that 
they must not be idle, that theirs should be a life 
of service, active and earnest. And how can this 
be done effectively, except by carefully giving to 
each one a work to do and expecting them to do it. 
We believe this is where too many pastors and ses- 
sions fail. They presume that the people are not 
capable or ready to bear their share of the work, 
and, therefore, no effort is made to show them 
their great mistake. We can preach by organizing. 
The organization must be flexible and adapted to 
the people, but must be firm and to the point. 
Make it mean all that it is intended for. Give 
each person a place where he can do something and 
let him understand that you expect him to work. 
Do not assign work and then do it yourself. By such 
a course you lead the person to believe that you 
suspect him. 

PATIENCE. 

Be patient. Study your people. Don't scold, 
but help over the difficult places. If you have an 



awkward squad, give it a little time, for out of 
these come the well-trained soldiers. Show the 
people the why and the wherefore and the ranks of 
willing workers will soon fill up. Of course some 
will refuse to learn and stand aloof and find fault. 
Never try to whip the growler into line. Push for- 
word with the force you have and leave the fault- 
finder behind. If they have the love of God in 
them they will see their mistake and fall into line. 
If they have not the love of God in their hearts, 
wait until they are converted and then they will 
gladly lend a helping hand. Never be discouraged 
because some of whom you expected much fail to 
fill the bill. Learn to use what you have and push 
forward. I once knew a pastor who had what he 
called a woman's church. Had a few men but 
they would not work. Could not have a session. 
Finally he received three or four boys into mem- 
bership. They brought with them the vigor and 
zeal of youth. He soon made elders of two or three 
of them, and from that time that church began to 
grow. 

Some cry out against so much organization. 
That is simply the wail of the disappointed. The 
church that expends its strength in the develop- 
ment of its resources is the church of the times. 
The churches of power and influence are the organ- 
ized churches. They develop in every direction. 
Every man, woman and child has a place and the 
pastor and session see that the place is filled. 
Never do yourselves what you can get somebody 
else to do, is a righteous rule for pastors and elders . 
Avoid anything akin to bossism. If there is such 
a thing as a holy terror it is the church boss. 
Ruin follows all such. The Master never drove his 
followers. He went before. He led. He helped. 
He was gentle and kind. Pastors and sessions 
are not above their Lord. A well- organized flock 
is much easier to lead than one that runs pell-mell 
in every direction. But you ask what has all this 
to do with the present crisis? 

THE WAY OUT. 

By this route only can we reach the desired 
end. Bring every member of the Presbyterian 
Church into organized touch with the spirit of the 
Church and every shadow will disappear and we 
will come into the noonday splendor of success. 
But you say, we are home mission churches. We 
are few in number and limited in means. The 
greater reason for careful organization, that the 
forces may be kept closely together. The only way 
to make a small body efficient is to concentrate its 
power in one direction. In our great synod we 
have but five self-supporting churches. Is it not 
possible to more carefully husband the strength of 



1897.] 



CALIFORNIA — COLORADO — MISSOURI. 



99 



our churches by the development of their latent 
forces? These churches do not know what they 
can do until they are led into an earnest and con- 
tinuous effort. At this time that effort must be in 
the direction of support to the missionary. Every 
energy should be turned in that direction. Wisdom 
must be used not to press this beyond discussion, 
but this one thought should be the centre of effort. 
Let all the fragments be gathered up that nothing 
go to waste. Churches should seriously consider 
the support they are giving their missionaries. 
Let the missionary be a sharer in that which the 
people have. If they do not have money, then 
other things which can be used in the minister's 
home must be given instead. In the Presbytery of 
Walla Walla, one of the small churches advanced 
fifty dollars in its support of the missionary. Little 
money is paid, but butter, eggs, vegetables, flour 
and such things as the people have are given freely, 
and I have never heard their missionary complain. 
True, all churches cannot do this, but the people 
should learn to give of that which they have, and 
not withhold because they cannot give money. 
Each church should be organized with this in view, 
and the result would surprise even the most san- 
guine. 

The Board's new plan of subscription evidently 
has this in view, and we should insist upon its fair 
and impartial trial. If this plan were faithfully 
followed we believe every church in the synod would 
take an advanced step towards self-support. 

Of our needs we can say but a word. New and 
inviting fields claim our immediate attention. 
Under the present arrangement of the Board with 
the presbyteries in regard to the use of funds, it is 
hoped some of the most important points may be 
occupied. 

By the liberality of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Auburn, N. Y., Nez Perce and adjacent 
points, a most strategic centre in the recently 
opened Nez Perce Preservation will soon en- 
joy the ministrations of the stated missionary. In 
the Presbytery of Spokane, a very important min- 
ing region is now open to missionary effort. By 
the faithful labors of our synodical missionary, a 
church has been recently organized and a building 
erected at Northport, a field of great promise. 
Other places of equal importance in other presby- 
teries are waiting for the missionary. 

Brethren, let us not grow weary in well doing, 
but, with courageous hearts and increased confidence 
in God's promises, stand fast in the faith. Quit 
ourselves like men and be strong. 

In behalf of the Committee. 

D. O. Ghormley, 

Chairman. 



Letters. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Rev. J. E. Anderson, Walnut Creek : — On ac- 
count of lack of funds the church has felt at times 
almost compelled to close its doors. But ire have 
struggled on, keeping our financial needs out of 
sight, as much as possible, putting our trust in 
God. If Walnut Creek had been our only field 
this year we might have saved the large expense 
of horse and buggy until times were better, but 
with Concord seven miles away over bad moun- 
tain roads it has been impossible. Lately we 
have met with a heavy loss. A few weeks ago on 
our way to Concord, our horse, frightened at some- 
thing, ran away, smashing our buggy to atoms, it 
took a portion of last year with our small salary to 
pay for the buggy and now, it is not. Our horse is 
not yet paid for. We find it very disagreeable and 
often impossible to borrow a vehicle for our work. 
At times it has seemed very discouraging. The 
Lord alone knows why such a thing should happen 
in our circumstances and while doing his work. 
Times have never been so hard, farmers are deeply 
involved in debt and no money apparently is in cir- 
culation. 



COLORADO. 



Mr. W. C. Buell, San Pablo : — We are hoping 
soon to have a large bell as it has been on the road 
for some time. By the sale of the stove and the old 
organ, which had been used at San Luis, I realized 
$16.25 A good friend of the work in Colorado has 
added $20, making a total of $36.25 and with this 
money we will have a good bell which will cost $36. - 
10 laid down here. When we came here a little 
over three years ago the Board owned no property 
or furniture. We then needed many things but al- 
though it has been "hard times" the house and 
ground were purchased and one by one the needs 
have been supplied. First came windows, doors, 
floors and partition, then stove, desks, maps, charts, 
Bibles and hymn books. Last winter the long de- 
sired organ was secured and now the bell, and as it 
is the last of all the things we have asked for, I 
have engraved upon it the Scripture words, " Come, 
for all things are now ready ' ' This invitation ex- 
tends to all who have an interest in "the work." 



MISSOURI. 



French and Italian Missions of St. Louis, 
Filippo Grili : — The French services have been held 
regularly, but for various circumstances have not yet 
a full attendance. At the Italian Sunday evening 
services we have had an average of nineteen people, 
the ladies being pretty well represented, which is 
unusual in a mission among Catholics. Our regu- 
lar prayer meetings show an average of a little 
more than thirteen. 

Besides the Wednesday prayer meeting in the 
Bethal, we have now two cottage meetings in two 
different parts of the city with an average of eight 
people in each. 

The Sunday-school is pretty well attended with 
an average of twenty-three scholars, both children 
and grown people. The sewing schools and night 



100 



M INNESOTA — NEBRASKA . 



[February, 



schools began a few nights ago and give us hope of 
their being fruitful in their branches. We expect 
to have a full attendance from now on. 

As an interesting fact I may mention the following 
— A man who has been for a long time a gambler and 
a drunkard, beating his wife almost every day, had 
once the opportunity of hearing the gospel. He 
liked it so much that he became a regular attendant 
and grasped firmly the teachings of the Master. 
He is now a peaceful citizen, a temperate and lov- 
ing husband and father. Nor is that all. As soon 
as he believed, and was made a new creature, he 
began to preach the gospel to his relatives and 
friends. His wife is now converted ; his father-in- 
law, brothers-in-law, and cousins are all regular 
and interested attendants at our meetings, and he 
urged us to open a new hall for the preaching of the 
gospel in that part of the city in which he lives. 
But as we have no means of paying rent, I asked 
him to open his own house ; he gladly agreed to my 
proposal and we now have a regular cottage meet- 
ing there every Thursday night with a goodly 
number of friends and inquirers. 

Though he is not an educated man, he is always 
ready to give his testimony and lead the congrega- 
tion in prayer. He knows the Bible pretty well 
and is a good defender of the truth among our 
fellow-countrymen. 

MINNESOTA. 

Rev. W. H. Hormel, Austin: — Knowing the 
great necessity for the help of our Board through- 
out the great northwest, and especially in our 
presbytery, we have determined to be self-sustain- 
ing as a church from March 1, 1897. We need 
help as much as we ever did during the past three 
years, and it will be only by hard work (preaching 
four times each Sabbath) and self-sacrifice that 
we shall be able to stand alone. 



Rev. T. V. Kelley, Brovm's Valley, Traverse 
County: — My ordination took place on October 14, 
and on November 1, we held the first communion 
the people have had here for a year. Eight were 
received into church fellowship, four of them by 
profession. Two joined by profession at Bethel. 
Plans are being set on foot for new buildings at both 
stations, which plans will doubtless materialize if 
we secure the necessary assistance from the Board 
of Church Erection. We have only a hall at 
Brown's Valley owned by the organization, and 
only a schoolhouse at Bethel through the courtesy 
of the school board. 

Notwithstanding the severe weather the attend- 
ance in the country, Bethel, has been good, while 
in the valley it is on the increase. There were 
fifty-one at Sabbath-school yesterday. 

20° below zero is a low thermal record for No- 
vember. That record was reached twice last month. 
We have been sleighing more than four weeks. So 
far as we know none of our people are suffering 
greatly, but one faithful elder seven miles in the 
country is living in an unplastered house, while his 
family cannot all come to church at one time for 
want of sufficient clothing. He offers $25, for our 
new church and has promptly paid $12 for my 
salary. 

An old Indian paid me a call the other day and 
introduced himself as Mr. Laurance, a convert of 



S. R. Riggs, D.D., LL.D., who was forty years a 
missionary among the Sioux. I was struck by the 
dignity and Christian character of the old man. 
Dr. Riggs in his book, "Mary and I," writes of 
some Indian boys who attended school in the East. 
Mr. Laurance is one of the boys. He came to me 
to ask clothing in behalf of an old lady also a con- 
vert of Dr. Riggs. I procured the articles, drove 
out and found the woman in dire need, blind, lame 
and unable to rise from the floor. She crawled to 
me, shook my hand and said she knew my coming 
was because of the faith. These people trust implic- 
itly in the Lord. We missionaries have to rough 
it sometimes more than we like, but we have our 
pleasant diversions also. This afternoon I propose to 
accept Mr. Laurance' s invitation to fish through 
the ice on Lake Traverse. 

Our church is now praying together with the 
Methodists for a baptism of the Spirit during the 
coming winter. Entreat the Lord in our behalf. 



NEBRASKA. 

Rev. Samuel B. Moyer, Edgar: — In the 
matter of their offerings to the home board this 
year the people have improved almost two hundred 
per cent over last year. Whereas last year I suc- 
ceeded in gathering $12.50 from congregations and 
Endeavor societies, this year these sources contri- 
buted $33.75. Faithful teaching and an honest de- 
termined effort to get an offering from every one 
who would give has been the cause. The pledge 
and envelope system helped a great deal, and 
where people were not present on the day when 
the offering was taken, a personal letter went to 
them through the mail. 



Rev. T. L. Sexton, D.D., Supt.: — The record of 
the last three months has been one of constant toiling 
and anxiety. Vigorous efforts have been made to 
bring before the presbyteries the subject of Home 
Missions, so as to stir up more interest in the cause 
and call forth either enlarged contributions or more 
strenuous endeavors to reach self-support. Special 
home mission conferences were held in connection 
with the meetings of the several presbyteries as 
well as at the annual meeting of the synod. It is 
believed that much good has been done by such at- 
tention to the important cause. Our missionaries 
have felt very keenly the heavy burden of debt rest- 
ing on the treasury, yet they have endured the re- 
duced appropriations as well as the delay in their 
payments with genuine Christian courage. During 
the last quarter four new churches have been organ- 
ized, namely : Divide Centre, Presbytery of Omaha ; 
Bethesda, in Presbytery of Niobrara ; Camp Clark, 
and Castle Rock in Presbytery of Kearney. The 
last two are located in the valley of the North 
Platte river, where the land is successfully irrigated 
and where there is bound to be a growing and 
flourishing population. It is hard for us not to go 
forward in planting the church where the people 
wish to profess the name of Jesus and become iden- 
tified with the great work of extending his kingdom 
in the world. Many of our churches are now in 
the midst of protracted evangelistic services, and 
the Holy Spirit is attending the truth so that souls 
are being brought into the kingdom. It is confi- 
dently believed that the coming winter is to be one 



NEW YORK — NORTH DAKOTA — SOUTH DAKOTA. 



1897.] 

of great spiritual blessing to our churches. This is 
our earnest wish and constant prayer. 

NEW YORK. 

Rev. Jay Forbes Robinson, Apalachin, Tioga 
County: — Before our coming the church had been 
closed for five years ; but the trustees had kept the 
church building in good condition. The people 
seemed glad that the Presbyterian Church had been 
opened once more. While calling one day on a 
family three miles from the village, the lady of 
the house told me that her husband came in to 
the house the first Sunday morning that the church 
was opened with tears in his eyes, saying : " It seem- 
ed so good to hear the old Presbyterian church bell 
again." This man was not a Christian. 

The weekly prayer meetings are not very largely 
attended. There are a number who do not believe 
in public prayer. 



101 



Rev. Nathan B. Knapp, Oneida Valley .-—Not 
all is bright ; far from it, but the bright spots ex- 
ceed the dark ones. The gospel has been well sus- 
tained. A peculiar feature has been that the at- 
tendance has been larger on Sabbath evening than 
in the morning. A goodly number of young men 
are present at the second service, young men whom 
we hope to save. The darkest feature of our work 
is the non-attendance at the church of prominent 
heads of families. Wives and children are present, 
but the fathers are not within the house of God. It 
is an inspiration to declare that at last, after much 
labor and anxiety, we have procured a church 
bell, whose sweet tones are heard for the first time 
over this valley long silent. Not only the voice of 
conscience but the tongue of iron summons us to 
worship. As the result of the continued preaching 
of the gospel and the residence of the minister a 
better state of feeling exists in the church. There 
is more spirit, more prayer and more enthusiasm. 
There seems to be more hope. 



NORTH DAKOTA. 

Rev. J. Sloan Corkey, Courtenay, Stutsman 
County : — There is not a single professing Christian 
among the business men of this town. Spiritual 
life is almost extinguished, but a faithful few here 
work and pray. The results are in better hands. 
Sometimes we have peculiar experiences out here 
on the prairies. Not long ago a lady came to me 
and asked me to preach her father's funeral ser- 
mon. I sympathized with her and asked her when 
he died. "Oh," she said, "he has been dead 
these ten years, but I never had his funeral sermon 
preached. You see," she continued, "there were 
no ministers out there then, and he was a good man 
and wanted a funeral sermon." I told her that I 
would be glad to go out and preach at her place if 
she would gather the neighbors together. I took the 
opportunity to preach Christ to them. 



preached during the la-t quarter twenty-five times in 
the Indian language and fourteen times in English. 
I have led the prayer meeting ten times, and super- 
intended Sabbath- schools six times. I have traveled 
4 1") miles, and visited five churches besides Yankton 
Agency where I live. I have completed the build- 
ing of a church for the Crow Creek congregation at 
a cost of about $1200. I have commenced to build 
a church for the Hill congregation. In building 
Crow Creek Church, I was on the ground most of 
the time and assisted with my own hands. 

The annual mission meeting of the Presbyterian 
and Congregational churches among the Dakota In- 
dians were held at the Hill Presbyterian Church, 
September 10-14. These meetings include the gen- 
eral conference where leading speakers discuss lead- 
ing topics of interest to the Indian. Then time is 
given for sectional meetings, when Dakota Pres- 
bytery, Dakota Congregational Conference, the 
Women's Society of Dakota Presbytery, the Wom- 
en's Society of Dakota Conference, Dakota C. E., 
Dakota Y. M. C. A. and Dakota Missionaries' 
League have their separate gatherings. There 
were about 1500 Indians present this year. The 
preparation for such a gathering and the entertain- 
ment and oversight altogether requires much care, 
and when the general meeting was with a Presbyte- 
rian church the general management fell on me. 
But the interest awakened, and the opportunity 
given for impressing the doctrines of civilization 
and Christianity, made it an important occasion. 

Financially, as the Board I am sure painfully 
knows, our Mission Presbytery is working in a 
straight jacket. Through God's help no serious 
detriment has so far resulted to the work, and some 
blessings are received in the way of lessons in econ- 
omy and self-reliance. 

However, the tension is not withdrawn. The 
necessities of our native helpers, for instance, are 
such that I am compelled to pay nearly every one at 
the end of each month. To do this I not only use 
considerable of my own funds but sometimes borrow 
at a pretty heavy rate of interest. I am thankful 
that I have been able to do this, but shall be more 
thankful when there is no need of my doing it. 



Rev. Pierre La Pointe : — On June 6, Hill 
Church meeting house was destroyed by a tornado. 
Our people were all very sad, and some of the women 
cried when we came together the next day for meet- 
ing. But the Lord helped us, and we now have 
the material ready and expect to build a new 
church right away. We have had one addition to 
the church. On account of having no place to 
meet, the attendance has not been as large as form- 
erly — about forty Sabbath morning and thirty in 
the afternoon and week days. 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Rev. John P. Williamson, D.D., General mis- 
sionary for the Dakota Indians Presbytery : — I have 



Samuel Rouillard: — I have completed another 
quarter of work for the conversion of the heathen 
Indians. I have meetings twice on the Sabbath be- 
sides Sabbath-school and prayer meeting on Thurs- 
day. The attendance at the Sabbath morning 
service has averaged about thirty-five, and about 
twenty-five at the other meetings. I attended the 
mission meetings at Hill Church in September and 
they encouraged us very much. It took me two 
weeks to go with my team and over two weeks to 
come back. 



102 



U T AH APPOINT MENT8. 



[February, 



UTAH. 

Miss Belle Walker, Salina: — God has been 
very good ; we could indeed praise him with 
thankful hearts on Thanksgiving Day. That day 
was very pleasant throughout. We had a Thanks- 
giving in the morning and a Thanksgiving prayer 
meeting in the evening. Many of the children 
were at service notwithstanding the cold weather. 
They seemed to partake of the Thanksgiving spirit, 
and came with packages and bundles of all shapes 
and sizes to be distributed among the less fortunate. 
Potatoes, sugar, cabbages, tea, pies, cake, fruit and 
other good things were brought and made several 
homes brighter for the day. The day before 
Thanksgiving Day, as a language lesson, my young 
pupils wrote stories for me, telling what they knew 
of the day and how they would keep it. Reading 
the stories after school as I sat in the room alone, I 
was struck with the peculiarity of the work, each 
characteristic of the child who wrote it. The begin- 
ning of one in particular struck me, not only for 
the remarkable construction but for the thought 
contained. It read thus : "To-morrow is thanks- 
given. I'm agoin to thank the Lord and give the 
poor some grub." I thought to myself that the 
spirit was there no matter what the expression. Our 
Sabbath- school is in good condition, we are inde- 
pendent in one way at least, we have been furnish- 
ing our own literature for over a year now. Some- 
times our collection comes up to forty cents, and 
that we consider good, as most of our children come 
from poor families. 

APPOINTMENTS. 

T. C. Potter, Crescent City and station, Fla. 

W. M. Covert, Crystal River and Dunellon, 

S. T. Thompson, Tarpon Springs and stations, " 

A. J. Compton, Ingle wood and station, Cal. 

.T. M. Newell, Los Angeles, Bethesda, 

E. J. Gillespie, Pastor-at-Large, 

E. Eakin, Santa Cruz, " 

G. A. M. Lilly, Slack, Wolf Creek and Twin 

Creek, W T yo. 

A. Robinson, Saratoga, Collins and Brush 

Creek, " 

W. Mayo, Rocky Ford, 1st, Colo. 

H. W. Rankin, Synodical Evangelist, " 

J. A. Creighton, Atoka and Lehigh, I. T. 

E. Hamilton, Chickasha, Rush Springs and 

stations, 
P. D. Munsell, Beaver and stations, O. T. 

J. N. Currens, Marne and station, Iowa. 

J. C. Linton, Hartley, 1st, 

J. C. Bantly, Unity, " 

E J. Brown, Conway Springs and Peotone, Kans. 

F. F. Dobson, Wichita, Lincoln St., 
A. Axline, Arlington, 

J. M. Spargrove, Great Bend and Ellins- 

wood, 
W. Mooney, Cherokee and Weir City, 
W. M. Carle, Logan, Downs, Rose Valley 

and station, 
W. W. Kilpatrick, Baldwin and station, " 

C. C. Sink, Flynn, Lamotte and Marlette, 2d, 

Mich. 

G. A. Holzinger, Munising, 1st, 

J. H. Fleming, Erie, 1st, " 

P. V. Jenness, Bay City, Memorial, " 

J. R. Jones, Balaton and Easton, Minn. 



C. B. Augur, Morgan and stations, Minn. 

J. S. McCornack, Howard, 1st, and Win- 

sted, " 

S. H. Beaven, Minneapolis, Elim, " 

A. H. Temple, Royalton, 1st, " 

C. Scanlon, Lakeside, Wheaton and stations, " 
J. S. Handyside, Harrison, Atwater and 

Diamond Lake, " 

M. B. Loughlen, Houston and Yucatan Val- 
ley, 
J. Wilson, Pastor at Large, Mo. 

W. C. Coleman, Fairview, Schell City and 

Lone Oak, " 

J. A. Hedges, White Sulphur Springs and sta- 
tion, Mont. 
W. M. Porter, Nelson, 1st, Neb. 
W. B. Leonard, Cozad, " 
Joel Warner, Niobrara, Scottville, Dorsey 

and Blackbird, " 

J. M. Whitlock, Taos, Ranchos, Embudo and 

stations, N. M. 

C. H. Kilmer, Breesport and Sullivanville, N. Y. 
G. LeFevre, Ancram Lead Mines, " 

F. E. Voegelin, New York City, Zion Ger., " 
V. Pisek, New York City, Bohemian, 
C. Doench, New York City, 2d German, " 

H. G. Miller, New York City, Mt. Tabor, 
H. P. Faust, New York City Hebrew Chris- 
tian Mission, " 
S. R. Warrender, Somerset, 1st, 
L. T. Cole, Brasher Falls, 1st, " 

F. H. Pierce, Chestertown, 

J. M. Boddy, Troy, Liberty St. , " 

J. C. Darling, Parma Centre, 
J. Petrie, Redfield, " 

I. G. Smith, Steele, Sterling, Glencoe and 

Williamsport, N. D. 

W. H. Hunter, Crystal and Canton, 
W. Gillespie, Ardoch and Greenwood, 
S. Andrews, St. Thomas and Glasston, 
H. K. White, Geneva and Soper, 
H. W. Harbaugh, Devil's Lake and Webster 

Chapel, " 

J. H. F. Blue, Bottineau, 1st, and Peabody, " 

C. R. Shields, Union, Oreg. 
R. Ennis, Jacksonville, 

G. H. Whiteman, Dallas, 1st, " 
S. A. George, Independence, Calvary, 

W. H. Jones, Woodburn, 1st, " 

S. Millett, Pierpont, 1st, S. D. 

B. E. P. Prugh, Sturges, Pleasant Valley and 

Bear Butte, " 

G. P. Beard, Whitewood, 1st, " 

W. J. Hill, Pastor-at-Large, " 

A. M. Work, White, 
J. Flute, Wounded Knee Station, " 

D. S. Brown, Kimball, 1st, " 
R. Christison, Dell Rapids, 

A. C. McCauley, Bridgewater and Canistota, ' ' 

H. P. Cory, Tusculum, Timber Ridge and sta- 
tions, Tenn. 

S. W. Patterson, Dallas, Exposition Park, Tex. 

D. A. Clemens, Lower Boise and Parma, Idaho. 

G. L. Deffenbaugh, Coeur d'Alene and Post 
Falls, 

J. Hayes, Kamiah, 1st, 



K. Brown, Chehalis, 



Wash. 



T. G. Watson, Cosmopolis, Montesano and 

Wynooche, 
W. D. Thomas, D.D., Pastor-at-Large, Wis. 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



NOTES. 

The China mission Handbook. 

Our Mission Press at Shanghai has sent 
out a most valuable volume to serve as a 
handbook of missionary work in China. It 
gives a sketch of the leading features of 
the principal religions in China, and a 
sketch of the history of Christian missions 
in that land. It contains valuable articles 
showing the strength and the weakness of 
the various non -Christian religions in the 
Chinese empire ; and gives quite full reports 
of the different missions which are . under- 
taking Christian work. 



Turkish Refugees in Persia. 

The tide of Turkish woe is surging over 
into Persia in fierce volume. Within the 
last six months some ten thousand Christian 
subjects of Turkey have crossed into the 
district of Oroomiah, in a most distress- 
ing condition of want — hungry, naked, 
penniless. Each day, bands of fifty or one 
hundred and more cross the border, bringing 
tidings of more to come. The tales they 
tell of Kurdish rapacity and cruelty are 
heart-rending. The missionaries are over- 
whelmed with these throngs of men, 
women and children, crowding around their 
doors in piteous destitution. They send a 
most earnest appeal for help with which to 
feed, clothe and shelter these brethren in 
the Christian faith, some Armenians, but 
chiefly Nestorians ! Ten dollars will clothe 
and support a child through the winter, and 
twice that sum for a year. It is their desire 
to aid the men to get to Russia, where work 
can be had. 

Annual Hission Meetings. 

Most of our missions hold their annual 
meetings during the last months of the year. 
Reports from them are beginning to reach 
us. The foremost impression they give is 
of the very marked presence of the Holy 
Spirit in those conferences. A writer from 
the Central China Mission, which met in 
September, speaking of the strong spiritual 
tone which prevailed in their meeting, says : 



It was hard to say whether the devotional or the 
business sessions were the most spiritual. Some 
very difficult questions, in which different stations 
had apparently conflicting views, were settled 
almost unanimously under the recognized direction 
of the Holy Spirit. The tender, grateful sense of 
the Spirit's guidance found expression in the dox- 
ology and fervent prayers of thanksgiving. 

Such was the tide of devout feeling at one 
of the devotional meetings, that at the end 
of the first hour, when the meeting was 
closed with the benediction, no one was 
ready to go, and the meeting went on of 
itself for another hour of testimony and 
prayer and thanksgiving to God. 

Dr. Lucas writes of the mission meeting 
at Fatehgarh as ' ' one of the best I have 
attended, a delightful spirit of prayer and 
love from the beginning to the end." Of 
the west Japan meeting we hear that it was 
" rich with spiritual blessing to us all." 



Wonderful Progress in China. 

Statistics given in the China Mission 
Handbook, brought down chiefly to the end 
of 1893: Communicants in mission churches, 
55,093; adults baptized in 1893, 6879; 
inquirers, 12,495; in the three succeeding 
years there has been a very marked advance 
along all lines. Present total number of 
communicants estimated by reliable author- 
ity, about 70,000; increase still proceeding 
with unprecedented rapidity. Late news 
from Foochow mentions some 20,000 in- 
quirers and 6000 additions. A committee 
of missionaries, appointed by a conference 
of over eighty missionaries, recently assem- 
bled near Foochow, and prepared a memo- 
randum regarding the present prospects and 
additions to missionary labor in that prov- 
ince. In this memorandum it is stated that 
the massacres of August 1, 1895, have been 
followed by these results: First, the fact 
that neither the missionary societies of 
England and America, whose interests were 
involved, nor the relatives of those who lost 
their lives at Hwasang, have asked for the 
slightest compensation, has afforded to the 
world a conspicuous example of the disin- 
terested motives of the missionaries and 

103 



104 



NOTES — FRESH FACTS. 



[February, 



their agents. Second, the prayer which has 
ascended from all churches in all parts of 
the world siuce August 1, 1895, has been 
manifestly followed by the widespread and 
general movement towards Christianity 
among all classes of the population, and in 
all parts of the province, especially in the 
neighborhood of Foochow and the northern 
part of the province; third, the knowledge 
of this movement and the fact that in many 
places natives have joined the local churches, 
has given a feeling of uneasiness to the 
minds of the Chinese authorities, and par- 
allel with the above movement there is no- 
ticeable on the part of the local authorities 
an organized effort to repress and intimidate 
the people from joining the Christian 
churches, by harassing the native Christians. 



for Christian literature and thought; it is 
not merely a passive feeling, but the new 
Indian civilization is being formed to-day by 
the influences of Christian countries. ' ' 



Famine in India. 

Rev. H. C. Velte writes that they have 
had no such fearful famine in twenty years 
as that which now looms up before them. 
Bishop Thoburn, of the Methodist Church, 
declares that it promises to be the greatest 
famine of the century. He adds that it is 
just commencing, but already women are 
selling their children in the streets for ten 
cents apiece. For some years the crops in 
India have not been good. The last harvest 
was a failure in most parts of the country, 
and drought continues. In some places, 
where the people have been hoping to have 
half a crop, clouds of locusts ate up every- 
thing remaining. Cholera has been more 
widespread than ever in Bombay, and the 
bubonic plague has broken out with porten- 
tous results. 

Native Hinistry in India. 

There are now about one thousand natives 
ordained by the Reformed Churches to 
preach Christ to their countrymen — Hindu, 
Parsee and Mohammedan. Fifty years ago 
there were only twenty-one. A recent 
volume of biographies of Indian Christians, 
edited by a native Indian Christian of high 
education, presents the lives of forty- two 
remarkable natives who have been converted 
to Christ, and have worked and died in his 
service in each of the great provinces in the 
Indian empire. The number of such min- 
isters is steadily on the increase. Mr. 
Mozoomdar says in a late number of the 
Outlook: i 'Already among the thoughtful 
classes there is an undisguised admiration 



Some Korean Reporters. 

Severe physical conditions have compelled 
the return for recuperation from Korea of 
Revs. D. L. Gifford, S. A. M )ffett and S. 
F. Moore. They have a marvelous story to 
tell of the progress of the gospel in Korea. 
Mr. Moffett has done heroic pioneer service 
in Pyeng Yang, our advance station, while 
Mr. Gifford has, with Mrs. Gifford, done 
splendid work at Seoul. 



The Sabbath-school Lessons. 

Our Sabbath-schools using the Interna- 
tional Series are now fairly launched in the 
Book of the Acts, the first volume of mis- 
sionary annals ever issued by the Christian 
Church. It gives the very genesis of the 
whole missionary enterprise, and illustrates 
in vivid facts the spirit and methods of the 
early Christian missionaries. It is to be 
hoped that every school will be helped to 
seize upon this most prominent feature of 
the lessons. Pastors and superintendents 
and teachers will do well to imbue their own 
hearts deeply with the missionary spirit of 
the book, and breathe it unreservedly into 
their teachings. 

FRESH FACTS. 

Miss Nassau reports of her Girls' School 
good attendance and attention and an im- 
provement in the deportment of the whole 
school ; but best of all, the conversion of 
two of the pupils. Miss Nassau, besides her 
work for the girls, is conducting a class of 
candidates for the ministry; the men are 
becoming better able to grasp the grand 
doctrines of theology. Two of these hold 
services in the Mabeya towns on the Sab- 
bath, working with earnestness and a proper 
sense of responsibility. 



Mr. Schnatz had a narrow escape from 
drowning on one of his itinerating tours 
from Batanga, as the boat at one time partly 
filled with water. He gives a favorable 
report of the work of the church at Batan- 
ga. Their contributions towards their new 
house of worship have been generous, and 
plans for the house are to seat about five 
hundred. 



1897.] 



MISSIONARY CALENDAR. 



105 



Mr. Roberts reports that his Maheya 
teacher still has the two Dwarf hoys in school 
with whom he is experimenting. The teacher 
said that after he had washed and greased 
and clothed them, and cut their hair and 
got the Dwarf odor off them, they were 
quite respectable people. Mr. Roberts 
adds : ' ' We spent a night in the Dwarf shed 
last night. They do not seem to be so 
afraid this time. We repeated many times 
over promises such as those in John 3, trust- 
ing that the Holy Spirit would enable them 
to remember them and teach them the mean- 
ing. We go to their places about four or 
five o'clock in the afternoon, staying there 
over night, as during the day most of them 
are away. The ditch has had a great deal 
of water in it, but the paths and creeks are 
so that we can begin to go again now. This 
evangelistic itinerating work means some 
exposure, but I never have been in the 
towns yet when I did not thank God for the 
privilege of going." 



The net gain in church membership in 
the mission churches of our Central China 
Mission last year was eleven per cent. 



When the reports from the missionaries 
from Pyeng Yang w T ere presented to the 
annual meeting, held at Seoul, in October, 
at the end of the reading of them the 
audience with one accord sang, " Praise 
God from Whom all Blessings Flow," and 
the mission involuntarily resolved itself into 
a prayer meeting of praise and thanksgiv- 
ing. Mrs. Bishop w T as present, and made 
some remarks, which she closed with these 
strong words: " This work at Pyeng Yang 
is the most wonderful I have ever seen in 
connection with the gospel." Such a 
declaration from such a world-wide observer 
is most significant. 



In the day-schools at Chefoo Station the 
number of scholars suddenly increased at 
the Chinese New Year from thirty to one 
hundred and twenty, all due to the growing 
friendliness of the Chinese to the missionary 
institutions, and the increasing desire for 
primary education. This larger attendance 
is the more remarkable, as aid hitherto 
given in books and stationery has been dis- 
continued. Very special attention is paid 
in this school to Sabbath-day instruction, 
with most encouraging results. 



A prominent Chinese official at Chefoo, 
secretary to the local governor for over 
twenty years, has recently proposed to Mr. 
Cornwell to furnish a house and school-room 

atone thousand dollars | Mexican ,to provide 
for the teaching of four pupils. Such in- 
stances seem to be multiplying in every 
direction, and appear to indicate that the 
Chinese nation is beginning to awake from 
its lethargy of ages to step into line with 
the great progress movements of the world. 

Our missionary brethren at Lakawn 
recently celebrated in their school the 
birthday of the king of Siam. The Siamese 
commissioner was present, and was im- 
mensely pleased with this effort to cultivate 
a patriotic spirit in the boys. A full report 
of this striking occasion was sent to the 
government at Bangkok. 



Dr. Jessup reports from Syria, " a kind 
of epidemic of bloody affrays between the 
Moslems and Christians in Beirut;" "the 
government program of reforms printed in 
all the Arabic journals," but from which 
no one expects any improvement; " volun- 
tary contributions demanded from the Mos- 
lems in the empire with which to buy arms, 
which are now being taken from Christians 
and Jews as well;" and the generally 
alarmed condition among the native Chris- 
tians, though the missionaries rest securely. 



MISSIONARY CALENDAR. 

DEPARTURES. 

December 19 — From New York, return- 
ing to the Colombia Mission, Miss Martha 
Bell Hunter. 

ARRIVALS. 

November 7 — At San Francisco, from the 
Korean Mission, the Rev. S. F. Moore and 
family. 

November 21 — At New York, from the 
Brazil Mission, Miss Ella Kuhl. 

December 15 — At New York, from the 
Mexico Mission, Miss Ella De Baun. 

res.(;nation8. 

From the Mexico Mission, Rev. J. G. 
Woods. 

From the Laos Mission, Miss Margaret 
Wilson. 

From the West Japan Mission, Mrs. 
George E. Woodhull. 



106 



CONCERT OF PRAYER FOR CHURCH WORK ABROAD. 



[February, 




Village Preaching — India. 



Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work Abroad. 

February — Evangelistic Missionary Work. 

2^(a) The Supreme Missionary Object. 

(b) Chapel Preaching. 

(c) Street Preaching. 

(d) Itinerating. 

(e) House-to-House Visitation. 

(f) The Vastness of the Field. 

The subdivisions are simply suggestive of the 
scope of the subject, and are not designed to be rigid 
or exhaustive. The central thought is the preach- 
ing of the gospel in its various phases. 

It is difficult to give a list of books, for the liter- 
ature of the subject is widely diffused through hun- 
dreds of general missionary books and thousands of 
letters. We mention, however, a few which will be 
found particularly helpful. 

Foreign Missions After a Century. Jas. S. Dennis. 
Revell, N.Y. $1.50. (This maybe purchased 
from the F. M. Library for $1.15 postpaid. ) 

Modern Missions in the East. Edward A. Law- 
rence. Harper & Bro. $1.75. (This may be 
purchased from the Foreign Missions Library, 
156 Fifth avenue, New York, for $1.50 post- 
paid. ) 



Preaching in Sinim. Hampden C. Dubose. Presb. 
Committee of Publication, Richmond, Ya. 

My Missionary Apprenticeship. J. M. Thoburn. 
Methodist Book Concern, New York. $1.20. 

The Cross and the Dragon. B. C. Henry. See 
chapter two, " Facilities for Eeaching the Peo- 
ple." Randolph, New York. $1 00. 

The Cross and the Dragon. See chapter twelve, 
"Preaching by Missionaries." 

Leaflet, Some Visits to Christless Homes. Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society, 1331 Chestnut 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Two cents each ; fif- 
teen cents a dozen. 

GENERAL RELIGIOUS STATISTICS. 

Creeds. Adherents. 

Christianity . . . 477,080,158 

Worship of Ancestors and Confucian- 
ism 256,000,000 

Hinduism 190,000,000 

Mohammedanism 176,834,372 

Buddhism 147,900,000 

Taoism 43,000,000 

Shintoism 14,000,000 

Judaism 7,056,000 

Various heathen faiths 118, 129,470 

Total 1,430,000,000 



1897.] 



STREET PREACH I Nf;. 



in; 



Christianity. 

Churches. Total. 

Roman Catholic Church 230,866,533 

Protestant Churches 143,237,625 

Greek Church 98,016,000 

Church of Abyssinia 3,000,000 

Coptic Church 120,000 

Armenian Church 1,690,000 

Nestorians 80,000 

Jacobites 70,000 

Total 477,080,158 

— Presbyterian Handbook. 

Itinerating is a prominent feature of missionary- 
work, involving much exposure and hardship, but 
resulting in rich harvests of souls. An inspiring 
spectacle is presented to us in reading the reports 
from the fields, of the widespread activity and in- 
domitable energy of the mission toilers in reaching 
out to the unevangelized peoples with the Word of 
Life. Probably in no previous year has touring 
been pushed with so much of vigor and success. 
Hundreds of thousands of miles have been gone 
over by the bearers of the precious seed. Every 
means of conveyance known in the various nations 
is pressed into service. By elephants and camel- 
carts, on horseback or sure-footed mountain mule, 
or nimble uncomfortable donkey, by wearisome 
Chinese junks and river boats, native canoes or 
missionary sail-boats, by wheelbarrows or jinriki- 
shas, by bandy cart or imported wagon or bicycle, 



occasionally by foreign steamers ami railroads, but 
more often on foot, over hill and dale, wading 
through rivers of water, orslongha of mud, in winter 
andsummer, in season and out of season, the mes- 
sage of life is carried by determined men and no 
less determined women, to millions, -peaking more 
than a score of different languages, in order that 
hearing the glad tidings they may believe in .J 
and be saved. 

In all the different fields there has been the joy 
of harvest as well as gladness in toilsome seed -ow- 
ing. The Holy Spirit has set his seal of power on 
the divine word as preached. While there were 
fewer gains to the church membership in some mis- 
sions than the year before, as in Japan, Persia, 
Syria, where transient disturbances have operated 
unfavorably, yet in others there have been unprece- 
dented accessions. The little flock in Guatemala has 
almost doubled its number, as a result of an extra- 
ordinary revival at a single outstation. Lodiana 
records 566 new members, a higher number than in 
any year before. Here the turning of the low castes 
to Christianity is auspicious of large harvests soon 
to be reaped. While the motive in this movement is 
probably not always unmixed, the steadfastness of 
numbers of them in the face of severe persecution 
gives much encouragement. Among the humble 
classes of dark and distracted Korea, and the wild 
Bules of equatorial Africa, the reception given to 
the gospel leads to the conviction that very many 
of them will soon be gathered into the Christian 
church. 



STREET PREACHING. 

REV. JOHN N. FORMAN, INDIA. 

You must take the people just as you find 
them, and you will certainly never find 
them alike two days in succession! One 
day there are crowds, and the next day you 
may have " two boys and a dog;" one day 
there is close attention to the preaching, 
and the next day some man has come carry- 
ing a new pair of shoes, or a couple of 
cauliflowers, and to the preacher's dismay 
he finds a discussion started as to whether 
the shoes were cheap at eleven annas, or 
the cauliflowers dear at two for a pice; or 
perhaps one day the people are quiet but 
hopelessly stupid, and the next day some 
young upstart persists in asking foolish 
questions, just when you think you have at 
last made some impression on your audience. 

VARIETY OF PLANS. 

Sometimes we preach in front of our 
church, where all is quiet, and where, when 
it chances to be one's turn not to preach, he 
can enjoy the luxury of sitting on a chair. 
Another of our preaching places is in the 



heart of the city, at a police station, where 
two of the principal roads cross at right 
angles. Here we can always get a good 
audience on short notice, but the people are 
apt to be scattered as some carriage or cart 
turns the corner right into the audience. 
Another of our preaching places is under a 
tamarind tree, where there is always a good 
shade, and where the people gather readily, 
and there is nothing to disturb them, no 
matter how long the preacher holds forth. 
Sometimes also we preach under a peepal 
tree, where the shade is poor, the beggars 
many, and the hornets more, the latter 
being drawn by the sugar sold near by. 
Here there are noise and dust and sitting- 
down accommodations of which the more 
fastidious do not care to avail themselves, 
preferring to stand slightly propped with a 
walking stick. 

DISADVANTAGES. 

There are obvious disadvantages in this 
kind of work. It is often very trying to 
the preacher, and it is very hard indeed to 
make a lasting impression on the minds of 
those who hear. There is great difficulty in 



108 



REVIVALS ON THE FOREIGN FIELD. 



[February, 



following up the preaching with personal 
work. In fact, in India we have to deal 
so much with large numbers that there is 
great danger of not getting hold of any one. 
This is especially the case in preaching out 
in the streets. 

THIS WORK INDISPENSABLE. 

In spite of the disadvantages this work 
must not be left undone; this is the only 
Avay to reach a large part of the people. 
They cannot all be put in our schools. 
Many can get no good from books and 
tracts, simply because the larger part of 
the people cannot read. They cannot all 
be visited in their homes, as our force of 
workers is much too small for that. They 
cannot all be drawn into our churches, 
partly because we have so few churches, 
and partly because some do not care to go 
up two steps to get into a church, and yet 
these same people may stand a few minutes 
out in the street to hear, and so may receive 
some good impression. 

THE GREAT QUESTION. 

The great question is : How can we 
make the most of this opportunity to catch 
the ear and reach the heart of the multi- 
tudes who throng the city bazaars, crowd 
together in the village semi-weekly markets, 
and collect by tens and even hundreds of 
thousands in the great melas, on the banks 
of the Ganges, and at the tombs of Mo- 
hammedan saints ? 

HOW TO GET AN AUDIENCE. 

In the first place we have to get the peo- 
ple to come to a stand, and gather them 
about us. This is ordinarily done by sing- 
ing, which draws a great many, especially if 
accompanied by an accordeon or harmo- 
nium. Another good plan is to distribute 
gospel leaflets, and follow this with a few 
remarks to those who take the leaflets. In 
this way one soon gets a crowd. 

HOW TO HOLD THE AUDIENCE. 

The next question is, How to keep them ? 
I remember once hearing a native brother 
preach who managed to get rid of all but 
three people, and of these three two were so 
far away that they could hardly be said to 
belong to the audience. The third had sat 
down on the ground, and he seemed to stay 
only because he was too lazy to get up and 



go away. The best way to keep a crowd 
together is to speak loud enough for them 
to hear, and make the remarks interesting 
enough for them to want to hear. But how 
many a wayside preacher has done this, and 
still felt that nothing was done. We need 
that Power which will convict the careless 
passers-by of sin and of righteousness and of 
judgment. For this we who preach must 
pray; and, good friends at home, do you 
pray too that the many preachers, who 
stand daily to preach to the crowds of 
India, may be endued with power from on 
high. 

[How like our case and our need here at 
home. — Ed.] 

REVIVALS. 

In Korea. — The work in the north of 
Korea has been growing tremendously dur- 
ing the last year under the labors of Mr. 
Moffett and Mr. Lee. As a result there 
are now twenty -two outstations, where ser- 
vices are held by the Korean Christians 
every Sunday. One hundred and thirty- 
seven were added to the Church last year, 
and 500 catechumens were received. The 
practical effect of the preaching of the 
gospel is noticeable in the fact that several 
of the Pyeng Yang shops are now closed on 
Sunday. Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop, who 
is now here gathering information for a 
book on Korea, stated in one of our meet- 
ings that, although she had visited consider- 
ably over a hundred mission stations, she 
had never seen a field where the outlook 
was so bright and the opportunity so great, 
and expressed the hope that the Church at 
home would be equal to the opportunity 
and send out more workers. The great 
awakening is attributed to the fact that the 
people have been startled by the war and 
the cholera scourge of last summer and are 
now ready to listen to the gospel. They 
have been thoroughly imbued with the idea 
that if they accept Christianity they will of 
course at once commence telling others, and 
so the truth has been spread far and wide, 
and the requests for teachers and mission- 
aries are coming in thick and fast from the 
villages for miles around, and large numbers 
of these appeals have to be refused for lack 
of men. 

Another Word about the Work at 
Pyeng Yang. — So arreat has been the 



1897.] 



VASTNESS OF THE FIELD. 



109 



advance made this year that we have had 
to enlarge the church four times. We can 
now seat a congregation of five hum 1 red, 
and from present appearances we shall soon 
be overcrowded. At the last communion ser- 
vice we baptized twenty eight men and 
women. T\Ir. Lee returned last night from 
a trip to the work in the southwest, where 
he baptized thirty -six more and added some 
seventy or eighty to the roll of catechumens. 

From San Luis Potosi, Mexico. — Our 
hearts are rejoicing in the fact that five of 
our young people are about to make public 
profession of their faith. Two of the 
young men have come through peculiar 
temptations, and their stand is all the more 
significant and will help others. The work 
outside is progressing. At the close of the 
year 1895 the number of additions in all 
the congregations under our charge was 
sixty-five. One new church was organized 
with thirty- six members. In the year 
1896, another church was organized with 
thirty-one members, twenty-eight being re- 
ceived by baptism. Many candidates were 
waiting to be received at Mr. Williams' 
visit in November, but the exact number is 
not known here. On October 12, mission- 
aries were to start out together to visit three 
congregations in the north, where fourteen 
people were waiting to be received as the 
result of the native pastor's work. 

Honan, China. — A remarkable awaken- 
ing is reported from Honan, where crowds 
attended the meetings from morn until 
night, about two hundred seeking Christ. 

Central China. — In September the 
annual meeting of the Central China Mis- 
sion was held in Shanghai. One evening 
there was a devotional meeting at the house 
of one of the missionaries, and the Holy 
Spirit was present with great power. At 
the close of the first hour the meeting was 
closed with the benediction, but no one was 
ready to go, so the meeting went on of 
itself for another hour of testimony and 
praise and thanksgiving to God. The 
results of the work in Central China are 
not yet reported except from Ningpo sta- 
tion. They have had sixty additions to 
their churches during the year. 

Bangkok, Siam. — Reports reach us of 
an evangelistic tour in that laud where the 
workers traveled 4000 miles by steamers, 
sailboats and canoes, also on elephants and 



on foot. They labored in six provinces, 
finding an open door to the gospel. 

North Laos. — The native Christian 
women in North Laos think it a privilege 
to walk five and even ten miles to church 
in t lie early morning, and they have their 
own prayer meeting. 

Japan. — A new movement is reported at 
Osaka; a " Missionary Army " is started, 
whose rank and file is made up of a few 
active Christians of various denominations. 
Apparently it resembles the Salvation 
Army, only it works within and not outside 
the churches. Three thousand gospel leaf- 
lets are scattered every week. There are 
fifty-seven C. E. Societies in Japan. 



VASTNESS OF THE FIELD. 

REV. HUNTER CORBETT, D. D. , CHINA. 

Eight hundred and ninety-five millions of 
our race are living in ignorance of the only 
name under heaven given among men where- 
by we must be saved. 

Over nine hundred millions of the inhab- 
itants of the globe are yet out of Christ. 
Statistics are uninteresting to many, but 
they are filled with deep meaning if, in the 
sight of God, we meditate upon them and 
ask ourselves, in view of the awful need of 
the heathen world, What are we person- 
ally doing ? Do we hear God's voice say- 
ing to each of us, " What hast thou 
done?" " The voice of thy brother's 
blood calleth unto me from the ground ?" 

Thirty-five millions are passing annual ly 
into Christless graves. In China alone more 
than a million pass into eternity every 
month. Do these facts touch our hearts, 
awaken our sympathies and bring us into 
closer touch with our Saviour and all for 
whom he died ? 

Would that I could utilize the artist's 
pencil and brush in making a panorama 
which would represent the whole heathen 
world "without hope and without God" 
— that all might see what life as well as 
sickness and death to those in uuchristian- 
ized lands mean. 

Will the reader kindly trace on the ma}) 
the different mission fields and meditate 
thereon, until some definite and indelible 
impression is fixed. Begin with 

JAPAN. 

The Sunrise Kingdom has a population 
of about 40,000,000. During the late war 



110 



FIRST BAPTISM. 



[February, 



with China the eyes of the world have been 
turned upon this nation as never before. 
In future Japan will not be ignored in all 
the great political movements in the East. 

In 1622 a relentless persecution broke 
out against the Roman Catholic Church. 
Multitudes of Japanese converts chose death 
rather than the alternative of treading upon 
the form of the cross and blaspheming the 
holy name of Jesus. 

A royal proclamation was posted over the 
kingdom to this effect: " So long as the sun 
shall warm the earth let no Christian be so 



After a worthy part in establishing the 
cause of Christ in Japan, they still remain 
with us, rejoicing in all the wonderful 
changes they have witnessed in that land. 
They lived there ten years before the gov- 
ernment would permit direct and open 
missionary work. As late as 1869 many 
hundreds of Roman Catholic converts were 
closely confined in prisons in different parts 
of the country. In 1872 a teacher of a 
Protestant missionary died in prison accused 
of no crime except his desire to profess 
Christ and receive baptism. 




Preparing for a Country Trip — China 



bold as to come to Japan, and let all know 
that the king of Spain himself, or the 
Christian God or the Great God of all, if 
he violate this command, shall pay for it 
with his head." This decree was not fully 
canceled until 1873. It is to the honor of 
America that Commodore Perry, in 1854, 
without the firing of a gun, opened Japan 
to the commerce of the world. 

In 1859 our Church had the honor of 
sending James D. Hepburn, M.D., and his 
wife among the first pioneer missionaries. 



FIRST BAPTISM. 

In 1864 the first baptism took place. 
Eight years later the first church was 
organized. The membership has now in- 
creased to 40,000, or one for every 4000 of 
the entire population. Thousands of the 
youth are now in the schools and colleges 
recently established. The Bible has been 
translated and widely circulated, and there 
is every reason to hope that if the mission- 
ary work is energetically and wisely carried 



1897.] 



VTSIT OF AN AMERICAN WAR SHIP — FIRST CONVERT. 



Ill 



on, there will be great awakening and turn- 
ing to the Lord in the near future. 

KOREA. 

The " Hermit Nation " has an estimated 
population of about 13,000,000. 

The Koreans claim that they are neither 
Chinese nor Japanese. Many of them have 
come to regard the Chinese as petrified bar- 
barians who from time to time by threats or 
more violent measures have exercised 
authority over them. They speak of the 
Japanese as mushrooms of an inferior qual- 
ity, so short in stature as not to entitle them 
to high esteem. 

In 1835 Roman Catholic priests from the 
west entered Korea from Peking and suc- 
ceeded in winning many converts. Relent- 
less and cruel persecutions arose, and every 
effort was made to persuade the people that 
the foreign religion was a " pestilent her- 
esy," " the sum of all immorality and vil- 
lainy." 

In 1864, on the death of the last king of 
the Yi dynasty, the reins of government 
fell into the hands of a regent who was 
bitterly opposed to foreigners and to Roman- 
ists in particular. Soon after he obtained 
power, Bishop Berneux and eight of his 
associates were put to death and ten thou- 
sand Korean converts are reported as having 
met a martyr's fate. A fierce persecution 
long continued. 

VISIT OF AN AMERICAN WAR SHIP. 

Thirty years ago Captain Shufelt, com- 
mander of an American man-of-war, was 
sent to Korea to inquire concerning the loss 
of an American ship and the probable 
murder of all on board in a river of 
Korea. As interpreter I had some part in 
persuading a patriarch of a small village on 
the coast to send a man to carry a dispatch 
to the king. A year later the answer was 
received, when another man-of-war was sent 
to make further inquiry. Before the vessel 
left the harbor the patriarch was arrested 
and beheaded for having showed friendship 
to foreigners. 

Subsequently both French and American 
men-of-war visited Korean waters and were 
fired upon from the forts on land. The fire 
was returned and lives on both sides sac- 
rificed, but no settlement secured. 



FIRST TREATY. 

In 1882, Captain, now Commodore Shu- 
felt, as the American representative, secured 
the first treaty with Korea. In 1884, Dr. 
Allen was sent to Korea as a medical mis- 
sionary by the Presbyterian Board. 

FIRST CONVERT. 

The first convert was baptized in 1886, 
and the first church organized w T ith ten mem- 
bers in 1887. During the next ten years 
the number of converts increased to more 
than a thousand. One result of Korea 
being the storm centre of the late war 
between Japan and China has been to re- 
lieve Christianity from much of the miscon- 
ception, prejudice and hostility of former 
years. 

Ping Yang, where so many lives were 
sacrificed at the great battle which resulted 
in driving Chinese troops from Korean ter- 
ritory, is now the centre of a most interest- 
ing missionary work carried on by the 
Presbyterian mission. There and in sur- 
rounding towns and villages many are 
asking what they must do to be saved ? 
The missionaries are greatly encouraged 
and the outlook for the future is full of 
promise. 

CHINA. 

China is called the " Dragon Kingdom," 
from having chosen the dragon as the na- 
tional emblem on all the flags of the nation. 

Including Manchuria and Mongolia, the 
estimated population is 400,000,000. 
Buddhism, a system of despair, influences 
the thoughts and lives of all these millions. 
This system is a sort of atheistic pessimism, 
holding out the cessation of conscious being 
as the ultimate hope of man's greatest and 
holiest efforts. 

The multitudes live in dread of the inde- 
scribable torments depicted in the temples 
of what they imagine the souls must under- 
go after death and of the rebirths into 
forms of animals, reptiles, etc. 

After years spent in self-denying and 
heroic labors among the Mongols, the late 
Rev. James Gilmour wrote : 

Mongol Buddhism and holiness have long ago 
parted company. Notwithstanding many excellent 
doctrines which characterize it as a theory, its 
practical effect is to delude its votaries as to moral 
guilt, to sear their consciences as with a hot iron, 
to call the wicked righteous and send men down to 
the grave with a lie in their right hand. 



112 SIAM AND LAOS, THE LAND OF THE WHITE ELEPHANT —AFRICA. [February, 




All Aboard." 



Confucianism, Taoism and all the relig- 
ions of China are utterly unavailing before 
the heart cry of the nation. The gospel is 
the only remedy. 

What is the gospel doing in China ? 
The six converts to Christianity in the 
Protestant Church found in China in 1842 
have now grown to 70,000. At the same 
rate of increase as there has been the past five 
years, another fifty years will give China 
more than 60,000,000 of converts. Surely 
after many decades of foundation work in 
translating the Bible in many dialects, the 
preparation of many books, establishing of 
numerous schools and colleges where multi- 
tudes of gifted youth are being trained, 
with hospitals, dispensaries and works of 
various kinds, there is every reason to be 
encouraged and to hope that God's time to 
work mightily among that great people is 
near, if not already come. 

SIAM AND LAOS — "THE LAND OF THE 
WHITE ELEPHANT. ' ' 

Sixty years ago no treaty relations existed 
as now with all Christian countries. The 



king, in giving money and land to the mis- 
sionaries for hospitals and schools, shows 
that he is not hostile to missionary effort. 
At present the Presbyterian Church in 
America has that mission field as its own. 
More than two thousand Church members 
already are but the drops before the coming 
shower. Last year for each ordained mis- 
sionary thirty members were added to the 
Church in the Laos Presbytery. Many a 
church in America would rejoice at an 
equal success. 

AFRICA. 

Glance at the Dark Continent, with a 
population of over 200,000,000, nearly one- 
seventh of our race, without the gospel. 
Africa has been described as ' ' a universal 
den of desolation, misery and crime." 

In 1565 a slave ship bearing the name 
of Jesus arrived in America with 400 slaves 
stolen from the coast of Africa. The pious 
commander, Sir John Hawkins, wrote in 
his diary that ' ' God had been very merci- 
ful unto them in giving them a safe pas- 
sage, because he would be kind to his elect," 



1897.] 



AFRICA WAKED UP. 



113 



Three hundred years later, putting an end to 
slavery in America required an army of 
2,200,000 men on the Union side. Of 
this number 110,000 were killed or mortally 
wounded and 250,000 died from other 
causes. Probably on both sides nearly a 
million of men perished, and over five 
thousand millions of dollars were expended. 
Let the Church make a heroic effort to 
evangelize the whole world and what will 
be the result ? 

AFRICA WAKED UP. 

Africa has now awakened from the sleep 
of centuries. She needs help imperative- 
ly. Mohammedanism has already got prac- 
tical control over the whole of the northern 
part of Africa, and is rapidly advancing 
south. Surely Christian nations should 
awake and claim that people for Christ be- 
fore the 10,000,000 gallons of liquor yearly 
supplied by xlmerica and other countries 
has made that i:>eople hopelessly intemperate 
and before they come under the terrible 



thraldom of Islam. History records no 
parallel to the progress which baa been 
made in Central Africa within the present 
generation. Much of the country is now 
under the control of Christian governments. 
The limits of this paper will not permit to 
speak of other lands. If not only pastors, 
elders and leaders of missionary societies, 
but all Church members, old and young, 
were to make a careful and prayerful study 
of Persia, India, Arabia, Turkey, the islands 
which dot the ocean with an aggregate 
population of many millions and the mission 
fields of the world, until the mind becomes 
adequately impressed with the grandeur of 
the work which Christ's Church was insti- 
tuted to accomplish, and contrast the 
condition of those " without hope and with- 
out God," both in this life and the next, 
every heart will kindle with love for 
Christ and love for souls, and the desire of 
every one will be to bear a worthy part in 
obeying our Lord's command to go into all 
the world and preach the gospel to every 




Go J 



114 



PREACHING THE GOSPEL IN DARKEST AFRICA. 



[February, 



creature. If the X-rays of gospel light 
should be turned upon all countries where 
heathenism and Mohammedanism have full 
sway, what is seen ? Every where the intel- 
lect of woman is dwarfed. The sanctities of 
home as they are found in Christian lands 
unknown. Jealousy, envy, hate and in- 
trigue run riot. Polygamy, with all that 
it implies, degrades women with an infinite 
degradation. What degrades women also 
degrades men. Barbarous tortures, brutal 
punishments, oppression, official corruption 
is not only common in heathen lands, but 
perhaps worst of all under Mohammedan 
rule. 

The great facts found on every mission 
field should surely arouse the Presbyterian 
Church, to which God has given such a 
membership and such great wealth, to bear 
a worthy part by earnest, increasing and 
prevailing prayer, liberal giving and 
heroic service in meeting her responsibility 
before God in relation to the unsaved world. 



PREACHING THE GOSPEL IN 
DARKEST AFRICA. 

REV. WILLIAM S. BANNERMAN. 

Our mission in Africa covers a large ex- 
tent of country, stretching from two degrees 
south of the equator to four or five degrees 
north, and extending indefinitely towards 
the interior. Our most inland station is, 
however, not more than 200 miles from the 
coast. 

All this portion of Africa consists of one 
dense, dark forest covering the low coast 
belt of lagoon and mangrove swamps, reach- 
ing the Sierra del Crystal mountains and 
beyond over into the central plateau of the 
continent. 

The Fang, who some fifty years ago were 
known only as a wild, fierce cannibal people 
living far on the interior plateau, have been 
moving down in hordes towards the coast, 
driving out or destroying w T eaker tribes, or, 
as coast people say, the Fang have been 
burning, killing and eating their way to the 
coast until they have now reached the sea. 
They are a strong, active, energetic people, 
fond of war and the chase, and said to be 
three millions in number. 

A great portion of the missionary's time 
is spent itinerating among the Fang and the 
coast people, in the southern portion of the 
field, by means of an open boat or canoe, 



using the rivers, lagoons and lakes and in 
the northern portion of the field overland, 
using the network of forest footpaths that 
cover the country. From Angom, our sta- 
tion on the Gaboon, any one of forty-three 
Fang villages, averaging 700 in population, 
can be reached in a day. 

Our first stations among these savages 
were usually located in the large towns, so 
that the missionary might be in continual 
contact with the people, but this plan did 
not succeed, as from the tribal and family 
feuds the probability was that not one out 
of the twelve located in any other village 
dare visit the station from fear of the people 
of its town ; hence all new stations are being 
built at a short distance from the native 
villages and held and recognized as neutral 
property, indeed, is a sort of city of refuge, 
a place of peace, where all who meet are 
free from danger. 

So hostile are these people to each other, 
and such are their internecine feuds, that 
coast men, men of a different race and 
language, are always taken into the interior 
as carriers and canoe men for use in itiner- 
ating with the missionary. 

Occasionally the missionary will entertain 
an explorer who, by the help of some fifty 
armed men and many carriers of tent and 
baggage, has made a tour through the forest, 
which a missionary like the late Dr. Good 
will enter with one man to carry his blank- 
ets, one to carry his food, and two or 
possibly three others to carry himself 
should he be stricken with fever and fall by 
the way — so that a missionary itinerating 
party is usually a very simple expedition 
whether on lake or in the forest. 

There is never any difficuly in finding an 
audience among this people. The mission- 
ary will sometimes speak six times a day in 
as many villages to from fifty to five hun- 
dred people at a time. If a village is passed 
several times without a visit, the people feel 
slighted, and will shout from the banks of 
the river, " White man, why do you hide 
the word of God from us ?" " Has God 
no news for us ?" This people are ready 
to hear the gospel ; it is not claimed that 
they are ready to believe, this is a different 
matter; missionaries labored long and 
faithfully among the Fang and the coast 
tribes of Africa as in other parts of the 
world for their first converts. What is 
claimed is that the heathen are ready to hear 



1897.] 



PREACHING THE GOSPEL IN DARKEST AFRICA. 



115 



the word ; indeed, we can go further and 
say that they are anxious to hear; perhaps 
even farther, and say that they are anxious 
to believe. 

The heathen of west central Africa 
know of God ; they know everywhere of a 
great Supreme Being who has made all 
things, and set all things in order, whom 
they name Anyam, Anyambie, Nyam, 
Nzam, Zam. 

This is about their idea of God : Anyam 
made all things, and set things going, and 
then for some reason left them in their 
forest, subject to evil spirits whom they are 
always propitiating. " Oh, it is all very 
well," they say, " for you white people to 
speak of God's love; see all he has given 
you, and done for you, and taught you ; 
you are God's children; you come from 
God's town, but you need not tell us that 
the Fang are his children. Why, if we are 
his children, has he left us to die, age after 
age and generation after generation, in this 
dark forest and to hunt each other like the 
wild beasts ? No, no, you need not tell us 
that God loves us or is our Father." The 
missionary seems far removed above this 
simple ignorant people, hence what an im- 
measurable distance God seems to be above 
them, and that this God should love men, 
and should prove his love by sending to this 
evil world his only-begotten Son, and that 
this Son of God should live in this world 
for years going about doing good, showing 
lost man the way back to his Father God, 
and that he should gather about him friends 
who called themselves by his name, and 
that he then went back to his Father to 
prepare places for, and to be there ready to 
welcome his people; that where he is there 
they may be also, and that he asked his 
friends to carry on the work begun by him, 
until all people hear of the love of the 
Father and of the Son. Then come quickly 
the questions, "When? How long ago 
was this ? Has the Son of God many 
friends who call themselves by his name ?' ' 
Your missionary begins with shame to tell 
this people that all this happened 1900 
years ago, and that there is a multitude 
who call themselves Christians. Nineteen 
hundred years! What an age to people 
who count two years to our one ! Who cannot 
tell the age of a child of several months! 
They simply reply that such a story is quite 
unworthy of their belief. The missionary 



would be impatient ami discouraged and 
overwhelmed were it not that he knows that 
wherever tin; gospel has been faithfully 
{(reached, in whatever age, and among 
whatever race or nation it has been preached, 
the Holy Spirit has accompanied the 
preaching of the word and has given men 
power to believe what to the natural man 
at first seems incredible, and so men have 
believed and been converted. 

They usually listen attentively and re- 
spectfully to the message, asking and answer- 
ing questions; again and again returning 
to the same questions, showing that though 
perhaps silenced they are not satisfied. 
Occasionally, however, a man is angered by 
the thought that he has been unjustly 
deprived of some good thing; he works 
himself into a rage during the service, 
stamps his gun against the floor, brandishes 
his spear, or hustles the people about until 
beside himself with rage he rushes out of 
the audience and shouts back defiantly: 
" White man, keep your good news; have 
your heaven for yourself and your people! 
What! you come to us now at this late day 
to tell us of another place, after my people 
have gone generation after generation to 
Ntotolen (the place of evil). No, I want 
to go with my own people. Come, men, let 
us go with our people." He calls his 
friends, and they move off in anger, per- 
haps to hear the good news no more. 

Usually after holding a meeting in the 
public place, the missionary will pass through 
the streets of the village to visit those who, 
for one reason or another, have been unable 
to come and hear. As he walks through 
the village he hears a groaning which he 
follows until he halts by a door whence the 
sound issues. It takes a moment or two 
before the eyes become accustomed to the 
smoke and darkness of the hut, but there 
he sees, stretched out upon the earthen floor, 
a warrior just returned from battle ; he has 
lost an eye, has a broken limb or has a deep 
gunshot wound. These people know some- 
thing of medicine, but nothing of surgery. 
Before the wounded man has any chance of 
recovery they say the hot metal must be 
extracted, and then I see his friends, with 
their coarse knives, or with their fingers, 
probing and ferreting in the wound until 
death ends his sufferings. 

Further ou, with a heavy chain about his 
neck, or with his feet in the stocks, we find 



116 



HOUSE-TO-HOUSE VISITATION. 



[February , 



a prisoner; it may be a child or a man, a 
prisoner of yesterday, or it may be of some 
years' standing, held for ransom, or to be 
killed and eaten when the people of this 
village make a raid upon his village and 
return disappointed. 

On the forest side of the street, among 
the plantain and banana trees, we find tiny 
houses, a few feet square only, in which are 
placed those stricken with a very disagree- 
able, painful and contagious disease prevalent 
in west central Africa. It may be a child. 
The father fears contagion. The mother's 
natural affection is overcome by her dread 
of the disease. They place their child in 
this cage. They feed it through a hole in 
the side of the hut, and leave it to live or 
die; usually to die if under ten or twelve 
years of age. 

Towards the end of the street we hear 
some one weeping with a loud voice, as their 
custom is, the body covered with white 
clay, the emblem of death; it may be a 
young man or a young woman. When 
asked why they are wailing, they refuse to 
see us or to hear us. We ask of those 
standing near why this young girl is crying, 
and get the answer, " Oh, this girl is be- 
witched, and is crying because she is 
dying. ' ' We tell her that there is no such 
thing as a witch; that these people have 
their own reasons for wishing her death, 
and we ask her to go to the river and wash, 
and return and eat and she may outlive her 
tormentors. If she were thus encouraged 
every day she would probably survive, but 
otherwise she continually hears, " You are 
bewitched, you are dying, we can see you 
dying," and eventually she dies, and the 
witch-doctor says, " Did I not tell you that 
she was bewitched ? See ; the witch has 
killed her." 

Not in every village the missionary visits 
does he see these identical cases, but every 
day he goes among this people he sees all 
these things, and things too dreadful to 
begin to relate; he looks upon pain and 
cruelty and sickness and suffering and sin 
until his heart is sick and his head faint ; 
until he longs for the presence of the Great 
Physician who alone can heal the hurt of 
this people ; until he thinks of him who on 
seeing the multitude was moved with com- 
passion ; until he believes that if those who 
call themselves by the name of the Master 
could see what it is to be without Christ, 



they too, would be moved with compassion 
for those who are out of the way and lost 
in darkness. 

It is when the missionary reaches his 
home and moves among and is welcomed 
by his Christian converts that he appreciates 
what Christ has done and is doing for the 
world. 

It is only when we see what it is to be 
without Christ and what it is to have Christ, 
that we can fully appreciate what good 
things Christ has given this world. 

Is there any power able to lift these peo- 
ple out of such ignorance, degradation and 
vice ? Yes, a mighty power — the power of 
the gospel. The gospel is the power of God 
for the salvation of man here in this world 
and for the next. 



HOUSE-TO-HOUSE VISITATION. 

MRS. GERALD F. DALE, JR., SYRIA. 

The necessity for house-to-house visitation 
on the mission field lies primarily in the 
fundamental fact that man is a social crea- 
ture, dependent upon human touch and 
sympathy. 

In the eastern and western continents 
alike, if hearts are to be reached, it must 
be by intimate, personal soul-to-soul w T ork. 
The preaching and teaching are, at best, 
done at arm's length; their lessons must be 
enforced, indeed largely interpreted, by sub- 
sequent work with the individual. The 
very expressions by which religious thoughts 
are conveyed are too often mere abraca- 
dabra to the listener, and must be explained 
at greater length than the speaking in pub- 
lic allows. 

We must visit from house to house if we 
would influence the many who will not 
come to us. All our tact and common 
sense, our courtesy, charity and finest 
instincts must be employed to win those who 
look upon us as enemies and interlopers. 
We must visit the homes if we would make 
headway against false religious systems 
whose teachers are zealous and untiring in 
poisoning the minds of the ignorant against 
the light of truth. They do not weary in 
their efforts to sow the tares ; we must be 
constantly watchful that the wheat is not 
choked. 

We must visit the homes in order to learn 
how we can best influence the children in 
our schools, who come from those homes, 



1897.] 



HOUSE-TO-HOUSE VISITATION. 



117 



uiid how we can best reach the parents 
through the children.* 

We must go to cheer members of the 
household, who, because of their sympathy 
with us, suffer persecution in their homes 
and are forcibly prevented from attending 
our services. These would grow sick at 
heart and discouraged if deprived of our 
human, helping touch. 

Especially to the Mohammedan home 
must the lady missionary go — for in their 
enforced seclusion these women can be 
reached in no other way. 

VISITING HELPFUL TO THE MISSIONARY. 

The missionary needs the visiting from 
house to house for his own cheer and en- 
couragement and guidance. There in the 
individual life he sees the seed of promise ; 
he is at leisure to nurture and foster it. 
His counsel and advice are eagerly sought 
and regarded. He is the patriarch of the 
home. 

There, also, in the changed perspective, 
he will be quick to notice how he may have 
erred in his dealings with individuals, and 
circumstances will suggest a remedy. 

Most important of all, point of contact 
with each member of the large or small 
household will be established, through which 
will flow the current of human love which 
is divine. 

THE RIGHT SPIRIT FOR VISITING. 

The spirit in which we should enter these 
homes is so exactly defined by Prof. Royce 
of Harvard that I quote the passage here : 

Thy neighbor is as actual, as concrete as thou 
art. Just as thy future is real, though not now 
thine own, so thy neighbor is real, though his 
thoughts are never thy thoughts. If he is real like 
thee, then is his life as bright a light, as warm a 
tire to him, as thine to thee ; his will is as full of 
struggling desires, of hard problems, of fateful de- 
cisions ; his pains are as hateful, his joys as dear. 
Take whatever thou knowest of desire and of striv- 
ing, of burning love and fierce hatred, realize as 
fully as thou canst what that means, and then with 
clear certainty add : Such as that is for me, so is 
for him, nothing less Amid all the count- 

* Rev. Dr. Poor, the father of the now venerable Dr. D. W. 
Poor, was a missionary of the A. B. C. F. M. in Ceylon. 
Some fiftv years ago, in a speech at an annual meeting of 
that Board, he illustrated this thought as follows : We began 
our work bv trying to get adult men and women to listen to 
our preaching of the gospel, but having very poor success 
in this we took a hiut from the cow-herds. The cow in In- 
dia is not the gentle and amiable creature known to you, but 
is very untractable. When the cow-herd found it dillicult to 
make "the cow go the way he desired, he would catch her calf 
and shoulder it and run forward. The cow would quickly 
follow. So we saw that the way for us to lead the parents 
was first to win the children. 



less hordes of savage men ; in the hearts of all the 
good and loving : in the 'lull throbbing hearts of all 
prisoners and captives ; in all sickness and sorrow ; 
in all exultation and hope ; in all our devotion ; 
in all our knowledge ; everywhere from the lowest 
to the noblest creatures and experiences of our earth, 
the same conscious, burning, willful life is found, 
endlessly manifold as the forms of living creatures, 
unquenchable as the fires of the sun, real as these 
impulses that even now throb in thy own little sel- 
fish heart. Lift up thy eyes, behold that life, and 
then turn away and forget it as thou canst ; but if 
thou hast known that, thou hast begun to know thy 
duty. 

If we take this spirit with us into the 
homes, all that antagonizes us physically, 
mentally and morally will be counted as a 
very little thing, if we can but help our 
neighbor, our other self. 

SPECIAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR THIS WORK. 

In most Oriental countries, deaths, births, 
betrothals, marriages, feast-days, a return 
from a jouruey, are all occasions when visits 
are expected as a matter of course, and the 
wise missionary recognizes the importance 
of the opportunity. 

He will also often go, when he must make 
his own opportunity, and then it is that he 
must love his neighbor as himself, overlook- 
ing a coolness and offishness quite consistent 
with the offering of certain perfunctory 
amenities. He responds in Syria to the 
invariable " Tfuddullu " ("Come in," or 
literally, "Bestow your favor on me"), 
often an empty courtesy, and it may be 
accompanied by a covert, half-provoked 
smile, at his readiness to respond to the 
invitation; but if he proceeds with a brave 
heart, it will indeed be strange if a bond of 
sympathy is not soon found, when the frig- 
idity of host or hostess will melt like magic 
— and the missionary will receive a genuine 
invitation to " Tfuddul " a second time. 

INCIDENTS. 

A woman in Syria told me once that 
while she was still a bigoted Greek Ortho- 
dox, her hatred was so great towards the 
missionary who constantly visited her hus- 
band who was inclined to Protestantism, 
that night after night she stood behind the 
door, armed with a heavy stick of wood to 
hurl at the missionary's head. It was never 
thrown, for she said, " Each time my arm 
seemed to be held forcibly back." Her 
welcome was long in coining, but it came at 
last with a heartiness which brought a per- 
ennial smile to her face — and now she in 



118 



CHAPEL PREACHING. 



[February, 



turn, filled with the gospel of peace, visits 
many homes where at first she receives but 
scant courtesy, and frequently downright 
abuse. 

In another place, a man became interested 
in Protestantism, but was bitterly opposed 
by the bigoted wife. Gradually she became 
wondrously softened by the winning person- 
ality of the faithful missionary who visited 
the house. When a fatal disease seized the 
woman, he arranged for her removal to the 
Beirut hospital, where she was temporarily 
relieved, but returned home to die. 
Through the eight months of agony which 
followed, her patience and trustful leaning 
upon Christ were wonderful, and on her 
dying bed, the mummery of the nuns kneel- 
ing around her was silenced by her cries to 
Jesus as her only Saviour and Helper. 
This woman could not have been reached out- 
side of her home. The missionary went to her. 

Another woman, sweet and refined, edu- 
cated in a boarding-school, married a man 
who proved to be a dissolute drunkard. 
The husband forbade his wife, who was a 
church member, to attend service. She 
told us that our visits were her only human 
consolation ; while we wondered whether we 
did not receive more help and inspiration 
from her than she could possibly get from 
us — as all unconsciously she revealed depths 
of Christian fortitude and patience under 
trials which no woman could bear without 
Christ's help. Among her minor troubles, 
a bigoted mother and father-in-law were 
hourly thorns in the flesh, with their petty, 
pin -prick persecutions. When I last heard 
of her even they were being won by her 
Christ-like patience and endurance, and her 
husband had given her permission to attend 
church. 

The missionary does not need to be told of 
the importance of this work; he knows the 
need of it in every phase, and everywhere 
you will find him regretting what portion of 
it he must leave undone. Let the Church 
lighten his burden of regret by reinforce- 
ments, each new-comer lending a hand and 
a heart to this most vital part of missionary 
labor. 

CHAPEL PREACHING. 

REV. WILLIAM S. HOLT, D.D. 

On the foreign field chapel preaching has 
two distinct phases, and two distinct objects. 



The first is evangelistic, the second is for 
edification. 

ESSENTIALS FOR CHAPEL PREACHING. 

First, get your chapel. The writer's mis- 
sionary life has been spent among the Chi- 
nese and his experience dates from the 
year 1874. To meet the most people pos- 
sible, the chapel must be on a busy street. 
When so located it would be objectionable 
to business men; for the gathering crowds 
would obstruct the narrow streets. This 
obstruction would interfere with trade and 
might lead to too great activity in the crowd 
and to some destruction of property. 

Then, often, the unwillingness to rent to 
a foreigner is a barrier which sometimes it 
is impossible to remove. Then the only 
thing to do is to select another building and 
hope for greater tractability in the owner. 

SECOND STEP. 

Fit up your chapel. This is exceedingly 
simple and inexpensive. Benches without 
backs; a platform raised sufficiently to com- 
mand the audience, and large enough for 
three or more occupants; a native table, on 
which to lay some books; if possible, a 
book-room near the entrance, to be kept 
open constantly with the sign, Jesus Hall, 
and the furnishing is complete. We are 
ready to go to work. This is a chapel 
solely for evangelistic work. But evangel- 
ism is a broad term when taken in this con- 
nection. It includes familiarity with the 
preachers, until they are changed from 
" foreign devils " into men; some sort of 
acknowledgment that their mission is friend- 
ly, and that they are not emissaries of a 
barbarian race; some knowledge of their 
purpose in preaching a foreign religion ; in- 
deed it means an entire change of thought 
and belief and attitude toward the mission- 
ary, and after that an understanding of his 
message, what its relation is to the individ- 
ual, and, by and by, under God's gracious 
guidance, acceptance of the gospel. 

HOW HE TRIES TO DO HIS WORK. 

It was our custom to go, two or three 
together, to the chapel every afternoon, 
except the Sabbath. For chapel preaching 
is exhausting work, and relief is needed. 
This explains why one man does not go 
alone, unless it is necessary. The every-day 
work is absolutely necessary when we keep 



1897.] 



CHAPEL PREACHrNG. 



119 



in mind that we wish to reach as many peo- 
ple as possible as soon as possible. 

There were in our city four missionary 
preachers. Our chapels would accommo- 
date about 500 people. The city contained 
500,000 people. How long would it re- 
quire four men to reach 500,000 people, 
provided they had entirely new audiences 
at every meeting, if they preached twice 
on the Sabbath ? Evidently a chapel closed 
six days and open one will never meet the 
need. The whole front of the chapel is 
removed, the missionaries are on the plat- 
form, with a good native preacher to assist. 
In comes the crowd. The seats are filled, 
the aisles are filled, the space in front of 
the platform is filled with men. They are 
smoking, laughing, talking, staring. The 
preacher who is to open arises, the others 
sit, and work begins. The theme for the 
day, a simple talk about God, and sin, and 
salvation through Jesus Christ, as animated 
as the speaker can make it, abounding in 
illustrations as much as possible, is ad- 
dressed to the untaught crowd. 

But the man is more to the crowd now 
than his theme. His features, his short 
hair, his stature, his apparel from collar to 
shoe, are observed, and perhaps, also, the 
fact that he is speaking the common lan- 
guage of the crowd. Often the talking 
and laughter and visiting, all aloud, con- 
tinue. A friend of some one in the chapel 
passes the door and is called in. Men in 
the street, and small boys, too, as they go 
by, sing out, " Foreign devil." Some get 
up and leave, others take their place. 

Meanwhile there is constant conversation 
with the men who are sitting on the plat- 



form, 
your name 



How old are 



V" 



you 



V" 



What is 



: Are you married ?" ' ' Of 
what are your clothes made ?" " What 
sort of medicine must I take to join your 
society V* " Is it true that you foreigners 
dig out the eyes of children for medicine ?" 
No use to say, " Keep still. This is a 
meeting." Answer you must and answer 
you do. For you are there to evangelize 
this curious crowd, and how can you evan- 
gelize a man until you show yourself friend- 
ly. So on and on preaches the missionary 
before the audience; on and on talks the 
inquisitive auditor ; on and on responds the 
waiting assistant until throat is dry and 
weary, and the preacher is tired. Then he 
sits and attends to the inquisition and the 



other steps to the front and continue- the 
preaching. The afternoon passes; the men 
are worn; the crowd is invited to come 
again to-morrow; the front of the building 
is replaced ; God's blessing is sought upon 
the service rendered, and the missionaries 
go home to take up some other form of the 
work that always presses, and to prepare 
for another day. 

Day after day the good seed is sown, 
until the Jesus Hall is known throughout 
the city, and the foreigners and their work 
are talked about everywhere The villa- 
gers who come into the city to sell their 
produce or make their purchases, the stu- 
dent, the business man, especially if he has 
a shop near the chapel, and the officials all 
hear of what is going on and the gospel 
becomes a topic of conversation over a 
large area tributary to the great city. 

WHAT IMPRESSION 

is produced by this chapel work ? Probably 
a false one at first. For it must be remem- 
bered that while the missionary uses the 
language spoken by the people, and is well 
understood on all the common topics of 
every-day life, when he preaches the gospel 
in a heathen tongue he uses the ivords of 
the people to convey his own ideas. But 
the nearer attaches the familiar ideas of his 
own thought to the words. For example, 
we use the common word for God, to spec- 
ify the God of the Bible. He is not known, 
but one thousand heathen gods are called 
by this name. To say true God where all 
are true is to make no progress. To speak 
of the Supreme Ruler is to convey only one 
idea and that a false one, as many mission- 
aries know from experience. The same is 
true of sin, salvation, heaven, Saviour. 
All these terms are misunderstood at first, 
and for loDg. But the daily work in the 
chapel serves its purpose, makes the people 
acquainted with the missionaries, always 
leads to permanent friendships, then to 
personal inquiry about the message deliv- 
ered in the chapel, and so to the personal 
work which leads to the feet of Jesus. 

SEED SOWING. 

Chapel Preaching described above is 
seed sowing, " beside all waters," among 
thistles and tares, and on rocks and sand 
and barren soil. 



120 



EVANGELISTIC WORK IN KOREA. 



[February, 



CHAPEL PREACHING FOR EDIFICATION. 

This is done on the Sabbath, and where 
the Church is not yet established in the 
missionaries' own home. There was a 
sacred room in our miserable native dwell- 
ing set apart to this use on the Sabbath 
days. There we gathered those whom we 
had tried to reach. All is orderly and 
quiet here. The word of God is read, the 
prayer is offered, the hymn is sung by man 
and wife and child, and a portion of God's 
w r ord is unfolded, with earnest effort to 
bring it to the conscience and heart and 
life of the listener. Here we worship with 
those who dare to inquire and who come to 
profess faith in Jesus Christ, and who must 
endure hardness if they are good soldiers. 
Here too come comfort and help to ourselves 
as we meet with our Lord, and refreshment 
comes for the weariness and care and abuse 
which are sure to follow in the days ahead. 

It is a blessed privilege to preach the gospel 
to those who do not know it. And to what 
height does this privilege attain when the 
preacher sees those, for whom he has labored 
and endured, bravely and openly profess 
their faith in the wondrous Saviour ? 



Evangelistic Work in Korea is treated in a 
communication from Rev. S. V. Moore, from which 
we glean the following illustrations of the methods 
employed : 

1. Notice on the gate — Doctrine of 
Jesus Taught Here — all who wish to hear 
the good tidings invited to come in. 

One Kim-Sun Tal, passing by on a Sun- 
day, saw the sign and came in to church ; 
has ever since been a regular attendant; is 
now a communicant. He keeps a hotel on 
the main street of the city, and invites the 
missionaries to use his large front porch 
opening on the street, as a sort of chapel — 
an excellent place from which to preach to 
crowds passing by. Multitudes have there 
heard the gospel for the first time. 

2. The Sa-rang is a room furnished in 
Korean fashion, in which the missionary 
spends many hours, receiving all who may 
come to see him. He reads and explains to 
them the Scriptures, and the voice of 
prayer is there daily heard. Men from all 
parts of the country find their way to the 
missionary Sa-rang. Many accept books 
from it. 

3. The Street Chapel is a large room 
opening on the street. Half a dozen such 



in Seoul. When the doors are thrown 
open, and the schoolboys strike up a song, a 
crowd soon gathers, and the missionary 
tells them of the one God and Saviour. 
No difficulty in getting an audience from 
the passing crowd, even when there are no 
boys to sing. They have curiosity to hear 
the foreigners. 

4. Street preaching, not only in the city, 
but by missionaries going from village to 
village [How like the seventy whom Christ 
sent out !] , preaching the glad tidings of the 
kingdom, and scattering books, both by sale 
and as gifts. 

5. Itinerating means trips to remoter 
parts of the country, sometimes by boat and 
sometimes on land. On these trips the 
missionary takes pains to see any who may 
have visited him at his home; holds ser- 
vices; sees inquirers and receives them, first, 
to the catechumen class, and, after a period 
of probation, baptizes and admits to com- 
munion those found worthy. Meetings are 
held for prayer and Bible study, and the 
people are taught to sing. With several 
inquirers for companions he goes about from 
village to village; the people gather and 
listen to addresses by the missionaries and 
by such of the native believers as are qual- 
ified for such service. 

In one place converts have bought a house 
and fitted it for a church, with two rooms 
— one for women and one for men — where 
the villagers meet every evening for prayer 
and song. One woman there confessed that 
she " had lived like a dog," but she had no 
desire for her former way of life since 
believing in Jesus. She has heard much 
from Mr. Kim, and now teaches what she 
has learned to other women. 

In one village of ten houses eight of 
them have left off the worship of devils and 
are calling upon the Lord. They use a 
Sa-rang for a chapel, outside of which is a 
sign — The Salvation Church; inside on 
the walls are pasted the Ten Command- 
ments and printed prayers. 



Mr. Moore's communication gives many more 
similar illustrations. It was received after we had 
so preoccupied our space that we have been com- 
pelled to select only these few and to condense them, 
not always giving the writer's own words, but care- 
ful not to misrepresent him. His vivid picturing 
of Korean scenes and experiences confirms the im- 
pressions which Mrs. Bishop has already given to 
our readers. See p. 108, and p. 4 in our January 
number. 



EDUCATION. 




Manuel Madrid, J. J. Vigil, M. D. J. Sanchez, Warren C. Bud. 

Gabino Rendon, R. E. L. Hays, P. M. Gilchrist, Avelino A'guirre, Luis Bernal. 



OUR WORK FOR SPANISH-SPEAK- 
ING PEOPLE. 

COOPERATION OF CHURCH AGENCIES. 

The illustrations which accompany this 
article suggest the seed and fruitage of the 
work of our Church among the Spanish- 
speaking people of this country, a work to 
which our Board of Home Missions so often 
points with just pride. There is an exceed- 
ingly interesting chain of provideDtial events 
extending from these old Spanish Bibles to 
the group of students which it is the pur- 
pose of this article to show. There has 
been a harmonious cooperation of instru- 
mentalities working together for good which 
can be traced from the American Bible 



Society, which published the Bibles, through 
to the Board of Education and the Presby- 
terian College of the Southwest as they have 
cooperated in giving to these young men a 
Christian education. 

THE GOMEZ BIBLE. 

When and by whom these Bibles were 
brought into New Mexico is not known. 
The larger Bible was printed in 1828; and 
in 1868, forty years later, it was purchased 
by Juan Gomez, a Mexican living in Con- 
ejos county, Colo. It was purchased from 
a man whose wife had inherited it from her 
grandfather, a resident of central Now 
Mexico. The price paid seems an unreason- 
able one; but there were many instances of 
large sums being paid for these old Bibles 

121 



122 



OUR WORK FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING PEOPLE. 



[February, 



as they secretly passed from hand to hand. 
Such Bibles are found in many places in 
New Mexico. The price paid by Mr. 
Gomez for this one, as reported by his fam- 
ily, was ten dollars in cash, a fat ox, and 
the use of a yoke of oxen for a trip to Santa 
Fe and return, a journey of three hundred 
miles. The cost of the Bible is variously 
estimated at from sixty to one hundred dol- 
lars, as cattle were at that time both scarce 
and valuable: farther, the oxen strayed 
away during the journey, and were gone for 
some months, causing a farther loss of time 
and trouble. Mr. Gomez read his Bible for 
ten years before he was found by our Pres- 
byterian missionary, Rev. Alexander M. 
Darley. It is said that wherever he went 
he gathered about him groups of eager lis- 
teners to whom he told the stories of the old 
Bible heroes. In 1878 Mr. Darley found 
Mr. Gomez and his family living in a retired 
spot in the canon of the Alamosa in south- 
ern Colorado. They were already evan- 
gelical in faith and life and were soon ready 
to be organized into the Presbyterian church 
now called " La Luz" (the light). This 
church has been maintained through the 
years. It has sent out many members to 
other churches, and still enrolls a member- 
ship of thirty -one. Mr. Gomez was a man 
of marked personality and strong character. 
He has left to the world a godly seed who 
are an honor to him and to the Church. 
Rev. M. D. J. Sanchez, whose face appears 
in our group, is a grandson of Mr. Gomez, 
who spent eight years in the Presbyterian 
College of the Southwest, completing the 
classical course and the special theological 
course. After his graduation in 1893 he 
was called by the La Luz church, and or- 
dained and installed as its pastor, passing all 
the required examinations except in Hebrew. 
Mr. Sanchez also has charge of the three 
churches mentioned hereafter, and a general 
oversight of all of our mission work in the 
great San Luis Valley, including the work 
of other evangelists. A younger brother, a 
sister and her husband are now in college. 
The last, Mr. Refugio Jaramillo, is a 
member of the present class in the- 
ology, and is already very acceptable as a 
preacher among his people. The sister, 
and Miss Petra Gomez, another grand- 
daughter of Juan Gomez, have been the 
mission teachers at La Luz for several 
years past. 



THE PEDRO SANCHEZ BIBLE. 

The smaller Bible was published in 1857, 
and was purchased some years later by 
Pedro Sanchez: the price paid was a fat ox 
worth probably twenty-five dollars. Mr. 
Sanchez lived in a community near Ojo 
Caliente, N. M., where even yet no regular 
mission work has been done. He died trust- 
ing in the promises of his Bible, although 
he had never met a Protestant minister ex- 
cept on one occasion. His brothers-in-law, 
Pablo and Pedro Ortega, with their fami- 
lies, gained their first knowledge of gospel 
truth from this book, and his wife was until 
her death a faithful Christian. The Ortegas 
lived in Colorado, and when Rev. Mr. 
Roberts and his evangelists found them in 
1878, Pablo Ortega, then a State Senator, 
welcomed them to his home. Soon after 
the Presbyterian Church of Cenicerro was 
organized in his house. This was the first 
Presbyterian church organized in Colorado 
among the Mexican people. Mr. Ortega 
was made an elder, but died shortly after- 
wards, from pneumonia contracted by 
exposure during a trip to presbytery at Colo- 
rado Springs. Two churches have since been 
organized out of the Cenicerro church, and 
the three are now under the care of Rev. 
M. D. J. Sanchez. They unitedly have 
105 members enrolled. This church has 
also contributed of its members for the 
organization of four other churches. Mr. 
Avelino A'guirre, one of our group, and 
now doing efficient work as an evangelist at 
Santa Fe ; Mr. Romaldo Montoya, the vete- 
ran evangelist of Nacimiento, N. M., and 
Mr. A. J. Rodriguez, the consecrated mis- 
sionary to the Southern Ute Indians, were 
all of the original membership of this 
church. Of the present theological class, 
now in Del Norte, three come from within 
its original bounds. Thus seven churches 
and six preachers of the Word trace their 
history to the truths of this one book; 
' ' and the end is not yet. ' ' 

Similar stories with regard to five other 
Bibles are known to the writer of this arti- 
cle. These seven stories, along with many 
individual experiences to be met with among 
the Mexican people, prove that unlearned 
and ignorant men are frequently led to a 
change of heart and life by the " open 
Bible," even without the preacher. They 
also prove afresh that the open Bible is ever 
the foe of Romish superstition. 



1897.] 



OUR WORK FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING PEOPLE. 



123 



on 



THE TRAINING WORK AT DEL NORTE, 
COLO. 

The class of eight shown in the cut 
was organized six years ago in connec- 
tion with the Presbyterian College of 
the Southwest, located at Del Norte, 
Colo. The class completed a special 
course of three years' training in the- 
ology and other studies in 1893, and 
all of its members have since been 
actively engaged in mission work. 
Another class is now in college, and 
will soon complete a similar course. 
This class has enrolled eighteen men, 
although three have been compelled to 
drop out this year for lack of support. 
These men have been supported by 
their work as evangelists during their 
summer vacations, for which they are 
paid by the Board of Home Missions, 
and by the usual aid given by the 
Board of Education to candidates 
under its care. Both of these agen- 
cies of our Church have reduced 
their appropriations through lack of 
funds. The reduction has been hard 
our men, as seventeen of the twenty-six en- 
roiled in the two classes are married 
men. Four of the whole number are 
Americans preparing for work among 
Spanish-speaking people. The others are 
the best product of the twenty-five years of 
mission work done by our Church among the 
Mexican people of this region: nearly all 
of these latter can trace their religious his- 
tory back to the seven Bibles which I have 
mentioned. All who had a part in their 
instruction are agreed that the native ability 
of our Mexican students is equal to that of 
the American students who have had no 
better advantages. These men and their 
families are greatly benefited by their con- 
tact with the Christian people of the church 
and college in Del Norte. The standard of 
education, particularly in view of the bene- 
fit of contact with American Christians, 
and the competition with American stu- 
dents, is a higher one than would be possible 
in most foreign fields. The majority of 
them have had several years of training in 
the mission schools of our Church and spend 
from four to eight years in Del Norte. 
The exceptions to this are a few older men 
who have had but little previous education 




Old Spanish Bibles. 

and who are likely to be employed as itiner- 
ant evangelists, for which work there is a 
wide field. Pueblo Presbytery, Colo., has 
recently placed its whole work under the 
care of these trained young men where for- 
merly three American missionaries were 
employed. The care of the work is divided 
between Rev. M. D. J. Sanchez and Rev. 
J. J. Perdomo. The latter is a native of 
Chile, and a graduate of Park College and 
McCormick Seminary, and has recently 
begun his work here. 

THE HARMONY OF INSTRUMENTALITIES. 

The Bible and Tract Societies, the Boards 
of Publication and Church Erection, and 
many individuals and churches by special 
gifts, have cooperated with the Board of 
Home Missions in founding and sustaining 
our forty-seven Mexican Presbyterian 
churches, and the thirty mission schools. 
The Presbyterian College of the Southwest, 
which is sustained by the Board of College 
Aid, and the Board of Education have 
united in the training of a native ministry 
for these churches, thus securing to the 
Church the service of these men who are 
the best fruits of its former work. 

F. M. Gilchrist. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 



A COMPARISON. 

We give, this month, a new view of our 
work, a comparative view. We compare 
the thirteenth annual report of the College 
Board made to the last General Assembly 
with the twenty-second annual report of 
another similar organization of a different 
denomination. 

The organization does for its Church the 
work done by both our College Board and 
our Board of Education. It employs three 
secretaries, besides clerical force, and its 
expenses are slightly less than the expenses 
of our two Boards; but it should be noted 
that the administrative expenses of our Col- 
lege Board will be fifteen per centum less 
this year than they were last year. So far 
as we can separate its work for colleges and 
academies from that for students for the min- 
istry we compare its annual report with ours. 
About the same number of institutions 
were aided by both organizations: 



Colleges aided, . 
Academies aided, 

Total, . . . 



THE OTHER. OURS. 



9 
23 



15 
19 



32 34 



The next comparison is startling: 

THE OTHER. OURS. 

Appropriations to 

colleges, . . $36,000 $12,900 

Average, . . . 4,000 860 
Appropriations to 

academies, . . $29,500 $14,200 

Average, . . . 1,282 787 

Our Board appropriated about 41 per 
centum as much as The Other; what were 
the comparative results ? 

PROPERTY. 

THE OTHER. OURS. 

Property of 

colleges, . . $816,427 $815,049 
Average, . . 90,712 54,336 
Property of 

academies, . $377,850 $416,785 
Average, . . 16,423 21,936 
Both colleges 

and academies, 

$1,194,277 $1,231,834 

124 



As our Board has been able to give its 
institutions from the first less than one-half 
as much as The Other Board could give, our 
property showing is encouraging. The en- 
couragement is more marked when we con- 
sider : 

INDEBTEDNESS. 



THE OTHER. OURS. 



Colleges having debts, 
Academies having debts, 



9 
16 



25 9 



Total indebtedness, $268, 436 $105,792 
Relation of indebtedness 

to value of property, . 22% 9% 

For some years our Board has with one 
hand offered institutions assistance in paying 
their debts, and with the other hand re- 
strained them from incurring indebtedness. 
Offering according to circumstances from 
one-fifth to one-half the amount of indebt- 
edness on condition that the institution 
should secure the remaining amount in its 
own territory, our Board has led most of its 
institutions out of debt; and by taking a 
first mortgage on the property of every 
institution so aided, it now holds mortgages 
on twenty -seven institutions whose property 
is valued at $942,429, securing that prop- 
erty forever for the educational uses of our 
Church, or, in the event of the alienation 
of the property from such uses, securing the 
return of the money given, with interest. 

Remembering that our Board gives but 
41 per centum as much as The Other Board, 
the next comparison is good : 

THE OTHER. OURS. 

Gifts from 

home field, $41,346 00 $40,381 00 
One dollar ap- 

propria ted 

brings on 

the home 

field, . . 63 1 49 



1897.] 



THREE 8CENES. 



125 



STUDENTS. 

THE OTHER. OCRS. 

In aided insti- 
tutions, . . 2815 3026 

Appropriations, 
average per 
student, . . $23 26 $8 95 

Thus $8.95 given to our Board secures 
the education of a student for one year, while 
the same result requires $23.26 given to 
The Other Board. 

College work is of course more costly 
than academy work ; in view of which fact 
this also is encouraging : 

GRADE OF WORK. 

THE OTHER. OCRS. 

Percentage of students 

in college classes, 5.9 12.6 

Of course the paramount thing in the 
work of these aided institutions is shown in 
the following table, which speaks audibly 
for itself and for our work: 

SPIRITUAL WORK AND RESULTS. 

THE OTHER. OURS. 

Percentage of students in 

systematic Bible study, 49.0 82.5 

Percentage Church mem- 
bers, 42.0 49.7 

Percentage converted dur- 
ing the year, ... 5.4 5.2 

Percentage seeking the 

ministry, .... 3.4 7.1 

The most suggestive thing in this com- 
parison is the difference in appropriations 
made to aided institutions. We give our 
colleges an average of 8860, while The 
Other gives its colleges an average of 84000 ; 
and we give our academies an average of 
8787, while The Other gives its academies 
an average of 81282 a year. 

Now a Western college without endow- 
ment, given according to its needs from 
83000 to 86000 a year, can do very fair 
work; what can an unendowed institution 
do with but from 8500 to $1500 a year ? 

The salaries offered must necessarily be 
so low as to attract competent instructors 
only when a consecrated missionary spirit 
makes them willing to work for half pay. 

These small salaries being often neither 
promptly nor fully paid, instructors who 
must support their families are often driven 
to accept other positions. 

Trustees and friends are annually harassed 
with threatened deficits which must be met 



by special ,L r ifK and are thus often disheart- 
ened and their zeal chilled. 

The president must send and carry out 
appeals, when the animal deficit threat' 
which keep the college before the churches 
as a chronic beggar for small sums and in- 
jure its standing among business men. 

The college, living on the narrow verge 
of starvation, may be precipitated by some 
agricultural or industrial calamity of its 
State into indebtedness or even extinction. 

AVill not the Presbyterian Church give 
its Western colleges and academies as much 
aid for current expenses as sister denomina- 
tions give their institutions ? Can we, with 
our precious heritage of the love of higher 
learning based upon the word of God, and 
with our abundant means, please the great 
Head of the Church without doing much 
more for our institutions ? It is long since 
the College Board has favored the starting 
of a new Presbyterian college in the West ; 
some of the old ones have starved to death ; 
others essential to the stability of our home 
mission work in their regions are in peril. 
What will the Church do ? 

We give our academies sixty-one per 
centum of the amount which The Other 
denomination gives its academies ; we give 
our colleges twenty- three per centum of 
what The Other gives ; and it may be added 
that all of the great denominations stand in 
this matter with The Other and not with us. 
What proportion then of their gifts to the 
Lord's work ought the Lord's stewards to 
bestow on this department of it, to retrieve 
past neglect and to do what each year re- 
quires for Christian higher education in the 
AVest ? The Board could handle five times 
its present income with little increase of ad- 
ministrative expenses, as the office work is 
practically the same in handling appropria- 
tions of 830,000, or of 8200,000. 



THREE SCENES. 

Nine Parts Fact ; One Part Fancy. 

rev. hervey d. gan8e, d. d. 

I. 

Time, 1840; place, central New York or 
western Pennsylvania. Husband and wife 
are sitting over the fire on Sabbath night, 
the children having gone to bed. 

" Haven't you noticed," says the wife, 
" that Harry cares more for his books than 
he used to ? I believe he would like to 



126 



THREE SCENES. 



[February, 



have an education. I'm pretty sure I've 
noticed a change ever since Brother Wil- 
liam's Joe was here talking about how they 
did at college, and about their debating 
societies, and their professors, and all that." 

Husband: " Yes; I've thought the same 
thing. I expected, like as not, 'twould 
work that wav." 

Wife: "Well, ain't you glad of it? 
I'm sure I am. He's got a good head ; and 
he ought to study and make something. 
Perhaps God would make a minister of 
him. Joe told me that was what he meant 
to be; though he never thought of such a 
thing till they had a revival in college." 

Husband : " Think we can afford it ?" 

Wife : " Certainly we can. College is so 
near. There are no traveling expenses. 
He can have most of his washing and mend- 
ing done at home, and, at a pinch, he can 
keep bachelor's hall, as Joe does; so we can 
send him the chief part of his living, too." 

Harry goes to college. 

II. 

Time, 1887; place, Nebraska or Colora- 
do, from ten to fifty miles from Pierre del 
Norte. Conversation the same as the fore- 
going, except for this addition: 

Husband: " They tell me the college is 
having a pretty hard time to get along. 
They've got nice enough building and 
first-rate teachers; butiucome doesn't near- 
ly pay the expenses; and it is a pretty 
doubtful thing whether they keep a-going 
at all. There's no use of starting the boy 
if he's got to stop next year." 

Wife : " It won't stop. There's people 
behind it; and they've put money in it, for 
the sake of doing good with it, and they 
won' t let it stop. ' ' 

The husband, on the whole, thinks so too, 
and the boy is likely to go to college. 

III. 

Time, 1887; place, a thriving town, or 
large city, or fertile farming tract in any of 
the older States. Husband, sitting at his 
table in the midst of a well -furnished study, 
with tall, full book- cases on three sides of 
it, is opening his morning's mail. His wife 
enters the door as he is running his paper- 
cutter through an envelope. By the time 
she has reached his table, the envelope and 
its contents are in the waste-basket, and he 
speaks: 



" It is another of the circulars of the 
new-fangled Board for Colleges and Acade- 
mies. I haven't the least interest in the 
thing. Collections, collections, collections ; 
and as if there were not enough, now they 
want collections for running schools. How 
could I get people to give for such a cause, 
even if I wanted them to do it ?" By this 
time he has opened another letter, and, after 
reading the date, he exclaims, " Why, here 
is a letter from your brother Jim, or some 
of his family. The handwriting looks a 
little strange." While he is turning over 
the sheet to find what name is signed to it, 
the wife says, " I noticed the postmark as I 
took the letter from the postman, and I 
came in to see whether it was from Jim." 

Husband: "No, it's from his boy 
Harry, my namesake." A pause while he 
reads. Then, by snatches, he gives the 
purport: " The boy has taken it into his 
head to study. Got sort of a college started 
near them, he says ; can go at very small 
expense for tuition, and can get a good part 
of his living from home. Says he has heard 
his father tell how I came to be a minister; 
thinks he would like to be one; wants to 
know what I think of it. Here's a line in 
lead-pencil from his mother. She thinks 
the boy is converted, says he is the bright- 
est of their children, that, though things 
have gone so hard with them thus far, she 
believes they can carry him through, if the 
school can only keep a-going. Wants me 
to pray over it, and give them the best 
advice I can. ' ' The wife takes the letter ; 
and while she is reading it, the husband 
picks some papers out of the waste-basket. 
The namesake gets a prompt letter, with the 
right kind of encouragement in it. A few 

Sabbaths later the congregation of 

finds itself thrilled and in tears as its pastor 
outdoes the experienced eloquence of twenty 
years in telling how he ever came into a 
pulpit. The text is, " The voice of one 
crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the 
way of the Lord. Make straight in the 
desert a highway for our God. ' ' And the 
rich men that pile the plates with money 
for opening, and holding open, the doors of 
Christian schools, keep glancing at the 
glowing face behind the pulpit Bible as they 
say, " This thing is no experiment. This 
thing has been tried." — Republished from 
The Church at Home and Abroad, 
February, 1887. 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF 



fiQk 






jfgj 


* 




-4^.% 







Rev. B. L. A -new, D.D 



Having just entered upon the duties of 
Corresponding Secretary of the Presbyterian 
Board of Relief for Disabled Ministers and 
the Widows and Orphans of Deceased Min- 
isters, the salutations from the Board in this 
article must necessarily be of a somewhat 
personal character, which the reader will 
kindly pardon. 

THE CALL TO THIS WORK. 

When called to the secretaryship of this 
Board, from the pastorate of Bethlehem 
Church, in Philadelphia, my people kept 
constantly asking me, " Why do you think 
of leaving a large, flourishing and harmo- 
nious church to accept the secretaryship of 
the Board of Ministerial Relief?" and my 
reply has been in substance as follows : 

I was not an applicant for the office of 
Corresponding Secretary of this Board, and 
when the Board unanimously selected me for 
the responsible position, I felt there was a 
special providence in the call which I dared 
not to disregard. 



The work, too, of this Board appeals 
most profoundly to my sympathies, as I 
think of the imperative necessities of the 
beloved fathers in the Church who ought to 
be, and who have been, honorably retired 
by their presbyteries from active service in 
the ministry, and of others who have been 
laid aside by sickness. And as I think of 
the pressing needs of the long list of widows 
and helpless orphan children of deceased 
ministers, I can only say, " How can I turn 
my back upon this sacred work ?" 

Then, too, I have keenly felt that there 
is a binding obligation in God's law resting 
upon the Church to provide sufficient annu- 
ities for these deserving ones to make them 
as comfortable as possible in their special 
and providential circumstances. 

See how the Old Testament law reads, in 
regard to God's ministering servants (Deut. 
12: 19): " Take heed to thyself that thou 
forsake not the Levite as long as thou livest 
upon the earth." 

Then turn to the New Testament law and 

127 



128 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF. 



[February, 



read (Rom. 15 : 27) : " For if the Gentiles 
have been made partakers of their spiritual 
things, their duty is also to minister unto 
them in carnal things;" (1 Cor. 9 : 14) 
" Even so hath the Lord ordained that they 
which preach the gospel should live of the 
gospel." 

Besides all this, a sense of gratitude to the 
venerable men who have done so much to 
build up our great Presbyterian Church 
throughout the world, and a sense of grati- 
tude to God for what he has accomplished 
through these honored servants, is enough 
to induce a man called to this work, to leave 
almost any other charge and enter upon the 
duties of this office. 

And then, too, it is but a debt of honor 
to do all in our power to reward these ven- 
erable men for the magnificent work they 
have accomplished, and for the glorious 
inheritance they have bequeathed from an 
active service in the past to the men who are 
now active in the Lord's great harvest field. 
In view of all these considerations I have, 
on bended knee, solemnly consecrated all 
my energies to this delicate and sacred 
work. 

SOME SURPRISES. 

To those who have not examined the his- 
tory of the work of Ministerial Relief, there 
are some facts, when brought to your atten- 
tion for the first time, that may appear as 
great surprises. 

1. One great surprise may be that the 
contributions from the Church at large have 
been so very small. 

The contributions to this Board last year 
amounted to only $102,660, which makes 
the average contribution from each com- 
municant only 101 cents ! Only a little over 
a dime from each member of our wealthy 
Church for this sacred cause! But when 
you take from this sum the individual and 
special contributions of $21,283, we find 
the collections taken in our churches 
amounted to only $81,377, which leaves the 
average contribution to this holy cause from 
each communicant only 8f cents a year! 
How pitifully small ! 

2. A greater surprise still to you may be 
to find that more than half of all our 
churches do not contribute a solitary cent to 
this Board of Relief! Think of it! Last 
year 3714 churches neglected to take a col- 
lection for our aged servants and the needy 



widows and fatherless and helpless children 
of deceased ministers! 

3. Another surprise may be to find the 
comparatively small amount that our Church 
pays to a disabled minister. 

The Board is paying to the most needy 
minister but $300 a year, while the Catho- 
lic Church pays a retired priest $600 a 
year! Is a Roman Catholic priest deserving 
of more from his Church than an honorably 
retired Presbyterian minister deserves from 
his Church ? Is not our great, strong, 
wealthy Presbyterian Church able and 
willing to pay as much to her honored and 
disabled ministers as the Roman Catholic 
Church pays to her impoverished priests ? 

4. It may be an interesting surprise to 
you to find, in examining the records of the 
Board, that so many of the men receiving 
annuities are so far advanced in age. 

Under the New Rule of 1889, " every 
honorably retired minister over seventy 
years of age, who is in need, and who has 
served our Church as a missionary of the 
Home or Foreign Board, or as a pastor or 
stated supply for a period in the aggregate 
not less than thirty years, shall be entitled 
by such service to draw from the Board of 
Ministerial Relief an annual sum for his 
support without the necessity of being an- 
nually recommended therefor by his presby- 
tery." This sum amounts to $300; and 
there are nearly a hundred ministers upon 
this roll whose average age is seventy-eight 
years, and whose average service in the 
ministry has been forty-seven years! 

How justly entitled to the small annuity 
paid by the Board are these noble, self- 
denying and honored veterans in the holy 
ministry ! Does not every generous Pres- 
byterian heart devoutly wish they could be 
paid as much as is paid annually to a Cath- 
olic priest, by his apparently more apprecia- 
tive Church ? 

5. Another thing that may surprise many 
is, that the report of the Standing Com- 
mittee on the Board of Relief, adopted by 
the last General Assembly, in face of the 
fearful fact that more than half of our 
churches contributed nothing to this cause 
last year, makes this public declaration, 
11 That many of our pastors feel a delicacy 
in presenting the cause to their congrega- 
tions, on account of a possible inference that 
subsequently they themselves may receive 
the benefit of the Fund." 



1897.] 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF. 



L29 



Dear brethren in the ministry, does not 
the word of God lay upon us all a sacred 
duty to see to it that the Levite be not for- 
saken by the Church and left to the cold 
charities of an unfeeling world ? In short, 
is it not our bounden duty to teach the 
people that the law of God concerning the 
support of his servants must not be broken ? 

6. Another surprise to many may be to 
learn from the report of the Standing Com- 
mittee, adopted by the last General Assem- 
bly, of " the failure of Presbyterial Com- 
mittees upon Ministerial Relief to bring, 
persistently and effectively, this matter to 
the attention of pastors and sessions," in 
their respective presbyteries, and that this 
accounts, in large measure, for the " large 
number of non-contributing churches." 
Can this be possible ? 

7. A more painful surprise than all is to 
find that the Board, at its December meet- 
ing had once more to take into serious con- 
sideration, the immediate necessity of 
making a general reduction in the appropri- 
ations to be granted by the Board, and the 
necessity of refusing new applications for aid. 

The receipts for the last nine months of 
1896 fell behind the receipts for the same 
period of the previous year by about 
$6000. If this state of things continues 
until the close of the ecclesiastical year, 
April 1, the Board will have no alternative 
but to reduce the appropriations. 

Surely, surely, brethren, it cannot be 
possible that our large, intelligent and bene- 
volent Presbyterian Church is willing to 
compel the Board to make any reduction 
in the very small annuities now paid to our 
worn-out servants and their dependent 
households! Nor can it be possible that the 
Church will compel the Board to refuse to 
place upon the roll the names of new ap- 
plicants who are just as needy and just as 
deserving as those who are now receiving 
appropriations! 

Let every pastor, and every elder, and 
every member of our Church ponder well 
this possible calamity, and ask himself or 
herself the question, What does my loving 
Master want me to do ? And will not every 
session give its church an opportunity to 
make an offering to this cause ? 

COOPERATION AN ABSOLUTE NECESSITY. 

Who are to blame for the condition of the 
treasury of the Board ? Not the members 



of the Board, for they are intelligent, earn- 
est) consecrated men, who are untiring in 
their devotion to the interests of the trust 
committed to their charge. They are in- 
tensely anxious to see the treasury filled, 
and also to be able to make much larger 
appropriations than those usually granted. 
They are charged with a sacred trust, and 
can only disburse the means committed to 
their hands, and they are not warranted in 
incurring any large indebtedness. 

And it is self-evident that the late corre- 
sponding secretary, our beloved brother, Dr. 
Cattell, is not responsible for the present 
state of the treasury. He has given twelve 
years of consecrated service to the secretary- 
ship of the Board, and he has done a most 
commendable work. He came from the 
presidency of Lafayette College to this 
secretaryship, and was abundantly qualified 
intellectually for its literary work. He was 
naturally endowed emotionally with a won- 
derfully sympathetic heart. He is a man of 
strong faith and earnest prayer, and a thor- 
oughly conscientious and lovable Christian 
gentleman. When he entered upon his 
work, he did it with an enthusiastic spirit, 
and has pursued it in all these years with 
unflinching zeal. He put his intellect, his 
heart, his conscience, and all his strength 
into his official life, and the results are such 
as deserve the unfeigned gratitude of the 
entire Church. 

Times have been hard and churches have 
excused themselves from giving to this 
Board, and a crisis has come ! Brethren, 
what will you do between this and the first 
of April for God's suffering saints ? 

Many pastors, church sessions, presbyte- 
rial committees, churches and benevolent 
individuals have given to this cause their 
loyal and enthusiastic support, and if the 
large majority of our churches would fall 
into line, at once, and give the Board a 
conscientious assistance, there would be no 
trouble about funds to carry on the work. 

The secretary's work will be utteriy in 
vain without the earnest and persistent 
cooperation of the pastors of churches and 
the committees of presbyteries. May lie 
not depend upon you all to rally to the sup- 
port of the Board in its earnest and honor- 
able efforts to provide larger annuities for 
our honorably retired ministers and for the 
needy widows and orphans of those who 
have fallen in the faithful service of our 



130 



SHOULD IT BE THE "FIRST TO SUFFER ?" 



[February, 



beloved Church ? And will you not, speed- 
ily and earnestly, stir up the pure minds of 
our neglectful sessions by way of remem- 
brance to the performance of their duty, to, 
at least, give their people an opportunity 
every year to contribute to this holy cause ? 
And will it not please our adorable Master, 
if we, one and all, make an immediate, and 
vigorous, and persistent effort to have a 
greater percentage of our churches con- 
tribute to this Board ? And how greatly it 
would comfort his aged under-shepherds 
who have borne the burden and heat of the 
day, in caring for his flock, for which the 
Chief -Shepherd laid down his life! 



Even our poorest churches should be glad 
to give their contributions, however small, 
for it has been in the service of these 
churches that most of these venerable men 
have given the strength and energy of their 
best days. 

Let us all fervently pray that the Holy 
Ghost will bestow upon the members of our 
churches the grace of giving, to such a 
degree, that they will bring all the tithes 
into the storehouse, that there may be meat 
in God's house, sufficient to supply the 
wants of his deserving servants, whose hoary 
heads are a crown of glory to them as they 
are found in the way of righteousness. 

B. L. Agnew. 



CHURCH ERECTION. 



SHOULD IT BE THE " FIRST TO SUFFER ?' 



In an excellent report upon Church Erec- 
tion, presented by the Standing Committee of 
one of our largest synods, occur these words 
in reference to a falling off in contributions : 

Considering the financial depression everywhere 
felt throughout the bounds of the synod, this ex- 
hibit is not discouraging. The Board of Church 
Erection is very naturally the first to suffer. It deals 
with buildings, not men and women, and churches 
feel that these can best wait. 

But consider for a minute whether such 
distinction as this works out as seems to be 
expected. It is true that the Board of 
Church Erection " deals with buildings," 
and it is probably also true that were the 
question between the " buildings" on the 
one hand, and the " men and women " on 
the other, the former could " best wait." 

As a matter of fact, however, the ques- 
tion does not present itself in this sharp, 
well-defined way. Inability upon the part 
of the Board, which results from falling 
contributions, while it leaves churches in 
debt for their buildings, does not in the least 
avail to increase the salaries of men and 
women. Such result might possibly be 
imagined if the entire field could be treated 
as one individual case, and be admonished 
to build no new edifices until all personal 
wants were supplied. But such is not the fact. 

The churches that apply to the Board 
have almost without exception already com- 



menced their buildings and are committed 
to pay for them. They come to the Board 
confidently expecting to be aided to the 
extent of the last quarter or third of the 
expense. The Board from lack of funds is 
obliged to refuse. 

Is the Church, therefore, any better able 
to supply the pressing needs of pastor or 
family ? On the contrary, it is pressed by 
impatient creditors, it is threatened with 
mechanics' liens, it is in danger of a fore- 
closure and a sheriff's sale. To be behind- 
hand in the pastor's salary means suffering 
and mortification, but to default upon its 
bills to lumber dealers and mechanics means 
the breaking up of the organization. 

So self-sacrificing and chivalric are our 
missionary pastors and their heroic wives, 
that usually they are the first to insist that 
at all events, suffer as they may, the church 
must be saved. 

Thus declining to give to the Board of 
Church Erection because it " deals with 
buildings and not with men and women," 
brings just as certainly the burden upon the 
' ' men and women " as if the Board were 
directly charged with their care. Even 
were it a fact that what was withheld from 
one Board went to another, it would not 
avail to prevent the burden falling thus 
ultimately upon the " men and women," 
for no perfection of oversight could appor- 
tion the excess thus coming to the one to 



1897.] 



HOW A FIELD IS DEVELOPED. 



131 



those who were suffering because deprived 
of the looked-for aid from the other. 

But as a matter of fact we do not have 
the satisfaction of knowing that what is 
withheld by such argument from the Board 
of Church Erection is given to the Board 
that appeals with more tender and touching 
eloquence. Usually the church or the indi- 
vidual who gives most generously to the one 
cause gives also with like liberality to the 
other, and he who is ready with an excuse 
for not responding to the one appeal is 
equally fertile with good reasons for declin- 
ing the invitation of the other. 

In short, while it may be inevitable in 
times of financial depression that the contri- 
butions to the benevolent funds of the 
Church should suffer, the effect is felt least 
when the loss is justly distributed, remember- 
ing that the work carried on by these various 
agencies is one, and that if one member 
suffer, all the members suffer with it. 

HOW A FIELD IS DEVELOPED. 

The following letter, written from Hard- 
ing, S. Dak., to a lady in Chicago, has been 
sent forward to the office of the Board. It 
depicts with such simple eloquence the 
trials, needs, and expedients connected with 
a new field, that we are sure it will be read 
with interest and perhaps some may be 
moved to cooperate with the Board by a 
special gift. The writer says : 

I am quite sure you will feel interested and sym- 
pathize with us people here when I tell you that 
our new church that we were building at Camp 
Crook has been burned. 

When I came here ten years ago (for my son's 
health) there was no post-office nearer than sixty- 
five miles ; no church, nor preaching. We did 
not hear a sermon for three years. Then a good 
Presbyterian minister heard of our isolated condi- 
tion and came one hundred miles into our valley, 
staid three weeks, held services nearly every day. 
When he went away he interested the Mission 
Board in our welfare and they sent a man here to 
organize a Sunday-school and church. Then they 
sent us a minister and paid him and furnished 
Sunday-school papers and hymn books. 

The people who were here were many of them 
here for their health and had but little means. 
The cattle companies employed a great many young 
men, many of them from the East from good fami- 
lies, but when they are so far from home and home 
influences, they do not interest themselves in church 



matters. But when we began to have meetings (as 
these were the only gatherings) they would come. 

I tell you this, that you may better understand 
what a sorrowful thing it is for us to have our first 
church destroyed before its completion. It has 
been built by the people and we have been two 
years trying to do it little by little. The women 
have had sociables and the men have done all they 
were really able to do. We have had two contri- 
butions from different ones away trom here. 

We had a bell and an organ given us, and a 
chandelier and a communion table from a cousin of 
mine in Detroit, whom I asked to aid us. I am so 
glad that the table and chandelier were not in the 
church, but the organ was burned. 

They had got the church all enclosed, and the 
windows and doors all in except one large door. So 
we shall have a little saved. Our minister and his 
young wife are nearly heart-broken. He was mar- 
ried only last July. They have just moved into 
their new house which he himself built. There 
are only two rooms furnished sufficiently to live in. 
He must finish it as he can spare money from his 
salary. 

You people East have very little idea what diffi- 
culties we labor under here in the newly settled 
parts of the West. The rough element is hard to 
contend with. There are not enough restraining 
influences to hold them in check. 

The little town where the church was built was 
called "Camp Crook," after General Crook, who was 
stationed there in the time of the Indian troubles. 
It is the trading point for the cattle men ; and the 
young men spend much of their time there in the 
winter when out of employment. 

I think there is great need of a church there. It 
is thought the church was burned by a man who 
was going to build a " dance hall" and bring some 
fallen young women. 

The women here threatened to burn him out if he 
did, and in the meantime he was being hunted for 
cattle stealing, but he said he would burn their 
church before he left. The United States officers are 
hunting him, and I do not think he will ever dare 
to come back here. I wanted to tell some one who 
will sympathize with us of our great loss, and can 
perhaps interest some one to help us rebuild. 

It will never do to be disheartened. They have 
had a meeting of settlers and they all want to try to 
build again. They had started a Sunday-school at 
Camp Crook and had thirty-five children in attend- 
ance, and several more to come. 

Here in the valley we have a Sunday-school and 
a Bible class and I am going to put some of the 
reading matter you sent into a library for the 
young men to induce them to come. 



PUBLICATION AND SABBATH-SCHOOL WORK. 




A CHILDREN'S DAY PICTURE. 

The above interesting picture is from a 
photogpaph sent to us by synodical Sabbath- 
school missionary Joseph Brown. It repre- 
sents a scene in the woods of Wisconsin on 
Children's Day, 1896. The chapel, home- 
ly but capacious and thoroughly adapted to 
the purpose, is in memory of the late Rev. 
Dr. R. D. Harper, the honored, beloved 
and lamented pastor of the North Broad 
Street church, Philadelphia, and is one of 
several pioneer chapels in different parts of 
the missionary field built through the in- 
strumentality of generous friends connected 
with that church. 



APPALLING SPIRITUAL NEED IN 
NEVADA. 

ra Repeatedly testimony reaches us from 
impartial witnesses of the spiritual need of 
portions of our country. Forwarding a 
Children's Day offering from his Sabbath- 
school, the Rev. M. S. Riddle, of Elko, 
Nevada, writes: 
132 



In the southeastern portion of the state it is simply 
appalling to see the spiritual destitution of the peo- 
ple. There are at least ten towns with populations 
from 200 to 1800, and not a Sunday-school or 
Christian service in the places from one year to 
another. Only three weeks ago I preached in a 
town fifty miles north of here with a population of 
about 800 people and not a service of any kind had 
been conducted in the place for two years, and no 
Sunday-school. There are many persons with 
families who have never heard a sermon or been in 
a Sunday-school in all their lives. This seems to 
many incredible, but nevertheless they are solemn 
and awful facts. Oh, is there no help for this 
field? 



IOWA AS A SABBATH-SCHOOL 
MISSION FIELD. 

From recent reports of our synodical 
missionary, Rev. S. R. Ferguson, we glean 
some interesting facts concerning our work 
in the State of Iowa. Notwithstanding the 
political agitation and the " hard times," 



1897.] 



THE 15URDEN OF SOULS — A DELIGHTFUL SURPRISE. 



1 33 



the cause made steady progress during the 
past year. Seven missionary brethren have 
been employed, and sixty-nine distinct com- 
munities have enjoyed the benefit of house- 
to-house visitation, the organization of 
Sabbath- schools and other evangelistic 
efforts. To the fall meeting of the Synod 
of Iowa was reported the organization or 
reorganization of 69 schools, with a total 
number of 294 teachers and 2152 scholars, 
306 visits made to Sabbath-schools, 5915 
visits made to families, 1127 Bibles and 
bound volumes, and 98,421 pages of tracts 
and periodicals given away, 553 professed 
conversions, 370 additions to Presbyteriau 
churches, 3 churches and 1 chapel built, 2 
Young People's Societies and 31 preaching 
stations established, 4 Presbyterian churches 
organized, and 1171 sermons and addresses 
delivered by the missionaries. 

As showing the need of house-to-house 
visitations, Mr. Ferguson has recorded the 
particulars of many of such visits, and as 
giving a fair idea of the spiritual condition 
of the people visited he states that in twen- 
ty-five Protestant homes, numbering about 
140 souls, he found but two families where 
there were evidences of Christian life. Sev- 
eral persons had been professing Christians, 
but were backsliders. There were people 
who had been brought up as Mormons, 
Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians, etc., 
under Christian influences, but are now 
practically without religion. All these peo- 
ple were in one village community, only 
four miles distant from a town where there 
were several churches. 

In one country district, where a missionary 
succeeded in building a chapel, the leading 
man of the place said: " For nineteen years 
I was praying for some one to come here and 
do some Christian work." The thought 
arises, " Why did not this man go to work 
himself?" But, alas, he is but a sample of 
many persons who, though favorably in- 
clined, will not stir a step until the mission- 
ary comes along or some one else leads. 

Mr. Ferguson states that in a little over 
four years twenty-three Presbyterian 
churches have grown out of this work in 
Iowa, and that within the past three years 
1500 persons have professed conversion in 
meetings conducted by the missionaries of 
this Board, and that more than 1000 of 
these persons have united with the Presby- 
terian Church. 



TIIK BURDEN OF SOILS. 

In describing a work undertaken in a 
village in West Virginia, our missionary, 
Mr. W. W. Hunter, writes: " Satan has 
every influence at work there to destroy men, 
soul and body, and the Presbyterian Church 
alone has done anything to show them that 
any one cares for their souls. I tremble 
w T hen I go and when I leave to think of the 
responsibility placed upon so weak an instru- 
ment as myself, and yet my efforts are day 
by day to please Him who hath chosen me 
to be a servant. I do not think any class 
of men need divine guidance and support 
more than Sabbath-school missionaries." 

From Eastern Oregon, Rev. W. J. 
Hughes writes: " When I visited Harney 
two years ago it was apparently one of the 
most God-forsaken places I ever saw. I 
sold and gave away many Bibles, visited 
every house in the place, preached three 
times, and organized a Sabbath-school. A 
letter just received from the town informs 
me that a prayer meeting is held twice every 
week with an attendance of seventy -five or 
eighty. A Presbyterian church has been 
organized and is prosperous." 

"In almost every community," writes 
Rev. W. B. Williams, of Olympia Presbytery, 
' ' I find some destitute people who are not able 
to clothe their children to go either to the 
public school or the Sabbath-school. It is 
lamentable to think that the struggle for 
existence is so fierce." 



A DELIGHTFUL SURPRISE. 

REV. J. V. N. IIARTNE3S. 

People often invest the spiritually desti- 
tute regions of the country with a romantic 
picturesqueness, fictitious rather than real. 
Indifference, ignorance and vice are, how- 
ever, strongly in the foreground. Those 
who stretch out the hand and cry, " Come 
over and help us," are few, and all the tact 
a Sabbath-school missionary possesses is 
required to lead on the few who are waiting 
to be led. 

An exception to this rule lately fell under 
my observation. Our presbyterial mission- 
ary, Mr. Hood, one day received a letter 
from a remote part of his field, saying, 
1 ' Come here as soon as you can ; I believe 
we can now have a Sabbath-school." He 
had visited the place some time previously 



but found insuperable obstacles, and reluc- 

THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MISSION LIBRARY 



134 



NOTES FROM VARIOUS POINTS. 



[February, 



tantly abandoned the attempt for the time 
being to organize. Obeying the call, he 
found to his great joy that the people were 
ready and enthusiastic for the school. Those 
on whom he had previously called and who 
then discouraged him now promised their 
aid. The Sabbath came and the school was 
organized, and the question was asked, 
" What shall we call our school ?" Here- 
upon a young woman rose and said, ' ' We 
must call it the Presbyterian Sabbath- 
school, for although several denominations 
are represented here, it is the Presbyterian 
Church that has encouraged us and planned 
for us." Her proposition was accepted, 
and the school became from the start a 
Presbyterian school. This young woman was 
the person who, interested in the mission- 
ary's former visit, had meantime made a 
thorough canvass of the district and pre- 
pared for Mr. Hood the surprise, delightful 
as it is rare, of a field " made ready ' ' for 
organization. 

NOTES FROM VARIOUS POINTS. 

At Rib Hill, Wis., the work shows good 
results. A little more than a year ago there 
was no provision for public worship; now 
there is a Sabbath-school of from forty-five 
to sixty-five every Sabbath, and a weekly 
prayer meeting, and recently a convenient 
and pretty chapel was opened free of debt. 

Mr. Griffith writes from Colorado: " I 
feel grateful for the expression of commen- 
dation in your personal letter. It furnishes 
courage for new efforts and trials on the 
field. My work at Goldfield has encour- 
aged our newly organized and weak church 
and promises to add several members, as I 
found some Presbyterian people in my house- 
to-house visitation who have promised to 
write for their letters. ' ' 

Rev. T. D. Fyffe writes from Indiana: 
" I am glad to say that the First Presbyte- 
rian Church of Albany, Ind., has been 
organized as an outgrowth of the Sabbath- 
school. Another school will also soon ask 
for church organization. Preaching points 
have been established at Ashley and Arca- 
dia. Thus we have four new mission points 
now occupied as a direct result of your 
missionary's recent efforts." 

At one place in East Florida, Missionary 
Van Sickle organized a Sabbath -school and 
conducted a series of revival meetings at 



which twenty -five persons professed conver- 
sion, but, he writes, " the people seemed to 
be afraid of Presbyterianism. " This is the 
result of ignorance both of our principles 
and polity, but the fear is changed into 
affection after a few such meetings. At 
another place the railroad agent, when 
asked to permit the holding of a meeting in 
the station, pointed to a hundred boxes of 
bottled beer and spirits, and said that it was 
that kind of stuff which kept religion 
away. He gave his consent, however, to 
the meeting, and the boxes were placed in 
rows and boards put over them for seats, 
and two meetings were held, resulting in the 
organization of a Sabbath-school and in a 
movement for building a chapel. 

Rev. R. Mayers, one of our colored mis- 
sionaries in the South, speaks of perils 
encountered, sometimes in the form of 
suspicious-looking persons overtaking him 
when traveling in lonesome places, and 
sometimes through the prejudice of race. 
At one place he found every " Negro 
hut" closed and grass growing up to the 
doors, showing an exodus of the colored 
families. No one was willing to give him 
food or shelter, and he had to be content 
with eating blackberries from the hedges. 
But he reports four Sabbath- schools devel- 
oped into Presbyterian churches. 

One of the Sabbath-schools organized by 
the Rev. M. G. Mann, in Walla Walla 
Presbytery last spring, was at Clear Creek, 
about a mile from the battlefield where 
General Howard's troops and Joseph's band 
of Indians fought. The people are scattered 
very widely apart in this wild region, but 
the school was begun with twenty- seven 
scholars. After organizing this school, Mr. 
Mann went to Stuart and visited a school 
composed mainly of Indians with a few 
whites. Mr. Mann's plan is to follow up 
the opening of schoolhouses as fast as the 
settlement of the country calls for them by 
canvassing for Sabbath-schools. 

" I will not be there, but my wife will 
take them in hand." Thus wrote one of 
our missionaries concerning a man and his 
wife whom he had partly won over by his 
visit and who promised to call at his house 
and hear further about the matter of salva- 
tion. To missionary or pastor a " good 
wife " is from the Lord, and is always 
ready to follow up her husband's work. 



FREEDMEN 




SESSION OF SECOND PRESBYTE- 
RIAN CHURCH, ABBEVILLE, 
S. C, 1896. 

The above group, constituting the session 
of the Second Presbyterian Church, Abbe- 
ville, S. C, serves as an interesting illustra- 
tion of the work that is carried on by the 
Board of Missions for Freedmen among the 
colored people of the South. There are 
very many more of such groups that could 
be furnished, but the one presented at this 
time happens to be the one at hand, and is 
furnished as a sample to show how Presby- 
terianism is developing the life and character 
and standing and appearance of the colored 
race. The central sitting figure is the min- 



ister, and the rest are ruling elders. The 
church is called the Second Presbyterian 
Church in deference to the fact that the 
white Presbyterian church of the place is 
called the First Presbyterian Church. In 
many places throughout the South where 
there is a colored Presbyterian church and 
a white Presbyterian church, the colored 
church takes the name of Second, although 
the two churches do not belong to the same 
general organization, one being part of the 
Northern Presbyterian Church, and the 
other of the Southern. The Madison Sec- 
ond, the Newuan Second, the Columbus 
Second, etc., serve as illustrations. The 
only exception to this rule that occurs to me 
is that of the Richmond colored Presbyterian 

135 



136 



SESSION OF SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, ABBEVILLE, S. C. [February, 



church, which is called the First Church. 
Rev. Mr. Amos, who is under the care of 
the Freedmen's Board, not only ministers to 
the Second Presbyterian Church of Abbe- 
ville, but is principal of one of our large 
and flourishing boarding-schools, known as 
Ferguson Academy. Mr. Amos is a hard 
worker and a successful man. He preaches 
twice every Sabbath, besides teaching a 
Bible class, and conducting the Wednesday 
service. The management of Ferguson 
Academy, with its boarding department and 
day-school, is entirely in his hands. A 
recent letter from him to the Board indicates 
the shape in which he holds his work: 

This leaves us doing splendidly. Our attendance 
is still increasing. We have to turn away a large 
number. I do not think I am wrong in estimating 
that our attendance could be raised from what it is 
to 400, if we only had the room and the teachers. 
We have turned away over fifty boarders that 
wanted to come. I am unable to explain the 
growth of the work. I fear I have entirely too 
much to do, not being strong. It seems to me that 



what I am doing is necessary for the work and that 
I cannot diminish my work. My correspondence 
averaged last week nine letters a day. I taught 
five hours, prepared to preach yesterday, trans- 
acted business with over eighty callers, kept my 
accounts, and listened to all the complaints and 
reports that 250 students and five teachers and a 
matron and a cook had to make. I find all these 
things unavoidable. I want this field to forward a 
good collection to you next month. I will, there- 
fore, ask you to send me not less than 300 envel- 
opes, so that I can give one to every student and 
Sunday-school scholar, to make a collection to the 
work. Please send the envelopes as soon as possible. 
I will say our church work is doing well. The 
congregation has recently finished the basement of 
the church at a cost of $78, and given me the use 
of it for a kitchen and storeroom, so that we would 
not be so much crowded. I appreciate this very 
much. If one of you could visit our work during 
the winter, I would be glad. There are many 
things that my modesty would not allow me to 
write about, that I believe you would appreciate if 
you were only to see them. 

The Abbeville Academy is but one of 
seventeen boarding-schools of about the 
same grade under the care of the Board. 




1897.] 



THE REFORMED CHURCH OF HUNGARY. 



137 



The buildings are all owned by the Board; 
and the teachers are paid monthly. These 
schools carry their scholars through an aca- 
demic course that fits them for teaching in 
the various public schools of the South that 
are maintained for the colored people, and 
are taught by colored teachers. Many of 
these Southern public schools for Negroes 
are supplied with teachers poorly equipped 
for their work. As fast as the students in 
our schools graduate at our institutions they 
are in a position to seek and obtain these 
places in public schools, and thus a wide 
field of usefulness is open to them, and thus 
the influence of our Presbyterian academies 
is widely felt throughout the whole South. 
All of our academies are coeducational, and 
thus reach both sexes, 

The natural length of the term in these 
academies is eight months. Last year, 
on account of scarcity of funds, the Board 
reduced the time for which we would furnish 
salaries to seven months. Notwithstanding 



this reduction on our part, most of the 
academies continued, their term for eight 
months, many of the teachers contributing 
a month's services to the work. This year, 
the Board has again reduced the time, and 
the teachers in our academies are only com- 
missioned for six months, but many of the 
principals declare that they will make an 
effort to continue the other two months. If 
they do this, it will be at a great sacrifice. 
The Board has decided that if special funds 
are raised by friends of the work to lengthen 
out the term of any of these schools that have 
been so curtailed, the money will be appro- 
priated for that purpose, and there will be 
joy and gladness among both teachers and 
scholars. For the scholars, as a rule, are 
not of that class who are glad w T hen school 
is over. Their purpose in going to school is 
to fit themselves for some position of useful- 
ness, and the longer they can attend school 
during the year, the better they like it and 
the happier they are. 



THE REFORMED CHURCH OF HUNGARY. 



REV. JAMES I. GOOD, D. D. 



It may not be known to some of the read- 
ers of The Church at Home and Abroad 
that one of the largest denominations of 
the Presbyterian order is found in distant 
Hungary. It numbers over two millions of 
adherents, and is the leading Protestant 
Church of that land. The wonderful suc- 
cess of the Scotch Presbyterian mission to 
the Jews at Buda-Pesth, the capital of 
Hungary, also makes this land interesting 
to Presbyterians. 

The Hungarian Reformed Church is in- 
teresting because of its past history. It has 
been one of the great martyr churches, 
although the history of its martyrdoms is 
little known among English-speaking peo- 
ple. It has had its baptism of blood and 
fire. When the Reformation broke out, it 
was pretty thoroughly converted to Prot- 
estantism and Calvinism. All the nobles 
except three families became Protestants. 
We in the west have been accustomed to 
think of some of the early nobles as boors 
and half-barbarians, but we were told last 
summer that many of them, as Bethlen 
Gabor, were very pious, reading the Bible 
faithfully and defending their Protestant- 



ism. When the persecutions broke out 
against them, Protestantism was crushed in 
large parts of Hungary. But there were 
certain parts of that land that were under 
the control of the Turks, and the Turks 
dealt more kindly with them than their 
fellow-Christians, the Catholics, for they 
gave them liberty to remain Protestants. 
Protestantism therefore flourished in eastern 
and southeastern Hungary. When the 
Turks were driven out, the Romish Church 
did everything in its power to destroy Prot- 
estantism in the eastern as it had done in 
western Hungary, but it found a tremen- 
dous task, as almost the whole population 
was Protestant. Worship was forbidden, 
and the Reformed were ordered to surrender 
their churches to the Catholics. Their 
pastors were ordered to leave. In liiti!) 
forty-one of those pastors wen 1 thrown into the 
prison at Pressburg. Every effort was there 
made to convert them to Rome, but they 
languished ten months in prison. In 1<>7"> 
thirty-three evangelical ministers were 
secretly taken from Komorn to Leopold - 
stadt, where three more imprisoned minis- 
ters met them. When these two bands met, 



138 



THE REFORMED CHURCH OF HUNGARY 



[February, 



Selyi, the Reformed superintendent, cried 
out, " O God, give us strength, that we 
may bear all the sufferings which thou hast 
appointed us." They were then taken to 
Italy to become galley-slaves. It was a 
long and fearful journey. They walked the 
hundreds of miles chained by their feet to 
each other, and at night they were packed 
in stables to sleep; their daily provision was 
only a quarter of a biscuit and a glass of 
water. Their sufferings were so severe that 
six of them died on the way. Those that 
lived were cast into a prison that was worse 
than death — a living death. They were 
first sold as slaves at the price of fifty pias- 
tres each, and then chained to the galleys 
to work, until they died. It was not long 
before the story of their terrible sufferings 
came to the ears of the Protestant nations 
of Europe. Switzerland, Holland, Ger- 
many and England used their influence to 
set them free, but in vain. At length a 
Dutch fleet, under the great Reformed 
admiral, DeRuyter, entered the harbor of 
Naples, and set them free. On February 
11, 1676, they left their prison singing 
Psalms 46, 114 and 125, for the Hungari- 
ans have always been, and still are great 
psalm singers, and came on board the vice- 
admiral's ship of the Dutch squadron. 
With tears of gratitude they knelt down on 
its deck and saug Psalm 116, and prayed. 
The noble admiral clothed them at his own 
expense, and they were sent in safety to 
Switzerland, where they were joyfully re- 
ceived everywhere as martyrs returned from 
the grave. Thus Hungary suffered for 
more than a century, till Emperor Joseph 
II issued the famous Edict of Toleration in 
1781. Thus the persecution of centuries 
could not stamp out this old Church, for 
they loved their Bible and their Calvinistic 
faith. But although this Church received 
liberty to live by the Edict of Toleration, 
it had not freedom to expand. It was 
hampered in every way by the Romish 
government, although martyrdoms ceased. 
About half a century ago it received greater 
rights and its liberties are being slowly 
enlarged. It now contains some of the 
most prominent men in Hungary. Al- 
though the Protestants are a minority in 
Hungary, yet the present prime minister, 



Banffy, is Reformed, as was also the late 
prime minister, Tizsa, who is an elder and 
the president of their church. It is a 
noble church baptized in blood. 

This Hungarian Church is interesting, 
also, because of its location and future 
opportunity. It is one of the outposts of 
Presbyterianism. Its location is very 
significant — it is the border Church south- 
eastward. There is nothing beyond it ex- 
cept a few scattered missions — no great 
national Protestant Church. Those nations 
of southeastern Europe are in a state of 
flux; no one knows what changes will take 
place in a day there. Now is the oppor- 
tunity for missionary work, and if missionary 
work is to be done, here is this great Hun- 
garian Church already located to do it. 
The Reformed doctrines and Presbyterian 
principles are worthy to be spread over the 
earth. Shall they be spread southeastward 
in Europe and out into Asia ? Here is 
a large Reformed Church ready at hand 
to evangelize, but it lacks the power. 
It is yet a sleeping giant and needs to be 
wakened up. But when once revived 
and enthused with evangelical zeal, it will 
be one of the mightiest arms of the Pres- 
byterian family of churches. It needs the 
touch of western Anglo-Saxon Presbyteri- 
anism to make it practical in its methods 
and the touch of the Spirit of God to en- 
thuse it. But what will the Presbyterians 
in the west do to aid in this opportunity ? 

The Hungarian Reformed Church is just 
now interesting because she is at present in 
a critical condition. For centuries she has 
been under the iron heel of Romanism, and 
is just beginning to get her liberty. Ra- 
tionalism came in like a blight and affected 
large parts of the Church and paralyzed her 
work. The Church is divided into five 
districts or superintendencies, each having 
its own theological seminary. Of these, 
two have been prevailingly rationalistic, 
two have been evangelical, while the fifth, 
at Buda-Pesth, has swung from rationalism 
over to orthodoxy. This summer we 
learned that it looked as if the two ration- 
alistic seminaries were inclining back toward 
evangelical doctrine, one by reason of 
change of location, the other by reason of 
a change of its leading theological professor. 



Young People's Christian Endeavor, 



The Endeavorers of Louisville, Ky., sent twelve 
hundred letters to the inmates of the State peniten- 
tiary at Christmas time. 

* * 

Many of our young people' s societies are learning 
that The Church at Home and Abroad is an in- 
dispensable aid in their work. 

* * 
* 

We repeat the suggestion — five minutes at each 
meeting of the young people's society during 1897, 
for the study of the Shorter Catechism. 

* 
If you cannot devote an evening to the Christian 
Training Course, at least take up one of the three 
departments at one of the regular Endeavor meet- 
ings each month. 

The shoemaker's hammer used by William Carey 
before he went as a missionary to India has been 
secured by Dr. Clark for use as a gavel at the San 
Francisco Convention. 

* * 
■* 

Of his tl Sordello" Browning once said that in 
writing it his great effort had been directed to the 
the incidents in the development of a soul — little 
else being to his mind worthy of study. 

# 
A mission study class, composed of all students in 
Yale Divinity School who are interested in foreign 
missionary work, meets every Tuesday evening to 
discuss features in the lives of great missionaries. 

*** 

H. H Boyesen, when speaking of the work of 

his early life, said that in a sense he wrote his stories 

with his heart blood, and added, " No story is worth 

anything which is written with a cheaper liquid." 

* * 
* 

A few young Christians in a country community 
in New York, not numerous enough to organize a 
society of their own, have a Christian Endeavor 
wagon that carries them to the meetings of the 
nearest society. 

* 

Mozart reports in one of his letters a family tra- 
dition that his great grandfather was accustomed to 
say, " It is a very great art to talk eloquently and 
well, but an equally great one to know the right 

moment to stop." 

* * 
* 

Prayer for Armenia is the subject suggested for 

the World's Christian Endeavor Praver Chain 



during February. Pray that Armenia may be 
spared further persecution, and that a way to pros- 
perity may be opened to the thousands left destitute 
by the Turk. 

* 
Our correspondent in Binghamton, N. Y., who 
tells on another page how a weak church was 
revived, believes that hundreds of such churches 
might be sustained if assigned to the pastoral care 
of the Committee on Young People's Societies, or 
to some large and strong Endeavor society. 

* 
Invited by the Manhattan Liberal Club of New 
York to a public discussion of the merits of Chris- 
tianity, Mr. Moody declined, believing that the 
times call for action, not discussion. He urges all 
to join him in the effort to bring the Lord Jesus 
Christ to the hearts and homes of the unsaved. 

Henry M. Stanley once wrote in a letter to the 
London Times : Beginning life as a rough, ill-educat- 
ed, impatient man, I have found my schooling in 
these African experiences. I have learned by act- 
ual stress of imminent danger that self-control is 
more indispensable than gunpowder, and that per- 
sistent self-control is impossible without real, heart- 
felt sympathy. 

* * 
* 

Dr. Clark suggests that two or three minutes be 
taken at the beginning of each Christian Endeavor 
meeting to report the pastor's sermon. It would 
serve as a review lesson, to fix more firmly in the 
minds of all the great central truths ; it would cul- 
tivate habits of attention ; it would show that the 
young people were trying to find profit in the 
preaching service as well as in their own meeting. 

* * 
* 

Samuel Bowles, the journalist, was over- working, 

and a friend remonstrated. He replied that he 

knew it, but added, " I have the lines drawn and 

the current flowing, and by throwing my weight 

here now I can count for something. If I make a 

long break or parenthesis to get strong, I shall lose 

my opportunity. No man is living a life worth 

living unless he is willing, if need be, to die for 

somebody or something." 

* * 

Following the evangelistic impulse of the last 
Christian Endeavor convention in New Jersey, an 
effort has been made to have all Endeavorers in the 

139 



140 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 



[February, 



State spend one week in prayerful study of the 
Scriptures. Informal conferences in the homes of 
members or in church parlors were held for the 
consideration of such topics as the following : The 
spiritual condition of your own field of labor. The 
work of the Holy Spirit. The Bible idea of ser- 
vice. The gospel plan of salvation. Answering 
objections of unbelievers. God's present call, and 
qualifying for service. Power for service. 

*** 
Helping another to be his own best self is better 
than helping another to become a mere patchwork 
of other selves. In desiring growth and progress in 
the character of our loved ones, we too easily for- 
get this truth. Perhaps we try to foist an ideal of 
our own upon a personality which could never 
comprehend or gain that ideal as its own. Our 
bosom friend does not talk enough to suit us. We 
try to make him a glib talker, when very likely our 
effort only spoils a listener of rare personal charm. 
On the contrary, what our loved ones can be at their 
own best, we ought to do our best to help them to be. 
And we ought to bear in mind that their best can- 
not and should not always be just what is another's 
best. — Sunday-school Times. 

* * 
* 

Thomas Hughes, speaking of the influence of 
that great instructor, Dr. Thomas Arnold, says : 
' ' He taught us that we could not cut our lives into 
slices and say, ' In this slice your actions are indif- 
ferent and you needn't trouble your heads about 
them one way or another, but in this slice mind 
what you are about for they are important.' He 
taught us that in this wonderful world no boy or 
man can tell which of his actions is indifferent and 
which not, that by a thoughtless word or look we 
may lead astray a brother for whom Christ died. 
He taught us that life is a whole, made up of actions 
and thoughts and longings, great and small, mean 
and ignoble ; therefore the only true wisdom for 
boy or man is to bring the whole life into obedience 
to him whose world we live in and who purchased 
us with his blood." 



EVANGELISTIC WORK. 

REV. CHARLES A. OLIVER. 

Our Church has within its fold large numbers of 
young people who are waiting to be shown how to 
engage in personal efforts to win souls to Christ. 
They are neither indifferent to the needs of the un- 
saved, nor wanting in desire to bear witness to them 
for Christ ; but through timidity or a sense of un- 
fitness they hestiate to undertake such exalted ser- 
vice. But when definite workable plans are given, 
and the hearty sympathy and cooperation of other 



Christians is assured, they count it a great joy to 
share in the labors of those that " turn many to 
righteousness." A letter received by the writer 
to-day from a young Christian woman says : " I 
take the greatest possible interest in this ( the evan- 
gelistic) branch of Christian Endeavor work, 
and of all the meetings of our grand State conven- 
tions I enjoy the noon evangelistic meetings the 
most. ' ' Another young woman, who is most active 
and efficient in the work of a Presbyterian church 
in a Pennsylvania town, said recently that she re- 
ceived her taste for personal work at a noon meet- 
ing held two years ago during a State Christian En- 
deavor convention. She then, encouraged by the ex- 
ample of other Endeavorers, for the first time 
pleaded with men to come to Christ ; since that 
time the work has been to her a constant delight. 

It is the mission of Christian Endeavor to train 
the young people of the Church to do practical 
Christian work. Every Christian Endeavor society 
should be a company of soul-savers. Every active 
member should know how to throw the life-line to 
perishing men. 

The Pennsylvania Christian Endeavor Union has 
recently organized a department of evangelistic 
work, and plans have been adopted by which this 
most important feature of Christian Endeavor will 
be brought to the attention of every society in the 
State. Methods of work are suggested that can be 
carried out by earnest young people in all our 
churches. A circular letter, giving the plan of or- 
ganization and methods of personal work, has been 
issued and can be had by addressing the writer, at 
126 E. Philadelphia street, York, Pa. 

Opportunities of doing the grandest work on 
earth are within reach of every one. Work with 
love, prayer and gospel message for the salvation of 
associate members of your society, and for relatives 
and friends. Watch for the privilege of speaking to 
non- church-goers. Hold prayer meetings in their 
homes. Make a house-to-house canvass of your neigh- 
borhood ; invite people to the church and leave with 
them a good tract. Find an almshouse, jail, 
orphan asylum or other public institution where 
the gospel is not regularly preached and secure per- 
mission to go with some friends and hold a service 
there on Sunday afternoons. If there is a country 
district, not far away, where the gospel is not 
heard, see the directors of a schoolhouse and ask 
permission to preach Christ there. Yield yourself 
to the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Ask God's 
blessing upon your efforts. Depend upon him, 
and your expectations will not be disappointed. 
' ' And they that be wise shall shine as the bright- 
ness of the firmament ; and they that turn many to 
righteousness as the stars, forever and ever." 



1897] 



ROI'.ERT MOFFAT. 



141 




ROBERT MOFFAT". 

From "Great Missionaries of the Church." Copyright, 1896, by T. Y. Crowell ami Co. 



KOBERT MOFFAT. 

This heroic missionary gave fifty-three years of 
his life (1817-1870) to labor in Africa. Eight 
years after his return to England he was present at 
the World's Missionary Conference in London. 
The following description of him may be found in 
Creegan's " Great Missionaries of the Church." 
Whom do we see coming up the aisle — a son of 
Anak, in stature erect, his features strongly 
marked, his venerable locks and long white beard 
adding majesty to his appearance ? On discover- 
ing him the whole great audience rise spontaneous- 
ly to their feet. A Wesleyan brother with power- 
ful voice is in the midst of an address ; yet no one 
heeds him till the patriarch has taken a seat on the 
platform. This hoary- headed man is Robert 
Moffat, the veteran among South African mission- 
aries, now eighty-three years of age. W T ith a voice 
still musical, he addresses the assembly. 



Dr. Creegan also relates that when a friend at 
home wrote to Mrs. Moffat, asking what could be 
sent her that would be of use, the answer was. 
"Send a communion service ; it will be wanted." 
At that time there were no converts and no ' ' glim- 
mer of day." Three years later one hundred and 
twenty were present at the table of the Lord, the 
first among the Beehwanas, and only the day before 
this glad event there had arrived a box containing 
the gift which the faith of Mrs. Moflat led her to 
ask for before there was a single inquirer. 



Build thee more stately mansions, my soul, 
As the swift seasons roll ; 
Leave thy low-vaulted past ; 
Let each new temple, nobler than the last, 
Shut thee from heaven with a dome more vast : 
Till thou at length art free, 

Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's unresting sea. 

-// I 



142 



THE CHARACTER OF CHRIST. 



[February, 




The Boy Jesus in the Temple. 
From "Three Children of Galilee." Copyright, 1896. Joseph Knight Company. 



THE CHAEACTER OF CHRIST. 

In one of our churches in an eastern city the 
young lady leader of a Mission Band of girls, being 
desirous of instructing the members of the band 
upon the character of Christ, made effort to accom- 
plish her object by preparing a series of questions 
and answers upon the subject, one for each member 
of the band. These questions were distributed to 
the band, and at one of the meetings were asked 
and answered consecutively. The exercise was 
both instructive, profitable and successful. As an 
example of what may be done in this line the ques- 
tions and answers are herewith printed. 

1. How may we know the character of Christ t 

We are shown Christ in his entire character, both 
as man and God, in the Scriptures, especially in 
the first four books of the New Testament. 

2. When Christ lived on earth, what was his pur- 
pose f 

His purpose was to glorify God by showing God's 
love for sinners. He came to seek and to save that 
which was lost. 

3. Did Christ accomplish his purpose? 

When the time had come for him to be crucified, 
he said, " I have glorified thee on the earth : I have 
finished the work which thou gavest me to do." 



4- Was ordinary service a part of Christ' s work f 

By serving man in all things Christ served God, 
and he, the Leader and Master, spent his whole 
life on earth in this service. 

5. Did Christ serve only the few ? 

He served all who needed his help, and he 
showed that the sinner needs him most of all. 
1 ' I came not to call the righteous but sinners to re- 
pentance." He also said, "And other sheep I 
have, which are not of this fold : them also I must 
bring, and they shall hear my voice ; and there 
shall be one fold, and one shepherd." 

6. What great service did Christ render to man ? 

1 ' I lay down my life for the sheep. " " He is the 
propitiation for our sins : and not for ours only, but 
also for the sins of the whole world." 

7. Had Christ a habit f 
Only the habit of doing good. 

8. How could Christ always do good f 

Christ was "without sin." He was "the ex- 
press image" of God's person, holy, righteous, 
"the God of the whole earth." 

9. How may we be sure that Christ feels sympathy 
for us ? 

While on earth he " was in all points tempted 



1897.] 



THE CHARACTER OF CHRIST. 



L43 



like as we are, yet without sin." It " behooved him 
to be made like unto his brethren ; for in that he 
himself hath suffered being tempted, he is able to 
succor them that are tempted." 

10. Does he care for children .' 

He himself was born a child and was subject to his 
parents. " And the child grew and waxed strong 
in spirit." When children were brought to him to 
be blessed and the disciples rebuked those that 
brought them, he said, " Suffer the little children 
to come unto me, and forbid them not ; for of such 
is the kingdom of God." 

11. Does Christ prize the faith there is in a little 
child f 

He said to his disciples, " Except ye be converted, 
and become as little children, ye shall not enter 
into the kingdom of heaven." We are all chil- 
dren of God, for many times Christ called those 
who are his own, the children of God. 




On the way to Ernmaus. 

From "Three Children of Galilee." Copyright, 18%. Joseph Knight Company. 



IS. What more can you teU of Chrises love of faith * 

Every act and every word to the disciples and to 

the people were intended to show, that all that 
avails with Jesus Christ i> tin- "faith which 
worketh by love." He wrought many miracles, 
and he knew it was the faith they had which brought 
the needy to him to be healed, and he always com- 
mended it. 

IS Was Christ afraid to tell many persons that 
they larked faith f 

Christ always knew the thoughts of men, and 
did not fear to say, "Woe unto you, scribes and 
Pharisees, hypocrites," any more than to say, "Thy 
faith hath made thee whole." 

14- Does Christ ask our help in hi* work ! 

When Legion, he that was possessed of the devils, 
was healed, he said, "Show how great things God 
hath done unto thee." This is also Christ's mes- 
sage to us all. 

l'>. Was Christ prayerful and obedient .' 

Christ prayed with his disciples 
and before others. He frequently 
withdrew himself and prayed, 
and even "continued all night in 
prayer to God." His obedience 
was perfect; he said, "My meat 
is to do the will of him that sent 
me," and "not my will, but thine 
be done." 

16. Was Christ meek and loving? 

"When he was reviled he re- 
viled not again." He very often 
calls those who are his own, his 
"friends," and he is the "friend 
that loveth at all times." 

17. Was Christ gentle and helpful f 
He washed the disciples' feet. 

He was crucilied between two 
thieves, and to one of them he 
promised, saying, "To-day shalt 
thou be with me in paradi-e." 

IS. Was Christ patient and re- 
signed .' 

At all times Christ showed pa- 
tience, and though he knew that 
he must suffer on the cross he did 
nothing to hasten the time of his 
death. He murmured not when 
his enemies spit upon him and 
crowned him with thorns. 

in. When Christ had laid down 
his I if for us diil he leave us with- 
out guidance f 

Christ's message to as all is, 
"The Comforter, which is the 
Holy Ghost, whom the Father 
will send in my name, lie shall 
teach you all tilings." 

J". What is Christ's great prom- 
ise tO "II who beli( Ve in him f 

" Lo, I am with you alway, 
even unto the end of the world." 



144 



EDUCATION IN MISSIONS — CATECHISM FOR FEBRUARY. 



[February, 



EDUCATION IN MISSIONS. 

Mrs. Julia M. Terhune expresses the opinion in 
the Sunday-school Times that a knowledge of, and 
an actual and active participation in, city or local 
mission work is the right way in which to begin the 
education of Sunday-school children in general 
missions. Among the considerations presented in 
this excellent article are the following : 

Local work is of special value because of the 
training it affords in intelligent giving. What is 
done may be seen. I heard a minister say that 
for fifteen years he had given his pennies without a 
thought as to their destination, though he knew in 
a general way that they were sent to Africa. But 
one Sunday there came into the school a tall, fine- 
looking colored man, who said : ' ' Children, I am 
what your pennies have made me. Oh ! pray for 
Africa." This, with the address which followed, 
was a revelation to the boy, and his soul was filled 
with the desire to do more. Africa took such posses- 
sion of him that eventually he gave himself to the 
work there. Nothing will so quicken missionary 
zeal as a sight of that which is done. 

Active interest in city missions will educate our 
so called Christian children in the common cour- 
tesies of life — an education greatly needed every- 
where. A quiet, refined little Italian girl strayed 
into a Protestant Sunday-school. She was always 
designated as ' ' that dago, ' ' when the teacher could 
not hear. A bright, gentlemanly Jewish boy was 
always called " sheeny," save in the teacher's pres- 
ence. He was a very fine singer, but when he was 
given a principal part in an entertainment some of 
the Christian children refused to sing with him. 
Said a Jewish boy : "I see there are two kinds of 




Christians. As I come to school Christian boys 
throw stones at me and call me names. That is 
one kind. But at our service the other day there 
was a Christian man, and oh how he prayed for us 
Jews ! I just loved that man. He is another 
kind of Christian." [f our children were actively 
engaged in promoting the spiritual welfare of 
these little foreigners there would be an end to all 
this. 

Work done here and now is work done in foreign 
lands, for the first impulse of the converted foreigner 
is to return to his native land with the story of the 
gospel. From one Chinese school eighteen boys 
have gone back to China to tell their relatives of 
Jesus. 

Writing in the Christian Intelligencer of "Chris- 
tian Endeavor and Christian Missions," President 
Merrill E. Gates says : " It is a great power in the 
life of a young Christian when he gets early in life 
a broad view of the far-reaching scope of Christ's 
work for men. To see the essential worth of every 
human life is to long to be helpful to every brother 
whom you can reach. The young Christian who 
comes early under the power of this longing and this 
purpose will love missions, and work for missions, 
and will grow broader in his sympathies, his intelli- 
gence, and his activities, because of his broader out- 
look upon life. To learn of foreign missions in- 
volves becoming interested in geography, history, 
comparative politics, comparative philology, and a 
comparative study of religions. It is a distinctive- 
ly liberalizing and humanizing interest, intellec- 
tual as well as spiritual. And the secret of success- 
ful endeavor for missions lies in awakening an in- 
terest by definite study of particular mission fields 
and of great missionary lives. More knowledge is 
the secret of greater interest in this great theme." 



itive Children in Courtyard. 
From "Chinese Characteristics." 



— At the twenty-seventh regular meeting of the 
Presbytery of Kolhapur, held at Panhala, India, 
October 29 and 30, the Rev. Shivaram Masoji 
preached the sermon in the Marathi language, in 
which language all the business is conducted. 
Elder Sidarama P. Jadhava was elected moderator, 
this being the first instance of a lay moderator in 
the presbytery. — The Evangelist. 

CATECHISM FOR FEBRUARY. 

There is but one only, the living and true God. 

There are three persons in the Godhead : the Father, the 
Son and the Holy GhosJ, and these three are one God, the 
same in substance, equal in power and glory. 

The decrees of God are his eternal purpose, according to 
the counsel of his will, whereby, for his own glory, he hath 
foreordained whatsoever comes to pass. 

God executeth his decrees in the works of creation and 
providence. . 



189?.] 



W* A. I\ MARTIN, D.I)., LL. h. 



II.. 




From " A Cycle of Cathay." 
Copyright iSqd, by Flemi-i? H. Revell Company. 



W. A. P. MARTIN, D.D., LL.D. 

Dr. Martin's recent return to China, after a fur- 
lough in this country, calls renewed attention to 
his life work and to his delightful book, " A Cycle 
of Cathay." 

He went to China in 1850 as a missionary of the 
Presbyterian Board, and spent six years in Xingpo. 
He then accepted a position as interpreter for the 
United States minister, and rendered valuable ser- 
vice during a critical period. 

Removing to Peking soon after that city was 
open to foreigners, his translation of Wheaton's "In- 
ternational Law" brought him to the attention of the 
Tsungli Yamen, and he was called to a professor- 
ship in the Tungwen College. In 1869 he was 
made president of the college, and for twenty-six 
years he performed the active duties of that office. 
Dr. Martin is still the president emeritus. After 
training young men for responsible positions, fitting 



them for high places in the government, he looks 
back to the six years of missionary labor in Xing- 
po as a most fruitful period of his life. 

The viceroy, Li Hung Chang, who obtained from 
I )r. Martin his first ideas of western civilization, 
urged him to return again and spend his last days 
in China, evidently appreciating the value to his 
own land of the presence of such a man. 

The actual state of affairs in China cannot be 
better described, says Dr. Martin, than in the words 
of the apostle who led the assault on pagan Rome : 
" A great and effectual door is opened unto us, and 
there are many adversaries." 

"China for Christ, even though it take a thousand 
years," should be the war-cry of the new cru- 
sade. But there is reason to believe that, with the 
growing multitude of native agents, the work of 
evangelization may be practically completed in the 
tenth part of that time. 



146 



PRESBYTERIAN ENDEAVORERS. 



[February, 



PRESBYTERIAN ENDEAVORERS. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

The Rev. Soo Hoo Nam Art writes in the Pacific 
Christian Endeavorer : We have a flourishing Chinese 
Christian Endeavor society connected with our 
Presbyterian mission at 911 Stockton street. It 
has about twenty-five active and thirty associate 
members. We have also Chinese societies in Oak- 
land, Alameda, Santa Barbara and Los Angeles, 
making five in all. These are conducted entirely 
by our Chinese brethren. 

San Jose, Cal. 

Miss Eva Burlingame is leader of the Chinese 
mission school in the First Presbyterian Church, a 
school which meets every evening of the week 
except Saturday. The Pacific Coast Endeavorer re- 
ports that Miss Burlingame' s fellow- Endeavorers 
recently honored her by a donation party and re- 
ception. 

Wilmington, Del. 

Some of the Hebrew children in the Sunday- 
school conducted by the First Presbyterian Chris- 
tian Endeavor society received as Christmas gifts 
copies of the latest translation of Isaiah in the 
German-Hebrew language. 

Hersman, HI. 

We are connected with a small country church 
and have a Christian Endeavor society of about 
forty-five active members, and though we have 
not yet reached our ideal, yet we believe that 
nearly every member is thoroughly interested and 
sincerely in earnest in the Master's work. We 
contribute with other societies of our presbytery to 
the support of Eev. J. Hyde, of India, and the 
letters we receive from him are indeed an inspira- 
tion. But while we are for this and other reasons 
interested in the work abroad we strive to lessen 
also the great need at home. — H. H. M. 

Peoria, III. 

A correspondent of the Golden Rule reports that 
the Endeavorers of the First Presbyterian Church 
organized in a schoolhouse in the suburb, North 
Peoria, a Christian Endeavor society. In October, 
1896, a Presbyterian church was organized, mainly 
through the efforts of this year-old society, aided 
by its early friends in Peoria. 

Oswego, Kans. 

The Presbyterian Endeavorers made the in- 
mates of the county house happy with Christmas 
tokens. They have also in more than one instance 
employed a nurse to care for the sick in families 
unable to pay for the necessary help. 

Ntwton, Kans. 

The Presbyterian Junior Christian Endeavor so- 
ciety of Newton, Kans., pledge twenty dollars each 
year to missions, ten to home and ten to foreign. 
In order to give this money they make many sacri- 
fices and have gone without many much needed 
supplies. The superintendent says that the society 
has been wonderfully prospered in many ways, and 
she attributes this to the fact that with them mis- 
sions stand first. 

The Sunshine Committee, Junior Y. P. S. C. E., 
print on an attractive card for distribution their 



motto, which is as follows : ' ' I expect to pass'through 
this world but once. Any good thing, therefore, 
that I can do, or any kindness that I can show to 
any fellow-being, let me do it now. Let me not de- 
fer it nor neglect it, for I shall not pass this way 
again." 

On December 5, one member of this society had 
been present every Sunday for three years, taken 
part in every meeting and read her Bible every 
day.— L. C. 

St. James, Minn. 

The Christian Endeavor society reported to pres- 
bytery's committee $10 as its special contribution to 
the Board of Home Missions. But, fearful lest for- 
eign missions should be lost sight of, the society 
sent $25 to the Foreign Board for the evangelization 
of the outside world. Reporting these gifts, the 
Herald and Presbyter says : St. James believes in 
putting into practice the leading doctrine enunci- 
ated in the New Testament Epistle of that name, 
"I will show thee my faith by my works." 

Santa Fe, N. H. 

Six members of the penitentiary Christian En- 
deavor society were baptized December 13, and 
will be received as members of the Second Presby- 
terian Church — J. E. W. in Golden Rule. 

Bridgeton, N. J. 

The Young Men' s Association of the First Pres- 
byterian Church, Bridgeton, N. J., has just com- 
pleted its first year's history. It may be profitable 
for other churches that are wrestling with the 
problem of reaching young men to learn of this 
association. A few of its features are here outlined 
by the pastor, Rev. S. W. Beach, who will gladly 
furnish further information to any who desire it. 

First, it is in, of and for the church ; that is, it is, 
under supervision of session, composed entirely of 
members of the congregation, and centres its life 
and activities in the church. 

Secondly, while primarily religious, it is more. At 
every fortnightly meeting, after devotional exercises, 
a paper is read by one of the members. The subject 
may be literary, historical, scientific, economic or 
political. The social feature is made much of. Once a 
month the meeting is held at a private house and 
light refreshments are served. 

Thirdly, there is no red-tape. A brief constitu- 
tion and a few rules comprehend all the machinery. 

Fourthly, as to work, a weekly bulletin is pub- 
lished for the church. Ushers and collectors are 
provided for the Sabbath services, and money is 
raised for special needs. This year $500 was col- 
lected for a fund used by the trustees 

Finally, results : ( 1 ) An increased attendance of 
young men upon the church services ; (2) A grow- 
ing interest and activity in church work ; (3) The 
bringing into line the class most difficult to influence, 
and thus in so far solving the greatest problem of 
the modern church ; (5) Providing a strong corps 
of recruits to replace the fallen and inspirit the re- 
doubtable. 

Presbytery of Binghamton, N. Y. 

Presbytery's Committee on Young People's So- 
cieties some months ago assumed the oversight of a 
weak, struggling country church, eight miles from 
the centre of the city of Binghamton. The committee 



1897.] 



PRESBYTERTAN ENDEAVORER8. 



147 



enlisted two young ministers and two young laymen, 
making each responsible for one Sunday's service 
each month. At a cost of nothing more than 
livery bills, this church, which had long been with- 
out pastor or stated supply, so lifeless that its 
records had not been in presbytery for several 
years, is beginning to show decided evidence of 
reviving energy. — F. P. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Sunday-school Missionary Association of 
Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church held its 
thirty-fourth annual meeting December 6, a report 
of which appears" in the Observer. During the 
past year the sum of 82230 has been contributed 
and expended on home and foreign missionary 
work. An interesting letter was read from Mr. 
Wilder, who is supported by this Sunday-school, 
giving an account of three Brahmin converts. 

Franklinville, N. Y. 

The Christian Endeavor society of this church is 
passing through the period of the steady pull. 
Enthusiasm is not at its highest pitch, but our meet- 
ings are spiritual and helpful. That is the best En- 
deavorer who stays at his post of duty between re- 
vivals. It has been demonstrated in our society that 
we are doing good work only when the committees 
are busy and ready to report at each consecration 
service. — R. R. W. 

Perry, N. Y. 

The Young People's Society of Christian Endea- 
vor of the Presbyterian Church of Perry, N. Y., 
has recently adopted systematic giving, the active 
members pledging two cents a week or more, to be 
given at each monthly consecration meeting. The 
November offering was between five and six dollars, 
and the society hopes to raise fifty or sixty dollars 
for missions the coming year. — C. H. D. 

Rochester, NY. 

One of the staunch leaders of Emmanuel Presby- 
terian society some time ago determined that the 
society should live up to the pledge as far as 
possible and to the requirements of the constitution, 
and the result has been new life and activity. 
When members were not regular in attendance, 
they found, not that they were dropped from the 
roll, but that they dropped themselves ; became 
their own executioners. This course made us fewer 
members, but those who were left could be relied on 
to be present and to take part in our meetings. We 
find it better to follow this plan than to reorganize 
once a year in order to get rid of those who will 
not do their duty. It is a continual stimulus to 
faithfulness. — /. S. R. 

Philadelphia, Pa, 

The Floating Christian Endeavor society of the 
Mariners' Church, founded February 15, 1894, has 
never omitted a meeting summer or winter and 
there are nearly always one or more inquirers. 
There are sixty-five active members, forty-four of 
whom are seamen, scattered over all oceans. In- 
teresting letters are received from them, telling of 
their hardships and their comfort in Christ. 
Sometimes these letters are written in hospitals, in 
other ports, where the poor fellow is sick, perhaps 
dying, in a strange land. Occasionally testimonies 
are given in several languages in one meeting. This 



shows the character of the work. Every service 
brings together unconverted seamen and seamen 
weak in Christ who need guidance and encourage- 
ment. Some of them will not be in a church again for 
months or years. A great deal of highly valued 
help is received from Christian Endeavor societies 
in other churches. Some have come down with 
their singers to take charge of meetings, and large 
numbers of well-filled " comfort bags" have also 
been received. It has been the custom at the 
Mariners' for many years past to give these hags at 
Christmas and they are highly prized by the sea- 
men. The good done by these tokens of loving re- 
membrance of their lonely lives, with their letters 
and Testaments, is known only to the Heavenly 
Father.— A L. W. 

Ferndale, Pa. 

A sunrise prayer meeting was held on Christmas 
morning by the Endeavorers. Dr. James A. Little 
of Hokendauqua is stated supply of this church. 

Scranton, Pa. 

The efficiency of the committees of a society is 
largely the measure of the success of the active 
work of the society. Realizing this fact, a late 
president of the society of the Green Ridge Presby- 
terian Church, of Scranton, Pa., devised this 
scheme : Each committee appointed consisted of 
three very earnest persons, whose activity and 
faithfulness was well known. Then the entire mem- 
bership was divided among the various committees 
and designated as associates. Each committee of 
three planned its work, and to perform it called upon 
its own body of " associates. " There was thus 
secured a small body to plan, guide and control the 
work, with a lot of assistants who understood that 
for six months they were to work in a particular 
line. The society numbered over one hundred and 
twenty-five and the plan was a success. — T. F. W. 

Presbytery of Zanesville, O. 

The Committee on Young People's Societies of 
Zanesville Presbytery, Rev. John Proctor Davis, 
of Keene, O., chairman, has arranged a series of 
lectures on Biblical, doctrinal, historical and 
special subjects which the ministers of the presby- 
tery are ready to deliver to the various societies. 
The young people of the presbytery have the oppor- 
tunity to become well instructed as to the essentials of 
Presbyterian history, faith and polity. — Herald and 
Presbyter. 

Everett, Wash. 

The Social Committee of the First Presbyterian 
Endeavor society held recently a unique comfort 
bag social. The admission fee was anything suit- 
able for the bag. Some brought Testaments, some 
buttons, beeswax, needles, etc. The result was 
thirty-one well-made comfort bags for the sailors. 
The Missionary Committee raised twenty- five cents 
per member for the home mission debt by writing 
careful, personal letters to every member of the so- 
ciety. The two-cents-a-week plan, tried for the first 
time this year, netted $25 toward the support of 
our missionary in Siam. — T. C. 

nadison, Wis. 

The Christian Endeavor society of Christ Church 
brought happiness to several homes on Thanks- 
giving day by sending portions to them for whom 
nothing was provided. 



48 



CHRISTIAN TRAINING COURSE. 



[February, 



CHRISTIAN TRAINING COURSE. 

For Young People's Societies and Other Church Organizations. 

[Prepared by the Rev. Hugh B. MacCauley and the Rev. Albert B. Robinson, and approved by General Assembly, May, 
1896. See Outline B, with Helpful Hints, in the August, 1896, issue of The Church at Home and Abroad, pp. 146, 147.] 



General Remarks. 

1. We are glad to learn that the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church intends to make careful provision for 
a Young People's Training Course, and that they 
will make use of the small but reliable text-book. 
This is our principle No. 1. They have issued 
lately three choice books of this kind. 

2. We again risk tediousness by urging our 
readers and all pastors to begin now and do some- 



thing in the way of Training. Did you read our 
January article on a cheaper way of taking up this 
Course? Do you realize how much interest and 
importance this will give to your young people's 
work, and to their meetings ? 

3. The headquarters for the literature required 
is the Foreign Missions Library, 156 Fifth avenue, 
New York. Enclose two cent stamp for complete 
circular of Outline B, the present year. 



Outline B. Programme No. 9, February, 1897. 

1. Hymn. The pastor to open the meeting. 

2. Prayer. Biblical Leader in charge. 

3. Biblical, Christ Jesus, Study IX— Some Active and 
Passive Traits of His Character, Part 4. Review. 

Required reading. Speer's The Man Christ Jesus, pp. 119- 
128 ; Question 38, p. 248. 

Ques. 38. What traits of character were combined in him ? 
Ans., pp. 119-128. In reviewing show the perfect balance of 
his character : (1) merciful and just, (2) truthful and loving, 
(3) firm but not obstinate, (4) calm but not indifferent, (5) 
unselfish but not wasteful, (6) helpful but not officious, (7) 
strong but not rough, (8) feminine but not effeminate, (9) 
innocent and yet forceful, (10) courageous but not rash. 
Give out these ten items to as many readers. At close call 
for other opinions as to which combination is most striking 
and why. This study is very important and interesting. It 
would be well to keep the matter of it and review again some 
weeks hence. Always read the poetry. Sing a hymn. 

4. Hymn. Historical Leader in charge. 

5. Historical, The Development of the Missionary Idea, 
Study II— Boniface and Germany ; Missions in the Seventh 
and Eighth Centuries. 

Required reading. George Smith's Short History of Mis- 
sions, pp. 85-90. The Conversion of the Teutons. The Scots 
and Anglo-Romish Missionaries Contrasted, pp. 85,86. Boni- 
face, the Englishman (680-755), pp. 87, 88. Bede, the Vener- 
able (673-735) , p. 89 ; three-minute essay. Alcuin (735-800), 
p. 89; short essay. King Alfred (849-901), p. 90; three- 
minute essay. This is a very interesting period. Do it 
well and if necessary shorten the Biblical. 

6. Hymn. Missionary Leader in charge. 

7. Prayer. 

8. Missionary, Modern Missionary Heroes, Study VII — 
Thomas S. Williamson, Stephen R. Riggs, David C. Lyon 
and Home Missions. 

Required reading. The Church at Home and Abroad, 
November, 1895, p. 375 ; January, 1896, p 20 ; June, 1896, p. 
475. Summaries of these articles are given in this issue (Feb- 
ruary), page 149. These are grand men for us to know about. 
If necessary take two and leave the remainder until the sec- 
ond meeting of February. Sing and pray. 

9. Prayer. 
10. Hymn. 



Outline B. Programme No. 10, February, 1897. 

1. Hymn. 

2. Prayer. Biblical Leader in charge. 

3. Biblical, Christ Jesus, Study X— The Testimony 
borne to him by the Different Relations into which he came, 
Part 1. 

Required reading. Speer's The Man Christ Jesus, pp. 131- 
142 ; Questions 41-52, p. 248. 

Ques. 41. When were sick or disabled people brought to 
him to be healed? Ques. 42. When did sick or disabled 
people come of their own accord? Ques. 43. When was he 
invited to homes to heal the sick? Ques. 44. Did he ever 
refuse such invitations or decline to give help ? Ques. 45. 
Did he ever give help or healing unsolicited ? Answers, see 
pp. 131-133, may be found in the texts given. Read them 
aloud. Ques. 46. What is a miracle? Ans., p. 134. Ques. 
47. What friendships did he form with women? Ans., p. 135. 
Ques. 48. What place have women in his teaching? Ans., pp. 
136, 137. Ques. 49. Did he ever speak harshly to or pass 
harsh judgment upon a woman? Answer? Ask the class ! 
Ques. 50. What was his view of the Sabbath? Ans., p. 139. 
Ques. 51. Wherein did his conceptions of worship and 
religion differ from the prevailing conceptions? Ans., pp. 
138, 139. Ques. 52. What current opinions and practices 
did he assail in the Sermon on the Mount? Ans., pp. 140, 141. 

4. Hymn. Historical Leader in charge. 

5. Prayer. 

6. Historical, Development of the Missionary Idea, Study 
X ; Anskar and Norway ; Missions in the Ninth Century. 

Required reading. George Smith's Short History of Missions, 
pp. 91-95. The Northmen or Normans, p. 91. Anskar (801- 
865) , pp. 92, 93. Norway, 93, 94. The Conversion of Western 
Europe, pp. 94, 95. A three-minute summary of the good 
results of Scotch-Irish evangelism in Europe. 

7. Hymn. The Missionary Leader in charge. 

8. Missionary, Modern Missionary Heroes, Study VII— 
Home Missions. 

Required reading. The Church at Home and Abroad, 
February, 1897. See previous programme No. 9, item 8. 
Take up the work of Home Missions in general. A very in- 
teresting topic would be Synodical Home Missions. For New 
Jersey see sample programme on S. H. M. with suggested 
readings, etc., in The Synod, care of Rev. Geo. H. Ingram, 
Trenton, N. J. Send to him for sample, and to Stated Clerk 
in case of other synods. 

9. Prayer. 

10. Hymn. 



SUGGESTIONS. 

Many churches will find it advantageous to unite their young people and adults in this study, by hav- 
ing the first programme of the month on monthly concert night, and the second on an evening two weeks 
later, arranged for that special purpose with the young people. 

Do a part of this work, at least, and assist us by giving us your experience. 

The Advance, in a review of four recent books, says : The briefest and least pretentious but probably 
the most widely useful of these four books is entitled, "Studies of the Man Christ Jesus," by Kobert E. 
Speer. The Junior Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, who is noted alike for his 
staunch evangelicalism and his glowing spirituality, is prompted to this study by "the longing of our 
time to know more perfectly the character of the Man Christ Jesus." Because in college gatherings the 
picture of Christ here presented proved strengthening to the faith in His real Deity by " increasing the 
admiration for His perfect and glorious humanity," he was led to publish his addresses in this little book 
which is as invaluable to the Bible classes for whose use it is designed, as it is inspiring and refreshing to 
the reverence and devotion of the general reader. 



1897.] 



SOME MISSIONARY HEROES. 



14!) 



HOME MISSIONARY HEROES. 

[For the Christian Training Course. See Programme No. . 
9, Study ix, page 148.] 

REV. THOS. S. WILLIAMSON, M.D. 

Born in South Carolina in March, 1800, when he 
was still a child the family removed to Adams 
county, Ohio. He was graduated from Jeflerson 
College — where his spiritual life began — in 1820 and 
from the medical department of Yale in 1824. He 
then entered upon a successful medical practice at 
Ripley, O., where he married Miss Margaret 
Poage. After a few years, believing he was called 
of God to the Christian ministry, he studied 
theology at Lane Seminary. Commissioned by the 
American Board, he made a brief visit to the 
Indians of the Upper Mississippi. On his return 
he was ordained by the Presbytery of Chillicothe, 
and appointed by the Board a missionary to the 
Dakotas. This service was undertaken with great 
cheerfulness, though it summoned him to an isolated 
post, Fort Snelling, far beyond the limits of civil- 
ization, and to the discomforts of a home among the 
Indians. The devotion of his life to this ministry 
demanded a lofty heroism, a strong faith and a 
complete surrender of self to God. 

The little mission party arrived at Fort Snelling 
May 16, 1835. The only white residents in the 
territory of Minnesota were connected with the 
military post. Twenty-two of the company were 
Christians, and Dr. Williamson organized the First 
Presbyterian Church of Minnesota, afterwards the 
First Church of Minneapolis. 

The following month, in company with Joseph 
Renville, a half-breed fur trader, he took a long 
journey westward to begin his life-work. On the 
north side of the Minnesota river, near Lac qui 
parle, the "lake that speaks," the mission to the 
Dakota Indians was established July 9, 1835. 
The report of the event did much to awaken a mis- 
sionary spirit throughout the whole Church. 

The four hundred Indians at this point knew no- 
thing of agriculture, and subsisted chiefly on game, 
roots and plants. Though indolent and deeply de- 
praved, they had capabilities of mental improvement 
and possibilities of moral elevation through the 
gospel of Christ. 

After acquiring the language, Dr. Williamson 
not only preached and taught, he also ministered 
to the sick, and thus originated medical missions in 
the great West. Ministering to the body won 
confidence, awakened gratitude and secured access 
to the souls of the Dakotas. In 183<> a church was 
organized, which ten years later numbered fifty 
souls. In 1841 an adobe house of worship was 
erected, and in its tower hung the first bell that 
ever rung out the call to prayer in the land of the 
Dakotas. 

The Indians were glad to enjoy the doctor's 
medical skill, but most of them cared little for the 
new religion. The converts were chiefly women. 
When drought came, scarcity of game, defeat in 
battle and no scalps, the missionaries were blamed. 
The cattle and horses belonging to the mission were 
killed, and all things seemed against the work 
which had been full of promise. 

Dr. Williamson then established a mission, Ka- 
posia, just south of St. Paul, where a church was 
organized and a light kindled which wasdestined to 
shine far out to the westward. 



Afterward a wider field of Labor was found at 

Yellow Medicine, on the Minnesota river, south- 
east of Lac qui parle. Great trials were endured the 
first winter ; but the mission grew rapidly. 
Savagery put on the garments of civilization. 
Hearts of stone were melted by the Btory of the 
cross. Piety was deeply rooted and grew. 

In the industrial school connected with the 
church, the women were taught to make and mend 
garments, to cook properly and to make the home 
more attractive. They also learned to read and 
write, and it was a proud day for the girls when 
they could inscribe messages on birch bark which 
the young braves could not interpret. Then the 
young men, in self-defense, became pupils. Agri- 
culture was also taught. The roving Indians who 
had depended upon the precarious supplies of the 
hunting-grounds learned to cultivate the soil. 

In 1802 there was an Indian outbreak, during 
which five hundred whites, including women and 
children, were slain. Missions were abandoned, 
churches deserted, and the missionaries constrained 
to seek a place of safety. Four hundred Indians, 
believed to have been participants in the massacres, 
were imprisoned ; and to them Dr. Williamson 
and the other missionaries preached the gospel. 
They manifested sorrow for their crimes and 
expressed a desire to be saved. It was believed 
that many of them were converted. The Indians 
who were released were taken to ^Niobrara, 
Neb., where the two churches which had been or- 
ganized at Mankato and at Fort Snelling were 
united, with a membership of almost five hundred. 
As an ultimate result of the massacre the power 
of heathenism was broken, suspicion was turned to 
gratitude and love, and doors of entrance were 
opened to the great regions of the West. 

Dr. Williamson aided in the preparation of a 
Dakota-English dictionary and translated hymns, 
but the great work which occupied much of his 
time for forty years was the translation of the Bible 
into the language of the Dakotas. Soon after that 
was completed, he was called to his heavenly re- 
ward, June 24, 1879. — Condensed from an article by 
Robert F. Sample, D.D., in The Church at 
Home and Abroad, November, 1895. 

STEPHEN R. RIGGS, D D., LL.D. 

In 1837 Dr. Williamson was joined at Lac qui 
parle by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen R. Riggs, who had 
enjoyed" a few months' experience of missionary life 
at a point now within the limits of the city of Min- 
neapolis. For live years they lived in a large upper 
room in Dr. Williamson's home. 

Dr. Riggs bore an equal part with Dr. William- 
son in the translation of the Bible. At first they 
obtained much aid from Joseph Renville, who 
could speak the French language as well as that of 
the Dakotas. One of the missionaries would read 
the French, Renville would translate orally into Da- 
kota, and after frequent repetitions to secure accu- 
racy the written form was decided upon. When 
the Gospel of Mark was translated. Dr. Williamson 
took a long journey to Ohio to superintend the 
printing. It 'was a great day for the little church 
at Lac qui parle when the converts read this gospel 
in their own tongue. As the translators became 
more familiar with the native and the original 
tongues, they exchanged the French Bible for the 



150 



TWENTY QUESTIONS ON EVANGELISTIC MISSIONARY WORK. [February, 



Greek and Hebrew Scriptures. In 1879 the entire 
Bible was given to the Dakotas in their own lan- 
guage. 

In 1843 Dr. Riggs removed to Traverse-des- Sioux, 
and established another mission ; but, when Dr. 
Williamson was summoned to Kaposia, he returned 
to Lac qui parle. At this point successful work 
was accomplished. A great disaster, however, 
visited the little church. The buildings were de- 
stroyed by fire, and it was not thought best to re- 
build. So the missionaries, with most of the Chris- 
tian Indians, removed to Hazlewood, near Yellow 
Medicine, where Dr. Williamson was now located. 

After that dark period in the history of missions 
among the Dakotas, the Indian outbreak of 1862, 
the power of the chiefs was gone and the Indians 
were humbled. Peace came to all the land of the Da- 
kotas and has continued to this day. Missionary 
effort has been crowned with continual success. In 
the Presbytery of Dakota there are now twelve 
hundred communicants. The influence which 
originated in the Indian village of Lac qui parle 
has reached to every Indian agency, and to all the 
tribes between the Mississippi and the Pacific coast. 

Dr. Riggs, who was a man of scholarly habits, 
wrote two excellent books, " The Gospel among 
the Dakotas," and " Mary and I ; or, Forty Years 
among the Sioux." — Condensed from an article by 
Robert F. Sample, D.D., in The Church at Home 
and Abroad, January, 1896. 

REV. DAVID C. LYON. 

Mr. Lyon, after serving as pastor of the church 
in Winona, Minn., from 1859 to 1867, was invited 
by the Synod of St. Paul to undertake the duties 
of State missionary. Making St. Paul the base of 
his operations, he pushed out in every direction, 
seeking believers who were scattered, gathering 
them for Christian work and worship, establish- 
ing Sabbath- schools, stimulating the people to 
benevolence, and ultimately securing them pas- 
tors. His work, which embraced Minnesota and 
Dakota, required great wisdom, knowledge of 
men, administrative ability, fertility of expe- 
dients and constant dependence on God. The State 
missionary, especially in the incipiency of the 
work, gives character to the church of the future. 
In this respect the fruits of Mr. Lyon's labors are 
subjects of congratulation and gratitude to God. 

Mr. Lyon possessed strength and beauty of 
character. He was self-forgetful and sympathetic. 
A minister's wife said of him: u He comes with 
benedictions and brightens our view of the Chr s- 
tian life." He gave fifteen years to this work of 
foundation laying, and has been called "The 
Father of Presbyterianism in the Northwest." — 
Condensed from an article by Robert F. Sample, D.D., 
in The Church at Home and Abroad, June, 1896. 



Minnesota, almost as large as Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania together, has possibilities in every direction 
in keeping with its geographical dimensions. There 
are now only twelve people to the square mile, 
while Massachusetts has 275. Three- fifths of all 
the iron ore used in the United States comes from 
the region included in the Presbytery of Duluth. 
There are 253 Presbyterian churches with almost 
20,000 members, 175 ministers, and a Sunday- 
school enrollment of 26,000.— Rev. William C. 
Covert in North and West. 



WORTH READING. 

The Literature and Worship of the Early 
Aryans, by Dunlop Moore, D.D. The Presbyterian 
Quarterly, January, 1897. 

Apostolic and Modern Missions, by Rev. Chal- 
mers Martin. Presbyterian and Reformed Review, 
January, 1897. 

The Ideal Childhood in Non-Christian Re- 
ligions, by George S. Goodspeed. The Biblical 
World, January, 1897. 

Mount Holyoke College, by Henrietta E. 
Hooker. New England Magazine, January, 1897. 

The China of the Twentieth Century, by W. A. 
P. Martin, D.D., LL.D. The Review of 3Iissions, 
January, 1897. 

A Bystander's Notes of a Massacre — the Slaugh- 
ter of Armenians in Constantinople, by Yvan 
Troshine. Scribner's Magazine, January, 1897. 

The Story of Gladstone's Life, by Justin 
McCarthy. The Outlook (magazine number), 
January 2, 1897. 

The University of Pennsylvania, by Dr. Lewis 
R. Hawley. Frank Leslie 's Popular Monthly, Feb- 
ruary, 1897. 



TWENTY QUESTIONS ON EVANGELISTIC 
MISSIONARY W T ORK. 

For the use of Sabbath-schools and Young People's Societies. 

1. What is the supreme missionary object ? 

2. Why do missionaries go forth ? 

3. What is meant by chapel preaching? 

4. Give instances of the results of chapel preach- 
ing in mission fields. 

5. Name some of the difficulties met with in 
street preaching. 

6. What means are used to attract the people ? 

7. What is required on the part of the mission- 
ary in order that this work may be effective? 

8. Give instances of the results of street preach- 
ing. 

9. What is itinerating? 

10. Name some of the means of conveyance em- 
ployed in this service. 

11. Why is this work so important? 

12. Give instances of touring in Siam, China, 
Mexico and Persia. 

13. What need is there for house-to-house visita- 
tion in missionary work ? 

14. What spirit should be taken into the homes 
visited ? 

15. Give instances of house-to-house visitation in 
India, Syria and Persia. 

16. How vast is the field of foreign missions ? 

17. Compare the area and populations of the 
several mission fields with those of the United 
States. . 

18. Is the gospel of Jesus Christ essential to the 
heathen? Why? 

19. Compare the gospel privileges of the heathen 
with those of the United States. 

20. What are you personally doing to spread the 
gospel in all the earth ? 



1897.] 



QUESTIONS — MINISTERIAL NECROLOGY. 



151 



QUESTIONS FOR THE FEBRUARY MISSIONARY MEETING. 
[Answers may be found in the preceding pa 



WoKK AT HOME. 

1. What Buggestive name is applied to a Pres- 
byterian church in Colorado ? Page 122. 

2. Relate the story of the Gomez Bible, the 
price paid for it, and its influence. Page L22. 

3. What other story shows that unlearned men 
may be led to a change of heart and life by the 
"open Bible," even without a preacher ? Page 
12:2. 

4. Through what harmony of instrumentalities 
have our Mexican Presbyterian churches been 
founded and sustained? Page 123. 

5. Name some of the results of Sabbath-school 
missionary work in Iowa. Page 133. 

(j. Give some account of the work of the seven- 
teen boarding-schools under the care of the 
Freed men's Board. Page 136. 

7. Name the new Secretary of the Board of 
Ministerial Relief. Page 127. 

8. What surprising facts are stated relative to 
the work of this Board ? Page 128. 

9. How are the trials, needs and expedients 
connected with a new church enterprise illus- 
trated? Page 131. 

10. By what "Three Scenes" is the value of 
the work of the College Board emphasized? Pages 
125, 126. 

11. What encouraging report comes from the 
Synod of Texas ? Page 95. 

12. What interesting facts make the outlook for 
Texas hopeful ? Page 95. 

13. Tell the incident of the funeral sermon 
preached in North Dakota. Page 101. 



14. Repeat the Thanksgiving Kay incident 
from Utah. Page L02. 

15. What story comes from the French and 
Italian mission of St. Lonis? Page 100. 

16. Give an outline of the work of each of the 
home mission heroes — Williamson, RiggS and 
Lyon. Page 148. 

WORK ABROAD. 

17. Describe the methods of street preaching em- 
ployed in India. Page 107. 

18. What progress has been made in Japan 
since 1864? Page 110. 

19. Give an outline history of mission work in 
Korea. Page 111. 

20. The massacres of August, 1895, in Foochow, 
China, have been followed by what results? Page 
103. 

21. What encouragement is there to hope for the 
rapid growth of the Church in China? Page 112. 

22. Give a detailed description of chapel preach- 
ing. Pages 118, 119. 

23. What is the idea of God held by the people 
of west central Africa ? Page 115. 

24. How are they impressed with the fact that 
Jesus Christ appeared so long ago? Page 115. 

25. How did Mrs. Robert Moffat express her 
faith? Page 141. 

26. What is the purpose of house-to-house visi- 
tation in Syria, and the spirit in which it is under- 
taken? Page 116. 

27. Tell something of the past history and future 
opportunity of the Reformed Church of Hungary. 
Pages 137, 138. 



Ministerial Necrology. 

Andrews, John Kennedy. — Born in Allegheny 
county, Pa., April 10, 1822 ; graduated from 
New Athens College and Allegheny (U. P.) 
Theological Seminary ; pastor, U. P. Church, 
Piqua, O. ; Steubenville, O. ; became Presbyte- 
rian daring the war ; chaplain 126th Regiment, 
O. V. I. ; first charge in Presbyterian Church, 
1866-69; West Newton, Pa., 1869-71 ; Ma- 
honing, Pa., 1871-82 ; Fagg's Manor, Pa., 
1882-84 ; Bedford, Pa., 1884-91. Died at 
New Castle, Pa., December 1, 1896. 

Married, October 12, 1852, at Piqua, O., 
Sarah Jane Wood, who died 1885, six children 
surviving. Married, 1888, Ruth E. Plumer, 
who survives him. 

Elder, James S., D.D. — Born at Elder's Ridge, 
Pa., May 30, 1829 ; graduated from Jefferson 
College, 1855, and from Western Theological 
Seminary, 1858 ; ordained by the Presbytery 
of Clarion, 1859 ; pastor of Greenville and 
New Bethlehem churches, Clarion county, Pa., 
1859-63; Greenville and Pisgali, 1863-68; of 
Clarion and New Rehoboth, 1868-73 ; and of 
Clarion Church, 1868-96. Died at Clarion, 
Pa., December 1, 1896. 



Married December 22, 1858, Miss Nancy 
Barnett, who survives him with two sons, viz., 
Dr. J. W. Elder, of El Paso, Texas, and James 
M. Elder, of Clarion, Pa. 

Reid, John. — Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, April 
29, 1820 ; graduated from Union Theological 
Seminary, 1853 ; ordained by Presbytery of 
Long Island, 1854 ; pastor of church, Frank- 
linville, L. I., 1853-60; New Haven, N. Y., 
1861-67 ; Angelica, N. Y., 1867-74 ; stated 
supply, Youngstown, N. Y., 1874-83 ; Pike, 
N. Y., 1883-86 ; Clarkson, N. Y., 1889-90. 
Author of "Voices of the Soul, Answered in 
God," etc. Died at Warsaw, N. Y., Jan- 
uary 2, 1897. 

Married April 28, 1847, Miss Ann E. 
Lawrence, of New York City, who survives 
him with two sons. 

Robinson, James, M.D. — Born in Ireland, 1845 ; 
graduated from Wabash (Ind. ) College, 1872, 
and Princeton Theological Seminary, 1875 ; 
ordained by the Presbytery of Lehigh, May 1. 
1875 ; pastor, Ashland, Pa., 1ST") 81 ; Fourth 
Church, Philadelphia, 1881-85 : resident in 
Philadelphia, and practicing medicine, 1886- 
96. Died, December 13, 1S96. 
Unmarried. 



152 



PLEASANT WORDS FROM READERS. 



[February, 



PLEASANT WORDS FROM READERS. 

Mrs. J. W. McKee, Marshall, Mich. : — Many 
good wishes for the magazine, which we consider 
indispensable in our home. 

Miss Jennette Walesbury, Ypsilanti, Mich.: — 
It has been a welcome visitor at our home all 
through the year. 

Caroline L. Martin, of the Scotch Church, New 
York: — The magazine is read with intense interest. 
Accept my heartfelt wishes that there may be, as 
there ought, a great increase of subscriptions. 

J. A. Pattox, Flemingsburg, Ky. : — Have taken 
it from its first issue, and as a loyal Presbyterian 
cannot afford to be without it. 

Rev. Maurice Waller, of Lebanon, Ky. : — 
The excellent periodical you are giving us is 
of great service to the Church. 

Miss Mary Foote, Lewlstown, III. : — I cannot 
do without the magazine. It grows better and 
better. 

W. D. Ward, Springfield, 111. : — The Church 
at Home and Abroad gets better every year. 

Rev. Charles Ezra Fisk, Alta, Iowa : — It be- 
comes more and more indispensable every year. 

Thomas Weir, Salt Lake City, Utah : — Any one 
interested in the progress of our Church and the 
work of her several Boards cannot afford to be 
without it. 

Mrs. A. G. Prentiss, La Crosse, Wis. : — I con- 
sider the magazine absolutely essential to the ad- 
vancement and growth of our Presbyterian Church. 
Miss Minnie S. Evans, Parkston, S. Dakota : — 
My old files are doing good service, being used 
every month by members of the Ladies' and Chris- 
tian Endeavor societies. I find the magazine more 
helpful every year. 

Mrs. William M. Berry, Jr., Newark, N. J. : 
— The perusal of The Church at Home and 
Abroad has increased our offerings for the Minis- 
terial Relief Fund. Hope we shall always be 
able to subscribe. 

Mrs. Charles Woodward, Elmira, N. Y.: — 
It affords a means of missionary intelligence more 
general in scope than any magazine that has ever 
fallen into my hands. 

Miss Kate C. McBeth, Lapwai, Idaho: — Some- 
thing else will have to be given up, but not this 
magazine, so full of interesting information. 

Mrs. H. J. Agnew, Grecncastle, Pa.: — I find 
the magazine so helpful, I cannot give it up, 
though finances are low. After reading I send it 
to a home missionary. 



Mrs. T. K. Galloway, Montgomery, 0.: — 
Times are hard, but I do not feel willing to be 
without the pulse of our great Church. 

Rev. A. Krebs Campbell, Neb.: — I can hardly 
spare the money, as the poverty of this year 
is keenly felt by us missionaries ; yet I cannot 
miss the magazine, it has so improved from year to 
year. I enjoy it as food for my soul. 

Rev. W. P. Gibson, Evart, Mich.: — I find the 
magazine indispensable, as every pastor must. 
Wish I could send you a good list of subscriptions 
from my congregation, but they are in so straitened 
circumstances that $5 a week is all they can con- 
tribute to my support. 

Rev. Frederick A. Walter, Cincinnati, 0.: — 
The Church at Home and Abroad is the best 
missionary periodical coming to my desk. 

Rev. J. R. Smith, Pleasant Valley, 111.: — I 
do not think I shall want to stop the Church at 
Home and Abroad while I live. 

Charles E. Cornell, San Francisco, Cal.: — 
Your magazine seems to me to contain an account of 
the Acts of the Modern Apostles. 

Mrs. Frances W. Priest, Montdair, N. J. : — 
The Church at Home and Abroad is one of the 
things I do not know how to be without. Have 
been much interested in the sketches of pioneer 
workers in the West. 

C. L. Wilson, Port Byron, N. Y. :— It improves 
in every department. 

Mrs. Howard Ware, St. Paul, Minn. : — The 
magazine is showing great enterprise, especially in 
the department devoted to Young People's work. 

Rev. C. C. Thorne, Windham, N. Y. /—The 
questions for missionary meeting are very helpful. 
Hope they will be continued. 

Rev. W. S. Holt, D.D., Portland, Ore. .-—The 
January Church lies on my table. I have just laid 
it down. What a splendid number it is ! I believe 
it is the best church magazine on earth. If you 
can keep up this pace through 1897, our people 
who are wise enough to take and read the maga- 
zine will certainly be fat and flourishing. 

Rev. R. F. Getty, Utica, Pa. : — I have been 
delighted with The Church at Home and 
Abroad for several years ; I note improvement 
from time to time. "Current Events," "Sugges- 
tions for Study," "Worth Reading," "Book 
Notices," "Questions" — well, all are splendid. 
I wish every family would subscribe. 

Rev. Edgar W. Clarke, Pana, III,: — It is full 
of important information. Any one who reads it 
carefully will be intelligent on passing events. 



RECEIPTS. 

FEEEDMEN, December, 1895 and 1896. 





Churches. 


Sabbath-schools. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Miscellaneous. 


Legacies. 


Total. 


1895 

1896 


88,769 70 
9,353 81 


8279 23 
609 35 


82,614 96 
2,719 20 


81,507 08 
622 45 


811,715 65 
63 23 


824,886 62 
13,358 04 


Gain 

Loss 


8584 11 


8330 12 


8104 24 


8884 63 


811,662 42 


811,528 58 



Total Keceipts April 1 to December 31, 1895 and 1896. 





Churches. 


Sabbath-schools. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Miscellaneous. 


Legacies. 


Total. 


1895 

1896 


S2.S.022 19 
27,657 04 


81,760 22 
1,967 77 


816,392 05 
15,879 74 


819,482 10 
11,434 93 


813,777 32 
7,223 48 


879,433 88 
154,162 96 


Gain 

Loss 


8365 15 


8207 55 


8512 31 


88,047 17 


§6,553 84 


815,270 92 



Receipts through Reunion Fund are included in this comparison. 



FOREIGN MISSIONS, December, 1895 and 1896. 





Churches. 


Women's B'ds. 


Sab.-schools. 


Y. P. S. C. E. 


Legacies. 


Miscellaneous 


Total. 


1895 
1896 


818,791 31 
14,917 80 


819,401 01 
12,581 21 


82,789 64 
3,002 90 


82,622 08 
1,750 65 


871,715 30 
8,441 14 


811,163 82 
5,643 94 


8126,483 16 
46,337 64 


Gain 
Loss 


83,873 51 


86,819 80 


8213 26 


8871 43 


863,274 16 


85,519 88 


880,145 52 



Statement of Receipts, May 1 to December 31, 1895 and 1896. 





Churches. 


Women's B'ds. 


Sab.-schools. 


Y. P. S. C. E. 


Legacies. 


Miscellaneous 


Total. 


1895 
1896 


894,498 54 
80,217 32 


875,467 41 
67,858 05 


810,118 88 
8,565 29 


812,739 04 
12,523 03 


8118,866 93 
52,163 41 


851,983 67 
38,002 37 


8363,674 47 
259,329 47 


Gain 
Loss 


814,281 22 


87,609 36 


81,553 59 


8216 01 


866,703 52 


813,981 30 


8104,345 00 



Gifts through Reunion Fund not included in this comparison. 

Finances, January 1, 1897. 

Appropriations made May 1, 1896 8904,224 78 Received from all sources to .January 1, 1S97 259,329 47 

Appropriations added to January 1, 1897 38,775 13 

Amount to be received before April 30, 1897, to 

meet a H obligations §715 923 94 

*Total appropriated 8942,999 91 Received last year, January 1, 1896, to April 30, 

Deficitof April30, 1896 32,253 50 1896......... 521,717 ;ii 

Total needed for year 8975,253 41 Increase needed before the end of the year fl 94,206 63 



♦ Amount authorized by Assembly 81,034,000 00 

153 



154 



RECEIPTS. 

HOME MISSIONS, December, 1895 and 1896. 



[February, 





Churches. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Legacies. 


Individuals, Etc. 


Total. 


1895 


840,466 16 
60,860 53 


$27,897 88 
28,534 63 


$13,013 47 
870 89 


$3,839 12 
6,318 75 


$35,216 63 
96,472 30 


1896 






$20,394 37 


$636 75 


$12,142 58 


$2,479 63 


$11,255 67 









For Nine Months Ending December 31, 1895 and 1896. 





Churches. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Legacies. 


Individuals, Etc. 


Total. 


1895 


$140,629 59 
196,378 78 


$121,909 68 
135,024 86 


$139,339 43 
50,707 42 


$28,060 51 
42,874 87 


S429.939 21 
424,873 43 


1896 






$55,749 19 


$13,115 18 


$88,632 01 


$14,814 36 






$5,065 78 





PUBLICATION AND S.-S. WORK. 

December, 1896. 

Contributions from Churches $1 ,665 22 

" Sabbath-schools.... 1,132 85 

" " Individuals 161 00 

Interest on Balances 224 13 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF 

December, 1896. 

Churches $5,564 97 

Individuals 538 44 

Interest 4,570 26 



Previously acknowledged. 
Total since April 1, 



$3,183 20 



$78,445 43 



CHURCH ERECTION. 

December, 1896. 
General Fund. 

Contributions $3,053 59 

Miscellaneous 2,727 22 



$5,780 81 



Loan Fund. 
Amount collected on loans 4,506 74 

Manse Fund. 

Amount collected on loans $1,881 11 

Contribution 50 00 

Miscellaneous 32 00 

1963 11 



General Fund Contributions. 

Nine months current year $25,367 60 

Same period last year 25,832 41 

gg Loss _ $ 464 81 



For Current Fund $10,673 67 

Permanent Fund 2,554 78 



\ Total Receipts $13,228 45 



Total for the Current Fund since April 1, 

1896 $91,605 62 

For same period last year 97,470 76 



Decrease $5,865 14 



EDUCATION. 

December, 1896. 

Churches, Sabbath-schools and C. E. So- 
cieties $8,466 60 

Miscellaneous sources 630 75 

Legacy 133 07 

Income from investments 1,287 50 



Total $5,517 92 

Previously acknowledged 29,249 56 

Total since April 15 $34,767 48 



SYNODICAL SUSTENTATION AND HOME 

MISSIONS IN THE SYNOD OF 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Total contributions for quarter ending 

December 31, 1896 $3,355 96 



The Church at Home and Abroad 

MARCH, 18©7. 



Contents. 

Current Events and the Kingdom, 159 

Notes.— Our Make-up, Illustrations, etc., L61 

German Pastor's Work— Difficulties, Success L62 

Ambitious Disciples Corrected, 163 

Jeweled Forest, 164 

Presbyterianism in California, Rev. H. G. Minton, D.D, 165 

Pioneering in the Fifties and in the Nineties, 170 

CHURCH ERECTION.— How a Church Was Built Fifty Years Ago—" Church Erection, a 

Pleasing Sound " — Aid Appreciated, 171,172 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

Notes. — Turkish Misery— Reforms in Turkey — Leaven of Christianity in India— Bible Light- 
ing Way to Christ— Central China Mission— Mr. Speer's Illness, 173, 174 

Fresh Facts.— Night Services— Letter from Ningpo— Surgery under Difficulties— Two-score 
Men and Two-score Women— Arabic Motto Worshiped— Oroomiah Churches— Korean 
Students— Missionary Calendar 174, 175 

Concert of Prayer.— Missionary Administration, Hon. Darwin R. James— The Board and Its 
Secretaries, Rev. H. R. Jessup, D.D., LL.D. — Treasury of the Board, Hon. IS. M. Clem- 
ent— Membership of the Board— Cost of Administration— Special Object Department- 
Division of Work among Secretaries— History of the Board, Rev. F. F. Ellinwood, D.D., 
LL.D., 177-192 

Letters.— Laos, Rev. Daniel McGilvary, D.D , 192 

EDUCATION.— Working Rooms of Board of Education— Missionary Conference at Lincoln 

University— Our "Refunded Account," 193-196 

MINISTERIAL RELIEF.— "That Black List"— He Careth 196,197 

FREEDMEN.— Southern Negro Education, Mrs. Franklin Gray Bartlett, Pasadena, Gal., . 198-200 
PUBLICATION AND SABBATH-SCHOOL WORK.— Children's Day, 1897— Triumphs in 

Missouri— S. S. Extension in St. Louis— Brief Message from Illinois, 200-202 

COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES.— Albert Lea College, Albert Lea, Minn., Ella Young, 

Principal, . 203, 204 

HOME MISSIONS. 

Notes. — How to Send Money — New Church in Texas — Seven Churches in Alaska — Confession 
of Faith in Spanish— Increase of Church Membership, 1896— One Minister among In- 
dians in Arizona— Communicants in New York City— Synod of Michigan's Wise Regu- 
lations— Medical Missionary Work in Alaska — Moses Thatcher's Manliness, . . .205,206 

The New York Indians, Mrs. IS. L. Trippe, 206 

Concert of Prayer.— The Older States, 207, 208 

Letters.— Alaska, Miss Anna May Sheets, Rev. J. L. Gould— Arizona, Rev. H. A. Thompson— 
Kansas, Rev. H. M. Gilbert— Minnesota, Rev. G. G. Mason— New Mexico, Rev. M. Mat- 
thieson, Rev. J. J. Gilchrist— S. Dakota, Rev. A. Gertsch, Mr. J. G. Ross, Rev. W. IS. Pet- 
erson— -Utah, Rev. N. E. Glemenson— Appointments, 209-212 

N. B.— See page 165 for an excellent Home Mission article. 
YOUNG PEOPLE'S CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR.— Notes— A Gleaner, Ervilla Goodrich Tut- 
tie— Knowing God, II. A. iV. — Four Birthday Messages— Why we are Presbyterians- 
Bible Study— " The Tie that Binds"— To Junior Superintendents, Miss Lizzie Coult — 
Peguan Missionaries— Rev. Jacob Chamberlain, D.D., M.D. , (with portrait) — Melinda 
Rankin, Mrs. Albert B. Robinson— Christian Training Course— Two Alaskan Mission- 
aries (with portraits)— Reindeer in Alaska— A Christian Statesman (with portrait)— A 
Model Governor— Presbyterian Endeavorers— Sabbath Afternoons— What Juniors Can 
Do, Miss Matdda Kay— Suggestions for Study— Twenty Questions— Questions for the 

Missionary Meeting, 213-227 

Book Notices, 228 Ministerial Necrology, .... 230 

Worth Reading, 229 Summary of Receipts, .... 231, 232 

om our Friends, 229 Officers and Agencies, . . . .23 



THE CHURCH 

AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



March, i897. 



CURRENT EVENTS AND THE KINGDOM. 



The Red Cross in Cuba. — Miss Clara 
Barton's offer of the services of the American 
Red Cross for relief work in Cuba has been 
accepted by the Spanish government. 

At the Inauguration. — Press dispatches 
convey the welcome intelligence that, by 
special request of Major and Mrs. McKin- 
ley, wine and other intoxicants will neither 
be furnished nor sold on the occasion of the 
inauguration. 

A Large Gift. — The joint indebtedness 
of the American Baptist Missionary Union 
and the American Baptist Home Mission 
Society is $486,000. At a conference in 
New York, February 11, of the officers and 
friends of these societies, Mr. John D. 
Rockefeller offered to contribute $250,000 
towards the amount needed if others will 
subscribe the remaining $236,000 before 
July 1, 1897. 

The Arbitration Treaty. — "One hun- 
dred years hence arbitration will rule the 
world," said General Philip Sheridan in an 
address in 1887. Prominent men in France 
are now declaring that they are favorable 
to a treaty between that country and the 
United States. Even though the Anglo- 
American treaty was not promptly ratified, 
the thorough discussion of the subject has 
borne good fruit. In the March Atlantic 
Monthly the historian, John Fiske, shows 
what benefits will come from the treaty. 
He makes it clear that our past disputes 
might have been amicably adjusted under 
such a treaty, and points out how the treaty 
is the natural ally of commerce and indus- 
trial advancement. 



Relief for Armenian Orphans. — As a 

result of the massacre of seventy-five thou- 
sand Armenian Christians during the past 
two years, there are nearly one hundred 
thousand orphans, many of whom are home- 
less, friendless and in dire need. Since the 
Turkish government will not allow them to 
be removed, provision must be made for 
them where they are. The case appeals 
strongly to our Christian sympathies. 

World's Missionary Conference. — The 

conference of officers of foreign Boards 
took steps providing for a World's Ecu- 
menical Conference to be held in New- 
York city in the year 1900, to be attended 
by representatives of Protestant missionary 
societies all over the world. A committee, 
which has had preliminary correspondence on 
this project, has received most cordial and 
helpful replies from a large number of 
foreign missionary organizations in England 
and Europe. At a similar general con- 
ference held in London, in 1888, 139 differ- 
ent missionary societies were represented. 
Over 1500 delegates were in attendance. It 
was felt to be a most inspiring assembly, 
carried on by a wisdom and strength from 
above, and the benefits of it far reaching in 
time and space. 

Hope Hall. — This is the name of the 
home which Mrs. Ballington Booth is to 
establish for men who have been released 
from prison. When, on their own invita- 
tion, she talked to the prisoners at Siog 
Sing, eighty-six of the number determined 
to lead new lives. But one of them said 

159 



160 



CURRENT EVENTS AND THE KINGDOM. 



[March, 



to her, " Think of a shipwrecked crew 
trying to swim ashore, battling with the 
waves until the rocks were gained, then to 
have those on shore beat off the cold numb 
fingers and push them back into the cruel 
ocean! Yet that is what society does to us. 
No one will trust us, or give us a chance to 
hold on and help ourselves up to God's earth 
again." A work similar to that of Hope 
Hall is undertaken by the Illinois Industrial 
Association, organized to aid discharged 
criminals who come to Chicago at the rate 
of one hundred each month, from the 
prisons of Illinois and near-by States. 
Many of these homeless, friendless men 
have served only a single term, and eagerly 
welcome the Christian sympathy and help 
which makes it possible for them to begin 
new lives. 

In the Snowy State. — Nevada, with 
its population of only 47,000, has gained 
an unenviable notoriety by the recent action 
of its Legislature and governor. The bill 
legalizing prize-fighting has received the 
signature of Governor Sadler, who justified 
his action on the following grounds: A 
majority of the people of Nevada were 
believed to favor the act ; it was not the 
province of the executive to set up his opin- 
ion against that of the Legislature; the 
general opinion expressed by the people was 
that scientific contests with gloves are less 
demoralizing to society and less dangerous 
to life and limb than football games. 
Eighteen months ago Governor Culberson of 
Texas regarded the mere suggestion of a 
prize-fight as an affront to the moral sense 
and enlightened progress of that State. In 
a similar spirit Governor Ahumada of 
Chihuahua, Mexico (see p. 223), would not 
allow his State to be disgraced by such an 
invasion of barbarism. It is hoped that the 
protest of the Christian people of Nevada 
will, at last, receive due consideration, and 
that this disgraceful legislation will be 
reversed. 

Relief for the Distress in India. — In 

spite of some encouraging fall of rain, the 
outlook for the coming harvest in India is a 
gloomy one. The destitution is daily be- 
coming more severe. The price of all food 
grains has doubled since September, so that 
the poorly paid employes of our missions 
have to live on the coarsest grains, and 



have but one meal a day where usually they 
had two. Our missionaries have made a 
most earnest appeal to the Board for assist- 
ance in order to relieve, in some measure, the 
lower paid workers in the mission employ, 
they having proposed a schedule of extra 
grants based upon the salary received, and 
the membership of each individual family, 
graduated on the rise and fall of the market 
price of wheat. The grand total which will 
be necessary is estimated at some two 
thousand dollars. The Board has assumed 
the responsibility for this amount, under 
the conviction that it could not be less 
humane under the circumstances than are 
the Government of India and other mis- 
sionary bodies, who are responding to the 
necessities of the situation with grants in 
aid. The proposed increment in the sala- 
ries of mission agents and others is very 
slight, but it will afford some relief. None 
of our missionaries are in regions affected 
by the plague. 

The Ideal Newspaper. — At a meeting 
in New York of representatives of seven 
leading evangelical denominations a commit- 
tee was appointed to prepare a report on 
" The daily press and an ideal newspaper." 
This committee in its report expresses the 
opinion that religion should be treated by 
the press as a factor of prime importance in 
the life of the country, should be mentioned 
respectfully, and the reports of reiigious 
enterprises, special services and local prog- 
ress should be made as full as their signifi- 
cance properly demands. The Sunday 
newspaper is condemned as tending to break 
down the distinction between Sunday and 
other days. Christian people are urged to 
consider prayerfully their responsibility, and 
are reminded that by combining they can 
exert an irresistible influence upon the char- 
acter of the secular press. They are called 
upon to patronize only such papers as mani- 
festly aim to be clean and wholesome, and 
such as support the principles which sub- 
serve the highest welfare of the community. 
An appeal is also made to the press to use 
the great power in its hands to help men to 
do right and to make it hard for men to do 
wrong; and not to lower the moral tone and 
degrade the life of the homes that, because 
of its merits, admit its issues, by inserting in 
its columns matter of a kind that can only 
exploit vice. 



1897.] 



OUR ILLUSTRATIVE CUTS SECRETARY SPEER. 



161 



Our Make-up. — Our readers may notice 
that the order of arrangement of our pages 
is not always the same. Our " make- up," as 
the printers call it, is not like the laws of 
the Medes and Persians. We do not deem 
it important that it should be. The eight 
different Boards of our Church, each of 
which appoints one of our editorial corre- 
spondents, have equal claims to so much 
space as is needed to set forth the needs 
and opportunities of their respective depart- 
ments of our Church's " vast and varied " 
work, as it is fitly called in the circular of 
the secretaries printed in our February 
number, p. 83. 

The amount of space which each may 
equitably claim has been amicably agreed 
upon, but they are not rigidly restricted to 
a precise amount. Sometimes one or another 
of them does not need all the space which is 
allotted, and whenever any one needs more 
than ordinanly, it is cheerfully allowed so 
far as can be, with due regard to others. 

No claim of precedence as to location is 
recognized, and the same order of 
sequence is not always equally convenient. 
Each number consists of three forms, or 
sets of pages — two of thirty- two pages each 
and one of sixteen pages. These go to 
press successively. Each is due to the 
printers' at a particular time, and must be 
made up from printed matter which is 
ready. In this number it happened that 
most of what was sent for Home Missions 
reached us too late for the form in which 
we had intended to place it, and a pecu- 
liar exigency thence arising compelled us 
to place most of it on pp. 205-212, and 
the exceedingly readable and instructive ar- 
ticle of Prof. Minton on Presbyterian ism in 
California on pp. 165-170. This being 
clearly indicated in the Table of Contents, 
it will probably occasion no inconvenience 
to readers. If it should lead any to more 
turning over of leaves than usual it may 
make them more sensible of the unity in 
variety of the work for the promotion of 
which all these pages are prepared and 
printed. 

Our illustrative cuts in this number 
are largely portraits of loved and venerated 
men who have served God and their gener- 
ation in the work of home and foreign 
missions. Most of these have fallen asleep, 
but some, no less venerated and loved, con- 



tinue with us. Our readers will enjoy look- 
ing at their faces while reading of the work 
to which they gave, as worthy successors are 
now giving, their strength and their lives. 
While we honor the departed, let u- not 
wait until they are gone to manifest our 
sympathy and appreciation for those who 
are bearing those heavy burdens now. 
They do not ask us to make their work easy, 
but their Lord and ours does ask that we 
give them straw enough to make possible 
the " tale of bricks " which we demand of 
them. 



The questions printed near the end of 
each number — see p. 227 — are found by 
those who use them to be very helpful in 
studying our pages and the topics treated 
in them. They are as handy as a pair of 
nut-crackers beside a dish of nuts or on top 
of it. Better use them, if you would get 
the full benefit of what so many intelligent 
men and women have diligently sought, far 
and near, and brought together for you 
who are now reading these words. Crack 
the nuts carefully; you will eat them with 
more pleasure and profit. 



Secretary Speer. — Our readers have 
seen the successive cablegrams reporting 
this beloved brother's illness and his con- 
valescence at Hamadan in Persia. In our 
February issue, p. 84, we gave the latest 
cablegram and commented upon it errone- 
ously, having understood that the fever 
arrested him at Hamadan, on his way to 
Teheran. But since that issue a letter has 
been received at the New York Mission 
Rooms, and an extract sent to us for publi- 
cation in this number. It is on p. 174. 

From that it will be seen that he had 
made the journey to Teheran, in company 
with Mr. Coan, leaving Mrs. Speer at Ham- 
adan. On the return journey he encount- 
ered exposures which fully account for the 
illness which befell even so hardy an athlete 
as Mr. Speer. He and we all may well give 
hearty thanks to God by whose kind provi- 
dence Mrs. Speer was kept from those ex- 
posures, and was ready to receive him at 
Hamadan, and nurse hi in back to health, 
with the help of the beloved physicians 
there and of the Great Physician to whom 
His disciples on two hemispheres daily, rev- 
erently and loviugly commended him. 



162 work or German pastor. [March, 

THE WORK, DIFFICULTIES AND SUCCESS OF THE GERMAN PASTOR. 



REV. AUGUSTUS BUSCH, D.D. 



[The following paper was prepared for the Pres- 
bytery of Philadelphia by request of its Committee 
on Church Extension. Hearing it read to that 
body and being powerfully impressed by its vivid 
pictures of the condition and needs of an interest- 
ing and precious class of our countrymen, I asked 
and obtained permission to present it to our 
readers. — H. A. N.] 

THE WORK. 

The German minister in America has 
to do with men and women and children 
who cannot speak nor understand the lan- 
guage of the country in which they live, 
and whom the English-speaking preacher 
cannot very well reach nor teach. 

It is his business, first of all, to teach 
them that they must form a saving relation 
between them and Christ, or they will be 
forever lost; that, without this, all else is 
vain, and their destruction sure. 

Secondly, he must also teach them the 
doctrine of the Presbyterian Church; that 
is, make Presbyterians of them. 

Thirdly, he must help them to overcome 
foreign customs and ideas; that is, make 
Americans of them. If, by the grace of 
God, he succeeds in the first point, the other 
two points are comparatively easy. The 
Germans expect their pastor to preach twice 
every Sabbath, and either to superintend 
the Sabbath-school, or teach a Bible class ; 
generally he teaches a class. And he must 
be well prepared before he appears before 
the class, for often he has some very puz- 
zling questions put to him. 

The weekly prayer meeting is about as 
hard for the preacher as the Sunday morn- 
ing service. As a general custom, the 
Germans expect their pastor to do all the 
praying in public and give them sound 
explanations on some passage of Scripture, 
and often he must lead them in singing. 

Once or twice a week he must catechise 
the young. This is their custom from the 
old country, and a good one, which should 
be encouraged. 

The German preacher has a great deal of 
house-to-house visiting to do. This is diffi- 
cult because most of the women do their 
own housework, and the men are, for most 
of the time, away from home until late. 
Often both man and wife are out at work 
from day to day. 



DIFFICULTIES. 



One of the difficulties is: we Presbyte- 
rians have very little appropriate literature 
in German, which we can offer them. 

Many after they have been sufficiently 
taught and Americanized, will feel like 
being promoted. So they take their dismis- 
sion to the English-speaking church. 

Children that have been gathered from 
the street into the Sabbath-school, and 
taught the Catechism, are easily carried 
away from the German Sabbath -school into 
the English. Foreigners cannot live long 
in America. The German is dead in the 
third generation. The German pastor 
makes the bridge; and in the meek spirit 
of John the Baptist he must learn to say: 
The German church must decrease and the 
English church must increase. 

But one of the greatest difficulties is 
poverty. Many have not decent clothes to 
appear in church, either for themselves or 
for their children. They say : We can give 
nothing to sustain the church, and therefore 
we would rather stay away. Some are very 
much embarrassed even to have the preacher 
come to their house. 

THE SUCCESS. 

And yet the work among the Germans is 
not lost. The Germans have good material 
in them to make faithful Presbyterians. 
Many a German away from home, in a 
foreign country, without money or friends, 
with all the dangers and temptations of the 
large city surrounding him, has been gath- 
ered into the Church. Many families that 
have been trying to drown their sorrow in 
the intoxicating cup have been made happy 
by the saving gospel of Jesus. 

Many children that gathered on the 
corner of the street on Sabbath, for vice, 
have been brought into the Sabbath-school 
and become Christians and good citizens 
through the work of the German pastor. 

Many a weeping hired girl, a stranger in 
a foreign country, who could not speak a 
dozen words in English, has had her bitter 
tears dried and her broken heart healed by the 
sweet message of the cross, and the revela- 
tion of the wonderful love of Jesus and his 
loneliness here upon earth. 



1897.] 



AMBITIOUS DI8CIPLE8 CORRECTED. 

AMBITIOUS DISCIPLES CORRECTED. 



163 



It surely was a fault in the two sons of 
Zebedee to be coveting the highest places in 
Christ's kingdom: yet they might have 
been free from that by means of a much 
greater fault, even that dull, torpid unbe- 
lief, which would have made them indifferent 
to all that pertained to that divine kingdom. 
It is easy to imagine a self-complacent 
Pharisee, or Sadducee, looking with con- 
tempt upon so paltry a scheme as that, in 
which those two disciples were engaged, 
with their mother, to secure their personal 
promotion. Yet was it not better to be 
even so imperfect disciples of Jesus than to 
be a proud despiser of his disciples and of 
him, or to be a cold unbeliever ? Were 
not those imperfect disciples in a fairer way 
to have their faults corrected, and their 
character made what it ought to be, than 
those who proudly and coldly stood aloof 
from Christ ? 

There will be no difficulty in answering 
this question, if we just trace their history 
forward, and see how Christlike in meek- 
ness John became, and what a faithful 
witness for Christ was James, even until 
Herod put him to death with the sword, so 
much to the satisfaction of the Jewish 
opposers of Christianity. Even at the time 
of their improper office- seeking, when the 
Lord asked them whether they w r ere able 
to drink of the cup that he drank of, and 
to be baptized with the baptism with which 
he was baptized, although they may not 
have comprehended all his meaning, they 
probably did get the idea of something 
which w r ould be very difficult and painful, 
to be passed thiough; and they did not 
shrink from it. They were willing to suffer 
anything with and for him. 

The faithful Master soon showed them 
how they must accept the appointed share 
in his sufferings without stipulation as to the 
honorable rewards which they should after- 
wards receive. He frankly accepts their 
consent to share his bitter cup aud his 
fearful baptism. He doe3 not discredit 
it, nor disparage it, but encourages it. 
At the same time he bids them contentedly 
leave the assignment of places and ranks 
in the kingdom to his Father. We have 
no reason to doubt that they acquiesced in 
this. It is reasonable to beljeve that prob- 
ably under so gentle and faithful correction, 



and under the influence of their Master's 
example, James and John put away their 
worldly ambition, and their selfishness. Yet 
it is not unlikely that it took them a long 
time to do this completely. Surely John 
had made great advances in that way, be- 
fore he wrote his epistles. 

So fares it often with the disciples of 
Christ. They find themselves, and are 
found by others, to be very different from 
what they ought to be; are found to possess 
traits of character which are very discred- 
itable to them, and which bring reproach 
upon the religion which they profess. Their 
own faces are filled with shame and confu- 
sion, and the mouths of the wicked are 
filled with scoffing, by their manifestations 
of selfishness, or impatience, or other 
unlovely characteristics. Sometimes, like 
John and James and their mother, they 
betray a paltry ambition, or jealousy, or 
envy, in matters directly connected with 
the kingdom of Christ — and perhaps some 
proud skeptic curls his lip and flings a bitter 
sarcasm at that particular manifestation of 
selfishness from which he himself is free 
only because he cares nothing for the great 
and sacred matters, about which the imper- 
fect disciples are unworthily contending. 
They are sadly at fault, as they often bitter- 
ly feel; yet it is not true that they are 
worse, in essential character, than they 
would be if by mere indifference to the 
sacred things of religion, and by coldly 
letting them alone, they escaped the ma in- 
festation of their faults in connection with 
them. 

HOW THE MASTER CORRECTS THEM. 

When such imperfect disciples accept with 
meekness the humiliating illustrations of 
their own imperfection, and with gratitude 
accept the Master's kind forbearance to- 
wards them, and gracious encouragement of 
their efforts to improve — then are they in 
the best and surest way to essential improve- 
ment of character. Such disciples of Christ 
do become better and purer. They do over- 
come pride, and envy, and selfishness in its 
various forms. They become meek aud 
patient, gentle and forgiving and kind, like 
their Lord. At the same time they also 
become like him in diligence, and zeal, and 
intrepidity, in the work to which God calls 
them. 



164 



THE JEWELED FOREST. 



[March, 



THE JEWELED FOREST. 



Rev. I. T. Whittemore, in the Evangelist 
(Jan. 21), gives the above title to a graphic 
description of "one of Arizona's special 
wonders." After an interesting account of 
his journey to visit this petrified forest, he 
proceeds as follows : 

A flood came and a mighty one it was. Every 
tree fell, and was inundated for many years. 
This flood contained ninety- four parts of silicate and 
six of lime water, and the combination solidified 
these vast trees into the most precious jewels ! 
Those who saw the beautifully polished slabs at 
the Columbian Fair, wrought so richly by Brooks 
Brothers of Sioux City Falls, could hardly realize 
that they were of such an age and once stood in 
majesty on this very spot. No marble can com- 
pare with this in beauty, texture and hardness. 
One tree was buried in the convulsion, solidified, 
covered with five or six feet of limestone and 
broken off; you can see the concentric circles 
and bark ! They are clearly visible, and like 
most of the broken fragments, you can see bark 
and knots, proving beyond a doubt that they were 
once actual trees, now turned to the hardest rock 

The body of the longest tree is 100 feet long 
and spanning a gorge twenty-five feet deep and 
forty wide ! You can walk the entire length of 
its body, but its limbs, probably fifty feet more, 
are covered with earth, hence invisible. I have 
said that you can walk on the body of that tree 
and it is gigantic, but you will not want to re- 
peat it, for it is broken entirely in two in several 
places and should there at any time be the least 
expansion, nothing could prevent this from fall- 
ing to pieces, as all the others have done. 

It is said that the history of the discovery of 
this forest was accidental. A cow-boy, some 
years ago, stumbled on it. He saw evidences of 
veritable trees and the more he explored, 
" The more the wonder grew." 

Having satisfied himself that he had discovered 
a petrified forest, he rode to a military post and 
reported to the commandant his "find." He 
was sneered and jeered at, for reporting such a 
marvel ! Neither officers nor privates would 
believe him. "Gentlemen, if any of you will 
go with me, if I do not convince you that all 
I assert is indubitable fact, I will pay all ex- 
penses." 

They followed him and were convinced, and. so, 
after many thousands of years, the hidden wonder 
came to light. 



Patrick Hamilton, in his " Eesources of Ari- 
zona," p. 45, places it on "Lithodendum Creek." 
He says: "On the banks of this creek is one 
of the most remarkable curiosities in the United 
States. It is a large petrified forest, extending 
over many miles. They are silicified conifera 
of gigantic size. One has been discovered that 
measures more than twenty feet at the base and 
at a break 100 feet from the base it was ten feet 
in diameter." (Exaggerated, I think. ) " Limbs 
and branches, petrified to solid rock, are found 
scattered about in every direction. It is also said 
that many fossil ferns exist, in conjunction with 
the trees. This singular freak of nature belongs 
to the carboniferous period, and is evidently a 
portion of that vast forest which once existed in 
this treeless waste, and now forms the great coal 
measures that underlie its surface. The texture 
and form of the dead trees are clearly discernible, 
resembling much the immense redwoods of Cali- 
fornia. Many fossils of animals of an unknown 
and extinct species are found scattered about 
among these immense rocky trunks, solidified to 
pure dolomite or magnesian limestone. This 
most remarkable curiosity of a remarkable country 
is some few miles southeast (twenty-one) from 
Holbrook, on the Atlantic and Pacific railroad. 
The dead monarchs of the forest show very clearly 
every fibre of the wood, transformed into a 
different variety of rock. The heart of some is 
a mass of sparkling crystals, while others again 
show sections of purest quartz. All the different 
stratifications of the wood are clearly shown by 
the hues of the rock, and offer a most interesting 
study for the geologist, as well as a never-ending 
source of surprise and wonder to the sight-seer. 

The Petrified Forest is one of the wonders of 
Arizona, and is already attracting many visitors 
from the Thirty-fifth Parallel railroad. 

It has occurred to me that many from the East 
who will come to the International Christian En- 
deavor Convention to be held at San Francisco in 
July next, would like to go via Denver and return 
via the Atlantic and Pacific and take in the 
Grand Canon at Flagstaff and the Jeweled Forest. 
I think a ticket purchased in Chicago over the 
Santa Fe route, returning via Albuquerque, would 
include the stage ride from Flagstaff to the Canon 
at reduced rates, so that both these sights of a 
lifetime can be compassed at moderate rates and 
possibly not a few will be grateful to somebody 
for the finger points in this direction. 

Florence, Arizorta, Jan. 18, 1897. 



1897.] 



PRESBYTERIANS Vf IS CALIFORNIA. 



165 




1st Presbyterian Church, Benicia, Cal. 



PRESBYTERIANISxM IN CALIFORNIA. 



REV. HENRY COLLIN MINTON, D. D. 



THE PIONEER PERIOD. 

No historian ever undertook a more invit- 
ing task than would be that of describing 
the scenes and incidents of early California. 
Like ancient Rome and Britain, this mod- 
ern empire of the West can trace its annals 
back to a prehistoric age of myth and 
legend. While the aborigines were feeding 
on its native fruits and basking in its balmy 
suns; while Blake was cruising up and 
down its coast, never dreaming of the 
resources that lay beyond; while the Rus- 
sians from the north and the Spaniards 
from the south were making their little 
spurts of settlement on its soil; while the 
old pope-serving padres were cloistering in 
their missions, more mediaeval than modern 
in their quiet solitude ; even when our own 
dashing Fremont cut the jungle of a conti- 
nent and approached the land of flowers by 
way of the dreary desert — all this was 
before our California was born. 

The swift succession of events that fol- 
lowed our acquisition of California was most 
remarkable. In July, 1846, the whole of 
California, alta and baja, virtually came 
under American rule. 



" One summer morn a stately ship 
Sailed up the sunlit bay, 
Flaunting a flag which did not dip 

To other flag that day ; 
But high uplifted on the shore 
Proclaimed the old dominion o'er." 

In 1848, Mexico recognized the situation 
and formally ceded the territory. In Feb- 
ruary of the same year, James W. Marshall 
first discovered the gold deposits in the bed 
of the American river, at Sutter's Mill. 
September 1, 1849, General Riley called the 
Constitutional Convention at Monterey. 
September 9, 1850, California became a 
State, and a star of gold was added to the 
stars and stripes. Neither Mexico knew 
what it had lost nor the United States 
what it had won. This unknown land no 
sooner became ours than, as if by the philos- 
opher's stone, it became the fabled land of 
gold. 

The scenes that followed are unparalleled 
in history. A populous commonwealth was 
born in a day. The sands of the Sacra- 
mento became the theme of excited discus- 
sion the world over. In every port, sails 
were set for the Golden Gate. Farmers 
deserted their plows, lawyers forsook their 



166 



PRESBYTERIAN ISM IN CALIFORNIA. 



[March, 



clients, physicians left their patients to die 
— or get well — merchants abandoned their 
wares, and a motley pilgrimage, like a 
leaderless mob, wende 1 its way to the 
western slopes of the Sierras. The popula- 
tion quadrupled in five months. Hardship, 
suffering, danger, death did not stay the 
madding throng. On they came, seeking 
gold and finding it for the seeking. 

If adventure and heroism and romance 
and excitement and boundless resources can 
move the historian to dip his pen, then the 
history of California should be well and 
often written. 

But they were not all mad in that bewil- 
dering crusade for gold. There were those 
who came, not for the gold, but for the 
gold-seeker. They foresaw deadly perils, 
and they came to warn men against them. 
They knew it meant hard work, but that 
was just why they came. 

There are three reasons why Presbyte- 
rians in the East should be interested in the 
origins of Presbyterianism in California. 

First, because of the intrinsic interest of 
the story itself. The Californian is often 
abashed at the consciousness that when he 
is telling the sober truth, the aliens are 
crediting him with falsehood. Probably 
the psychologist would explain how it is 
that when things which are true in one 
place and false in another become confused 
in the mind, there may be occasional con- 
fusion in speech as well. California is not 
to blame for being created the land of big 
things. From the grandeurs of her Yo- 
semite to the enormity of her squashes, it 
sustains a consistent character. California's 
first conscious throb was in a paroxysm of 
wild speculation. Its eye is chronically 
focused for large dimensions. One of our 
pioneer ministers has written that he once 
carried in each of his vest pockets a couple 
of fifty-dollar "slugs" of gold, and 
thought nothing more of it than he did 
later of as many trade dollars. When 
small dwelling-houses with canvas roofs and 
muslin partitions rented for $200 a month, 
when eggs were $20 a dozen, and cooks got 
$150 a month for frying them, the whole 
scale of life was inflated and abnormal. 
The old Californian scorned anything less 
than his " two bits," and even now — nor is 
it said to our credit — one's respectability is 
somewhat compromised to be seen with a 
coin of less value than a nickel. 



There is a thrilling interest, surpassing 
fiction, in the story of those early days, and 
it belongs to the narrative of their religious 
life also. The origins of Protestantism here 
were unique. 

Moreover, those early times, with their 
peculiar conditions, are gone forever. There 
could never be more than one California. 
The "forty-niner" can never be dupli- 
cated, and his doings can never be reen- 
acted. The conditions were altogether 
singular, and it is but right that those grand 
pioneers of the gospel should be remem- 
bered and immortalized. Carlyle thought 
that the history of the world is the history 
of its great men ; certainly the history of 
the kingdom of Christ in frontier California 
is largely that of a few good men. No 
names are more worthy to be snatched from 
oblivion, and embalmed in the gratitude of 
their successors as heroes of no ordinary 
fibre, frontiersmen of Christianity, with 
the axe of the woodman, with the seed of 
the sower, and with the sword of the war- 
rior, clearing the way for the beneficent 
institutions of the Church of God on these 
inhospitable but fruitful shores. If old 
Junipero Serra was worthy of the honors 
which historians have accorded him, w T e can 
name men of faith and action who have laid 
foundations here, not for superstition and 
the pope, but for truth and liberty and the 
free blessings of the gospel of Christ. 

And moreover, our eastern friends must 
not forget that the church out here is a 
part of our one beloved Presbyterian 
Church. Nothing that concerns us on the 
Pacific coast should be foreign to our breth- 
ren by the Atlantic. Once they used to 
talk out here about " the States," as 
Canadians do, but California is nothing if 
not intensely American, our Church is 
nothing if not thoroughly loyal to the grand 
old banner that waves over us all. The 
West is the child of the East ; there is 
many a congregation east of the Mississippi 
that has its son or daughter in our State ; 
our history is a part with your history, our 
struggles should have your sympathy, our 
victories should have your thankful joy. 

There are not a few who will need to be 
reminded that when California was young, 
there were two Presbyterian Churches — ■ 
happily known now only in history — the 
"Old School" and the "New School." 
The reunited Church must regard the early 



1897.] 



PRESr.YTERIANISM IN CALIFORNIA. 



167 




Rev. Sylvester Woodbridge, D.D. 

efforts of both of these as belonging to her 
own history. 

The pioneer, preeminent, of the Old 
School branch, was the Rev. Sylvester 
Woodbridge, D.D. , who was appointed by 
the Board of Home Missions in New York 
and sailed from that city December 1, 
1848. Dr. Woodbridge belonged to an 
honored family of ministers. If his grand- 
father had only been a minister, instead of 
a physician, he would have been of the 
eighth generation in the ministry. He had 
three brothers who were ministers, one of 
whom is, we believe, a professor in the 
theological seminary at New Brunswick, 
N. J. Dr. Woodbridge was born at Sha- 
ron, Conn., June 15, 1813; was graduated 
from Union College in 1830, and received 
his theological instruction at Auburn and 
Princeton. He was for some years pastor 
in Long Island, first at Westhampton and 
then at Hempstead. In 1846, when a 
regiment of volunteers was being recruited 
for California, he brought to the attention 
of the Synod of New York, the subject of 
the appointment of a chaplain to accompany 
the volunteers to their distant destination. 
The synod appointed him a committee to 
look up the whole matter and to act as he 



thought wi.-c. In his corn spondence with 
the Secretary of War at Washington, he 

found cordial support for the suggestion 
which he had originated. Col. Stevenson 

was empowered to select a chaplain for his 
regiment. He appointed a Mr. Leaven- 
worth, who came, and was afterward Alr<<!<lr 
of San Francisco. However, it appears 
that by and by he became engrossed in 
secular affairs and accordingly he relin- 
quished the chaplaincy. Meanwhile Mr. 
Woodbridge' s interest in California was 
growing, and entering into correspondence 
with Dr. McDowell, of the Board of 
Domestic Missions, he was urged to go him- 
self as a missionary to Atta (upper) Cali- 
fornia. This was before Marshall's gold 
rind had been heard of. He finally decided 
to go, but both his congregation and his 
presbytery refused to concur in his decision. 
It is generally the men who are most wanted 
where they are, who are most needed where 
they are not. Dr. Woodbridge was a 
worthy first apostle to California, in that he 
did not come for the benefit of his health, 
or of his wife's health, or of the health of 
his eastern congregation. His convictions 
of duty vigorously persisted and, pur- 
suantly, the congregation and the pres- 
bytery did the only right thing in the cir- 
cumstances, and allowed the voice of God 
in the soul of his servant to be obeyed. At 
its next meeting, the presbytery by a ma- 
jority of one voted to let him go. He came 
across the Isthmus, reaching Monterey on 
the first mail steamer February 23, 1849. 
Five days later he reached San Francisco. 
Here he found 2000 or 3000 unsettled and 
half-settled people, but much to his surprise 
he found another Presbyterian minister 
already at work. The record fails to dis- 
close the inevitably ubiquitous Methodist 
minister as the first man on the ground in 
this notable instance. Dr. Woodbridge 
displayed his wise and aggressive energy 
from the first; he saw no need of two minis- 
ters in one place when there were so many 
places without any. At that time there was 
a point forty miles northward on the hay, 
which many believed was destined to be the 
site of the coming metropolis of the West. 
Accordingly, our pioneer pushed forward to 
Benicia, reaching there March 9, and preach- 
ing the first sermon two days later. On the 
15th day of April, 1849, during a visit to 
Benicia from the Rev. Mr. Williams, who 



168 



PRESBYTERIANISM IN CALIFORNIA. 



[March, 



had in the meantime reached San Francisco, 
Mr. Woodbridge organized the first Protes- 
tant church in California. For a time the 
little congregation worshiped in a school - 
building which was converted into a chapel. 
He was installed pastor at the first meeting 
of the Presbytery of California (O. S. ), 
February 21, 1850. A new church build- 
ing, materials for which, already framed, 
were shipped from New York in January, 
1850, was dedicated March 9, 1851. Here 
Dr. Woodbridge remained as pastor until 
1869, having some time in the early sixties 
begun work in the neighboring town of 
Vallejo, in connection with his pastorate at 
Benicia. He came from there to San Fran- 
cisco in 1870, and was pastor of the How- 
ard Street, now Trinity, Presbyterian 
Church, 1870-75, and of the Woodbridge 
Church from 1876 till his death, April 1, 
1883. For the last two years of his life, 
however, he was disabled from active work. 

Dr. Woodbridge, in addition to his pas- 
toral duties, for several years edited the 
Occident, * the press organ of our Church on 
this coast. The first number was issued 
January 4, 1868. He was a man of great 
ability, of untiring energy and of deep and 
intelligent zeal for the cause of Christ. He 
was happy only when he was busy, and he 
seems to have had that indomitable pluck 
which is the supreme gift of grace among 
frontier difficulties, and in the midst of dis- 
tracting and discouraging forces on every 
side. The name of Woodbridge will surely 
be held in veneration by all who love the 
Presbyterian Church and who know the 
story of its beginnings in California. 

The second Presbyterian (O. S.) minister 
who came from the East was the Rev. Albert 
Williams, who received his commission from 
the Board of Education and Missions, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1849, and sailed from New York 
four days later. He was a Princeton man 
and had been for ten years pastor at Clin- 
ton, N. J. He entered the Golden Gate, 
April 1, 1849. He very soon began work 
looking to the organization of a Presby- 
terian church in San Francisco, and in this 
he found much support from a number who 
had been his fellow -voyagers from the East. 
Having been present at the organization of 



* The first Presbyterian organ published on the coast was 
The Pacific, founded August 1, 1851, by Rev. Isaac Brayton 
(N. S.), who succeeded Mr. Douglas at San Jose, in 1851. 
The Pacific is now the Congregational organ on the coast. 



Mr. Woodbridge' s church at Benicia, he 
returned to San Francisco to bring his work 
to the same point as speedily as possible. 
The first formal conference was held in the 
office of Frederick Billings in the Old City 
Hall Hotel. On the 20th day of May, 
1849, after a sermon in the Public School- 




Rev. Albert Williams. 

house, the First Presbyterian Church of San 
Francisco was organized with six members. 
It was prophetic of the cosmopolitan char- 
acter of California churches ever since, that 
these six members hailed from six remotely 
separated parts of the world, namely, Mas- 
sachusetts, Michigan, China, Pennsylvania, 
Vermont and Chile. This is the oldest 
Protestant church in San Francisco, though 
it has been affirmed that the Baptists were 
ahead. Mr. Williams himself (A Pioneer 
Pastorate, p. 60) names the churches whose 
organization followed his in this order : Bap- 
tist, Episcopal, M. E. and Congregational. 
In the correspondence between Mr. Wil- 
liams and his congregation on the occasion of 
his resignation as early as 1854, the words 
occur repeatedly, speaking of their church 
— " the first Protestant church in San Fran- 
cisco." Mr. Williams for a few months 
taught the town school, though there were 



1897.] 



PRE8BYTERIANISM IN CALIFORNIA. 



169 



not a score of children in the town. He 
organized the Sunday-school, June 11, 
1849, with the inauspicious number of thir- 
teen. The houses of worship belonging to 
this congregation had a strange succession 
of calamities in the way of storm and 
flame, but the church grew rapidly with 
the growth of the city under the care of its 
faithful founder. He was installed pastor 
at the second meeting of the Presbytery in 
September, 1850, and remained till the 
impaired condition of his health forced him 
to retire in 1854. He died at West 
Orange, N. J., June 4, 1893, at the age of 
eighty-four. 

The third to come, completing " the three 
W's " and making possible the Presbytery 
of California, was the Rev. James Woods. 
It is a singular fact that there are distinct 
grounds upon which each of " the three 
W's" may be regarded as the pioneer. 
Dr. Woodbridge was commissioned in Octo- 
ber and Mr. Woods a week later, in 1848, 
but the former came the quick route by the 
isthmus, while the latter came " around the 
Horn," and was at sea nearly eight months. 
Mr. Woods built in Stockton the first Pres- 
byterian church in California, dedicating it 
May 5, 1850. This was the second church 
on the Pacific coast, the first having been 
built at Clatsop Plains, Oregon, in 1846, 
by the ReF. Lewis Thompson, who is now 
the honored patriarch of our Oakland Pres- 
bytery. However, though Mr. Woods built 
the first church, Dr. Woodbridge used the 
first church in California. But Mr. Wil- 
liams was the man to whose lot, in the 
providence of God, it fell to lav the first 
foundation-stone of organized Protestant- 
ism in the great and growing city of San 
Francisco. 

Mr. Woods seems to have been the most 
stirring of the pioneer triumvirate. He 
was a sort of avant-courier, a synodical mis- 
sionary, without synod and without commis- 
sion. He organized a church at Stockton, 
1850; at Los Angeles, 1854; at Santa 
Rosa, 1856, and at Healdsburg, 1858. He 
was pastor of the last-named for four years, 
leaving it in 1862 on account of failing 
health. Mr. Woods was a staunch pioneer 
with an eye for incipient opportunities and 
with a determination to stick to his purpose 
to preach the gospel in the midst of tempta- 
tions, such as most men would have suc- 
cumbed to, to speak the word and become 




Rev. James Woods. 

rich. He has left us a volume (California 

Recollections*) which is replete with graphic 
accounts of his varied experiences. He 
was moderator of the Synod of California 
at its first meeting in 1852. He died at 
Winters, Cal., October 10, 1886, aged sev- 
enty-one. His son, the Rev. James L. 
Woods, of Mendocino, is a graduate of the 
San Francisco Seminary, and is doing his 
part to perpetuate and promote the good 
work which his honored father did so much 
to inaugurate. 

Lest some critic, two or three hundred 
years hence, should disprove all the early 
annals of primitive Presbyterianism in the 
Golden State, let one or two things be made 
a matter of distinct record. When it is 
said that Benicia had the first church build- 
ing in California, and agaiu that Mr. 
Woods built in Stockton the first church 
edifice in California, let the critic take note 
that the Benicia chapel had been erected 
before Dr. Woodbridge's arrival, to be used 
as a schoolhouse, and that, when his church 
was organized, he secured it and appropri- 
ated it to the purposes of divine worship. 

Again, when it is said that the Benicia 
church was the first organization in Cali- 
fornia, and then when some one truly says 
that the First Presbvterian Church in San 



170 



PIONEERING. 



[March, 



Francisco is the oldest church in California, 
let the critic pause to note that, in the vicis- 
situdes, incident to ecclesiastical affairs in 
California, the church at Benicia — a town 
that never realized the expectations of its 
early champions — oecame extinct. 

It has been intimated that Dr. Wood- 
bridge found a Presbyterian minister 
already in San Francisco when he arrived. 
The Rev. T. Dwight Hunt, a New School 
Presbyterian, anticipated Dr. Woodbridge 
by four months, coming from the Hawaiian 
Islands, where he had been in missionary 
service. When he reached San Francisco 
he entered into an arrangement for one year, 
by which he was to serve as chaplain for the 
town, keeping upa" Union Service, " to be 
supported by everybody generally. The 
one condition upon this contract was that 
during that year he should not organize a 
church of any denomination. In the year 
1850 (June 25), the first "council" 
was called to install Mr. Hunt pastor 
of the First Congregational Church of 
San Francisco, which had been organized 
September 2, 1849. The council was 



Pioneering in the far Northwest in the nineties 
is different in many respects from the pioneering in 
the far Southwest in the fifties. Digging gold out 
of the mines or washing it from the sands is not so 
prominent an industry in the State of Washington 
as it was with the "forty-niners" in California. 
There is a great difference of climate also, causing 
differences in the domestic necessities and the social 
conditions. But essentially the same human needs, 
the same moral exposures, the same spiritual 
dangers and opportunities are found in every cli- 
mate and in every place and time. Mr. Charles 
Shepherd, a Sabbath-school missionary, laboring 
in Puget Sound Presbytery, Washington, writes : 

These shingle and logging camps are often tem- 
porary affairs. The ' ' shaks' ' are of rough lumber, 
built as cheaply as possible wit!\ very limited ac- 
commodations. The "bunk" louse, where the 
single men sleep and spend their hours when not 
working, consists of a long, low building, with 
shelves along the wall for the men to sleep upon. 
The beds are mostly straw, covered with dirty 
blankets and yellow-covered literature. In the 
centre of the room is a huge fireplace, often made 
from an old cast-off boiler. The floor is strewn 
with old boots, shoes, old clothes and dirt. Along 
the side are benches, where the men sit reading, 
smoking, chewing and telling yarns and how the 
government is going to the dogs. A table stands 
near one window for card playing. The men are a 
mixed multitude from all nations, ready to believe 



three-fourths Presbyterian, having as its 
members the Messrs. Williams, Willey and 
Hunt, Presbyterians, and the Rev. J. A. 
Benton,' Congregational, of Sacramento. 
Mr. Williams describes the council as 
having " one Congregationalist and two 
Presbyterians, to constitute a Presbyterian 
clergyman a Congregational pastor" (A 
Pioneer Pastorate, p. 115). Thus it ap- 
pears that Congregationalism in California 
had a Presbyterian christening and the 
warm, fraternal relations between the two 
Churches have always been such as become 
those who are indeed brethren in the 
Lord. 

Note. — Although the writer was requested to 
confine himself, as far as possible, to the early days 
and founders of the Church in California, and to 
the careers of men not now living, he was not a 
little embarrassed by the wealth of material and the 
insufficiency of space within the necessary limits. 
It would have been a labor of love to continue the 
narrative to later days, and to have given deserved 
honor to living men worthily continuing the work 
begun by the pioneers. 



everything except the Bible. In winter they earn 
but little over their board, and that little is too 
often spent in the nearest saloon. They are very 
ignorant in everything pertaining to their souls' sal- 
vation. As I always try to get them out to the nearest 
Sabbath-school, I stop a day or two at the camps, 
paying my way and so gain their good will. It re- 
quires a great deal of tact and skill to answer their 
objections to the Scriptures — they are so various and 
sometimes so absurd, but I trust some good is being 
done by these visits. 

The mills are surrounded by " homesteaders," 
and after the timber is sold and logged off good 
substantial farms will be the result, though it is a 
slow, tedious process. These communities are ut- 
terly unable to give support to regular ministers, 
and so the Sabbath- school missionary is gladly re- 
ceived, as this is their only means of religious in- 
struction. A few of the older Sabbath-schools have 
developed into churches. The schools require con- 
stant care and watching, as the officers and teachers 
are oftentimes obliged to go away in search of 
work, and new ones must be found to take their 
place. 



For notes on Home Missions, an article on The 
Older Slates by Secretary McMillan, an account of 
a precious work of grace among the New York In- 
dians, by Mrs. S. L. Trippe, and a number of in- 
teresting letters from home missionaries, see pages 
205-208. See also the first editorial note on page 
161. 



CHURCH ERECTION. 



HOW A CHURCH WAS BUILT 
FIFTY YEARS AGO. 

A beautiful little volume entitled " Exer- 
cises at the Semi-Centennial Celebration of 
the First Presbyterian Church, Bristol, 
Pa.," has just reached us, for which we are 
indebted to the present pastor of the church, 
Rev. Dr. E. P. Shields. 

THE BOARD. 

That this story of a half-century of fruit- 
ful life has an especial interest to the Board 
of Church Erection will be evident when 
we add that upon the records of the Assem- 
bly's Committee of Church Extension (now 
the Board of Church Erection) under date 
of October 7, 1844, appear the names of 
the first four churches aided by the newly 
organized instrumentality of the Church, 
and that one of these four historic names is 
that of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Bridol, Pa. 

Since that date the Board has been priv- 
ileged to aid more than 5000 churches, but 
it is interesting to know that the first 
church to which it sent a grant, and one 
whose life has been coincident with that of 
the Board for more than half a century, is 
still occupying the house (though enlarged 
and improved), the foundations of which 
the Board assisted in laying, and through all 
these years has been an active, fruitful 
church. 

THE PASTOR AND HIS HORSE. 

Equally interesting and even more sug- 
gestive is it to note the struggle of those 
who organized this church to provide a 
church home. It ought to give encourage- 
ment and inspiration to every church now in 
its infancy and straining every nerve to 
provide itself with a shelter that shall in- 
sure its continuance, to read of the expedi- 
ents and labors of the young pastor, fifty 
years ago, in this Bristol church, and then 
to learn of its happy success, its continued 
fruitfulness, and its present assured strength. 
Of the struggle to secure a home of worship 
for this church that has never passed a year 



without additions to its membership and that 

now numbers upon its roll more than two 
hundred and fifty, the pastor of its infancy 
w T rites: u Things looked dark except to the 
eye of faith, and continued so for most of 
the four years following. I was almost 
penniless myself and with little personal 
influence, while all around me regarded the 
whole scheme as Utopian, not possible of 
success, not one on which to risk either 
reputation or money." After telling of his 
efforts to secure subscriptions and the 
response of neighbors and friends to his per- 
sistent efforts, he continues the recital with 
a simplicity which seems oblivious to the 
heroic confidence and energy plainly dis- 
closed: " In the spring of 1846 I dug out 
the foundations and tilled the trenches with 
boulders obtained from the vessels which 
came from the east for coal. These boul- 
ders came in ballast to Bristol, and as they 
"were not allowed to throw them overboard, 
I engaged to take them from the wharf, and 
did so, filling in the ditches as I hauled 
them up with my own horse. Next was 
fifty tons of quarried stone from Yardley- 
ville by canal, to complete the stone wall to 
the water table; then 10,800 bricks from 
Bordentown, N. J., which were laid in the 
wall at two dollars per thousand; next the 
heavy lumber from Burlington, rafted over 
to Bristol by favorable flood tides, and so 
on for the rest of the material, until all was 
on the ground and put into the build iug in 
the required order until the structure was 
complete." He adds quaintly : " It would 
be decidedly personal to tell you who did all 
this with the aid of one little horse ; out of 
that horse I got practical sympathy." 

It is well for our young nun who are 
now bearing the burden and heat of the 
day laying foundations in new communities 
to remember that their fathers and grand- 
fathers were laboring in previous generations 
amid like discouragements, and wo to-day 
see that upon their labors time has set the 
seal of grand success and ever-increasing 
fruitfulness to the honor and glory of our 
Lord and Master. 

171 



172 



AID APPRECIATED. 



[March, 



" CHURCH ERECTION, A PLEAS- 
ING SOUND." 

The following extracts from the report of 
the Committee upon Church Erection of the 
Synod of Michigan, read by Rev. Charles D. 
Jacobs, are both interesting and suggestive: 

Church Erection has a pleasing sound. It 
speaks of property, of new buildings, of church 
homes. The church building has a language — a 
language understood by all people. That language 
is suggestive of the importance of our Board of 
Church Erection. First, the church building speaks 
of the permanency and stability of the en- 
terprise. A tent or rented hall does not so speak. 
The tent may be folded in a night. The hall may 
be surrendered at the end of a month. A church 
building proclaims permanency and stability. The 
declaration of permanency has a helpful influence 
upon the membership and the community at large. 
It has much to do with the success of the enterprise. 

A church building means an added dignity to the 
enterprise. The building need not be great and 
showy. It may be small and humble compared with 
some other buildings but the possession of that build- 
ing, of a home, adds dignity. The new dignity is a 
dignity of power. With the permanency, stability 
and dignity comes a new influence to the commun- 
ity through the building simply as a building. We 
do not look with superstition upon a building. 
But a church building is a constant witness to 
truth. The church may not be open more often 
than the hall ; the same truth may be preached in 
a hall ; the same congregations might gather there ; 
but the church building bears its silent witness as 
no hall can. It speaks to every passer-by. It 
speaks of God, of Christ, of the gospel, of an or- 
ganized righteousness in the community. It is 
important, therefore, to provide a home for the 
newly organized church. Here enters the Board 
of Church Erection, a companion and helper to the 
Board of Home Missions. 

After speaking of the aid received by the 
synod amounting to $115,845, distributed 
among 202 churches, the report closes as 
follows: 

Your committee would remind you all, and 
especially the pastors and elders of the non-contribut- 
ing churches, of two statements of an authority 
higher than that of the General Assembly. These 
statements are, that the strong should bear the 
burdens of the weak, and that "if a brother or 
sister be naked and destitute of daily food, and 
one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, be 
ye warmed * and filled ; notwithstanding ye give 



them not those things which are needful to the 
body ; what doth it profit? Even so faith, if it 
hath not works, is dead, being alone." So, breth- 
ren, if we say to the homeless congregations, Depart 
in peace, have a shelter, a home, and we give no 
help toward that end, what doth it profit ? Even 
so, resolutions without contributions are dead. 

Your committee does not ask for resolutions ; we 
do ask for contributions. We urge the claims of 
this Board. If on no higher ground, yet for what 
has been and is being done for our synod by this 
Board, we owe a more liberal support to this Board. 



AID APPRECIATED. 

HEBRON, ILLS. 

Of the new building at this place, the 
local paper says : ' ' Every one will unite with 
the Tribune in saying that this building is 
an ornament to the town and is a step for- 
ward in the progress of our village in moral 
life, intellectual advantage and religious 
culture which we hail with delight; and we 
welcome this beautiful building as a holiday 
gift to the town. One year ago we had 
religious services in but one church in the 
village, and that in the afternoon ; now we 
shall have services in three places at night, 
and three in the morning." 

The pastor, Rev. R. J. L. Matthews, 
writes: "We opened the building for public 
worship with an attendance of sixty-five at 
Sabbath-school, forty -two at Christian En- 
deavor, and eighty- five at the service of 
preaching. We are greatly rejoiced and 
feel that the Lord is with us. I baptized 
and received upon confession four young 
ladies yesterday, and services will be held 
every night this week. 

" I do not believe we shall retain this gift 
(the Board's grant) very long, as there 
appears such confidence upon the part of the 
people in our success that they feel that this 
will be only a loan after all. 

1 * With thanks for your kind favor in this 
matter, and trusting that we may soon show 
you that this is a most successful investment 
of sacred funds, 

"Your Brother in Christ." 

parkersburg, w. va. 

' ■ I enclose the receipt for the six hundred 
dollars for the Newport Chapel. Every 
day we are more and more thankful to the 
Board of Church Erection, for we would 
not have been* able to erect our building 
without the aid from the Board." 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 



NOTES. 

Turkish Hisery. 

The overflow of Turkish misery into 
Persia continues. It is estimated that from 
ten to twenty thousand Christians., some 
Armenians, but chiefly Nestorians, have 
recently come over into Persia from districts 
of Turkish Kurdistan, where between the 
upper and nether millstones of Turkish 
misrule and Kurdish rapacity they have 
been almost ground to powder. The dis- 
tressing condition of these hungry crowds 
has constrained the missionaries to issue an 
appeal for funds to use in rescuing life and 
in relieving dire want. The Board has 
endorsed this appeal in behalf of suffering 
humanity, and hopes that generous aid 
will be speedily given, at the same time 
urging that donors exercise a wise and 
liberal thoughtful ness that their donations 
for this purpose do not diminish contribu- 
tions for the regular work of the Board, 
which, at the present time, is in imperative 
need of greatly enlarged support. Contribu- 
tions for these sufferers should be sent to 
Mr. William Dulles, Jr., 156 Fifth avenue, 
New York city. 



Reforms in Turkey. 

The news of reformation in the attitude 
of the Turkish government towards its 
Christian subjects seems to have fallen into 
the hands of the bulls and bears of the 
political stock exchange. There is abso- 
lutely no fathoming the deep secrets of 
diplomatic intrigues in this business, nor will 
there be until some more practical results 
come to the surface than have yet appeared. 
That the government of the Sultan feels the 
urgency of doing something to secure some 
relief from outside pressure is evident. We 
hear from Mosul, that orders have been re- 
ceived there by the local authorities that some 
Christians be appointed on the police force. 
The effect on the Moslem population was to 
incite them to the posting of placards about 
the city, charging the Sultan with giving 
the country to the Christians. Perhaps 
this was the effect aimed at in issuing the 
order. At any rate, it illustrates the 



difficulty of introducing any, even the 
slightest reforms that impinge upon Moham- 
medan fanaticism regarding their despised 
Christian neighbors. 

The Leaven of Christianity in India. 

Dr. J. Murray Mitchell, honorary secre- 
tary of the Free Church of Scotland Mis- 
sions, cites some sixteen evil customs which 
have been abolished by the English govern- 
ment within the past fifty years, the protest 
against which came first from the mission- 
aries. Among these are infanticide, Suttee, 
Thuggee, swinging by an iron hook run 
through the muscles of the back, taking 
evidence by torture, prohibition of widow 
marriage, etc. An educated Hindu said to 
a missionary: " Be patient with us. Do not 
hurry us to become Christians. Do you not 
see that we are all tending that way ? We 
use your phrases. We quote everything 
from the Bible. Our customs are fast yield- 
ing to yours." 

The Bible Lighting the Way to Christ. 

Rev. C. D. Campbell, of Zitacuaro, tells 
of a man seventy-five years old whom he 
baptized last spring, who, without ever 
seeing a Protestant minister, was led to the 
rejection of his Roman Catholic belief 
through the study of the Bible. He had 
been called to make a new image of the 
Virgin from a block of stone, to replace one 
which had been struck by lightning. 
While doubting in his mind the efficacy of 
images which could not protect themselves 
from a lightning bolt, some one directed his 
attention to the Bible. He at last found 
one in a college library, which, failing to 
buy, he obtained permission to read every 
Sunday. He kept at it until he had read 
the whole of it. Finding in it nothing of 
the worship of the saints, nor of Mary, his 
eyes were opened to the truth. He tried to 
live according to the Bible, and his life be- 
came changed. The Bible is a dear book 
to him now, and few can quote as much 
from it as he. Sharp persecution has not 
been able to drive the old man from his 
simple faith in Christ. 

173 



174 



NOTES — FRESH FACTS. 



[March, 



Central China Hission. 

The annual reports of the Central China 
Mission are quite full of incidents illustrat- 
ing the efficiency of the Christian Endeavor 
Societies at the different stations, in carry- 
ing forward the gospel work. The organi- 
zation evidently serves admirably to call into 
activity the best Christian energies of Chi- 
nese converts. 

rir. Speer's Illness. 

The first particular information regarding 
Mr. Speer's illness at Hamadan, written 
late in November, sets forth the very rough 
journey he had to Teheran and bacK to 
Hamadan. Mr. Coan, one of our most 
experienced missionary travelers, accom- 
panied him all the way from Oroomiah to 
Hamadan. There he left Mrs. Speer, and 
the two speedily went on to the capital with 
relays of horses. The distance is some 400 
miles. Travelers have to proceed as they 
find horses, otherwise other traveling parties 
might overtake them and hire any not in 
use. Mr. Speer, writing through Mrs. 
Speer, after the return to Hamadan, says of 
the journey: 

One day we were caught in a blizzard on the 
mountains and got chilled and soaked through and 
through, and we rode one night in a mail wagon 
with a cold wind whistling over us that made it 
impossible for us to keep warm. I did not notice 
any evil effects at the time, but after a few days in 
Teheran I had a touch of malaria, which grew 
worse in spite of quinine. After eight days in 
Teheran, during which I worked very hard, Mr. 
Coan and I came back to Hamadan. The four 
days' ride back constituted, I think, about the 
most wretched experience I ever passed through. 
We took the stages as easily and comfortably as pos- 
sible, having a good carriage for half of the way, 
but I got here altogether used up, and now I am 
just to be laid aside for a little while — I cannot say 
how long. I am sorry for this, but I have been as 

careful and prudent as I knew how to be 

I shall try to get well as soon as I can. I know 
that the Board did not send me out here to be sick. 
If I could do it by will, I would get up to-morrow 
and go on, but I shall just have to wait until the 
hand of God is lifted. 



FRESH FACTS. 

Night Services. 

Mrs. McClure writes from Petchaburee 
of special night services held with the view 
of a refreshing from on high, at which the 
attendance has been remarkably full. Men 
and women who have taken no interest in 
the Christian religion were found in the 
audience, listening closely to the truth. 
Church members who have been under dis- 



cipline, who have not been seen for years at 
the meetings, were there also, upon whom 
God's Spirit seemed at work. Some have 
already applied for admission into the 
church, two of them schoolgirls, another an 
old woman of fifty- five or sixty years of 
age, and still another a wealthy man of 
sixty years. It would seem that the tide is 
turning in Petchaburee, bringing new and 
larger blessings. 

A letter from Ningpo says: 

We are having delightful weather for country 
work. Mrs. and Mr. Shoemaker, Mr. Kennedy 
and Miss Rollestone are on independent itinerating 
trips for weeks in succession. There were twelve 
applicants for baptism at last communion, in Ning- 
po, but only two were received. The church at 
Zong-yii had received ten, and as many more were 
applicants who were deferred. 

Surgery under Difficulties. 

Dr. J. Hunter Wells, Pyeng Yang, 
Korea, in the last year, cut off an arm in 
the dining-room, performed an operation for 
cataract of the eye in the bedroom, cut off 
a leg in the shed, made use of the kitchen 
for many minor operations, and had patients 
lying all over the neighborhood in every 
available shed or room. Notwithstanding 
the lack of accommodations, he treated 
some 4000 patients, contributing much to 
the advancement of the growing work of 
that station. Friends living in Indiana 
have provided the funds, and a new dis- 
pensary and hospital on a small scale have 
just been completed. 



Two=score Men and Two=score Women. 

In the substation at Sak Ju, in the north- 
ern part of Korea, twenty men and twenty 
women who meet separately every Sunday 
and Wednesday have proven the sincerity 
of their faith by their courage and persist- 
ence in the face of most trying persecution. 
During one of the visits of the itinerating 
native preacher, he was threatened with 
death by several drunken Koreans, resort- 
ing to most abusive language towards the 
women. Under this provocation the men 
were urgent to carry the case to the courts ; 
but the women replied, " No, let us endure 
it. Did not Jesus endure much more revil- 
ing, and did he not suffer even unto death 
for us ?' ' In the face of persistent opposi- 
tion and persecution they hold fast to their 
faith and their times of worship. 



1897.] 



MISSIONARY CALENDAR. 



L75 



An Arabic /lotto Worshiped. 

Much has been written regarding the 
Babis of Persia, the sect which lias devel- 
oped so remarkably during the last four or 
five years, and stands for various reforms 
both in theology and practice in the faith of 
Islam. Notwithstanding the repressive 
efforts of the Persian government, its disci- 
ples go on increasing, and now number 
scores if not hundreds of thousands. The 
former head of the faith, who bore the title 
of Beha'ullah, i. e., The Glory of God, 
was, during the last part of his life, incar- 
cerated at Acre, on the Syrian coast, by the 
Turkish government, at the instance of the 
Shah of Persia. Since the death of Beha'- 
ullah, which occurred in 1892, his son has 
succeeded him as the authorized head of the 
new sect. Thither large numbers of Persians 
come as pilgrims every year, to worship and 
to receive instruction in the faith. They 
now call themselves Beha'is. They admit 
that the Lord Jesus Christ was the incarnate 
Son, but claim that Beha was the incarnate 
Father himself, and render him divine wor- 
ship. They are very friendly to Christian 
missionaries ; but their zeal for the Beha 
bars the way to their accepting Jesus as the 
Saviour. Now and then one of them pro- 
fesses faith in Christ to the rejection of the 
Beha. Dr. Henry Jessup has sent home 
the copy of a Babi inscription in Arabic, 
reading, " Ya Beha ul Abha," signifying, 
" Oh Glory of the most Glorious," which 
has an interesting history. The original 
was on black enameled paper, about 3 x 2 
feet, written in letters of gold. A well- 
known and very learned Persian Babi in 
Beirut brought it one da} r to the Mission 
Press, to have a map mounted on the face 
of it, saying, " I have worshiped that motto 
and the Being it represents for twelve years, 
and now I am satisfied that the Beha is not 
God. I find in the Bible the God I need, 
and the Christ I revere." We are sanguine 
to believe, as we do devoutly pray, that the 
same light will soon break in upon the souls 
of multitudes of these Babis. 



Oroomiah Churches. 



Korean Churches. 

Our Presbyterian churches in Korea 
received during the past year some 200 into 
their membership, and have besides enrolled 
a thousand catechumens. In no other mis- 
sion of our Board is the harvest so ripe for 
the reaper. 

Korean Students. 

During the political excitement in Korea, 
a company of Christian students, chiefly 
from the country, started out one day to do 
sight-seeing in the city ; but the appearance 
of such a body of countrymen moving in 
company excited suspicion among the mili- 
tary authorities, and the whole class were 
arrested and taken to the barracks. As a 
confirmation to their claim of being stu- 
dents, a Sunday-school lesson paper was 
produced by one, and served as the basis 
of a practical talk about Christ to the officer 
in charge. He soon dismissed them all. 



The native churches in Oroomiah gave 
last year for their preachers about $1200. 
This is about twenty per cent, increase over 
the sum raised over a year and a half ago 
for the same purpose. 



MISSIONARY CALENDAR. 

DEPARTURES. 

January 16 — From Pittsburg, Pa., re- 
turning to the West Shantung Mission, the 
Rev. and Mrs. F. H. Chalfant; to join the 
West Shantung Mission, Miss Charlotte 
E. Hawes. 

January 16 — From New York, returning 
to the Central China Mission, Miss Mary 
Posey. 

ARRIVALS. 

December 10 — At San Francisco, from 
the Korean Mission, the Rev. D. L. Gifford 
and the Rev. S. A. Moffett. 

December 22 — At San Francisco, from 
the West Shantung Mission, Miss Man- 
Brown, M.D. 

January 2 — At New York, from the 
Gaboon and Corisco Mission, Mr. Edward 
A. Ford; from the Peking Mission, the 
Rev. and Mrs. C. O. Gill. 

RESIGNATIONS. 

From the West Shantung Mission, Miss 
Emma Anderson. 

From the Brazil Mission, Miss Laura 
Chamberlain. 

DEATH. 

January 2 — At Anderson, Ind., Laura 
Olmstead, wife of Rev. J. A. Eakin, of the 
Siam Mission. 



176 



REV. ARTHUR MITCHELL, D.D. 



[March, 




Rev. Arthur Mitchell, D.D. 



The custom is extending among mission- 
ary societies of observing a brief time for 
prayer at midday, for the coming of Christ's 
kingdom in all the world, and of recom- 
mending the custom to all gatherings of 
church people, and to the missionaries at 
home and abroad. 

At midday the Saviour of the world hung 
ipon the cross, and was lifted up that he 
might draw all men unto him. 

At midday Paul was converted and called 
to be an apostle to the Gentiles. 



At midday the Apostle Peter was upon 
the house-top praying, and received the 
threefold vision of the ingathering of the 
Gentiles. 

The midday prayer meeting at the Foreign 
Board Rooms, 156 Fifth avenue, is a period 
of devotion coming right in the heart of the 
busy day, which all have come to feel as 
most welcome and helpful. Not infrequent- 
ly missionaries going or coming are 
present, imparting 'a delightful fervor and 
tenderness to the exercises. 



1897.] 



Mr8SIONARY ADMINISTRATION. 



177 



Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work Abroad. 

March — Missionary Administration. 

(a) The Board— its necessity and history. 

(b) Its relation to the Church at home and the mission- 
ary abroad. 

(c) Its membership and organization. 

(d) Magnitude and variety of its operations. 

(e) Missionary policy. 

(f) How the money is raised and spent. 

(g) Causes of debt. 

The study of this topic will be greatly aided by 
the use of the questions on one of the pages under 
the head Christian Endeavor. 

MISSIONARY ADMINISTRATION. 

HON. DARWIN R. JAMES. 

The Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church is a body of Christian 
men, chartered by special act of the Legis- 
lature of the State of New York, elected to 
their positions by the General Assembly and 
representing through it the great body of 
Christian believers in our communion. It 
was organized for one purpose, namely, to 
carry the glad tidings to the millions of our 
fellow -men who are in heathen darkness; to 
carry out the last command of our Divine 
Master " to disciple all nations, baptizing 
them in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

RELATION OF THE BOARD TO THE CHURCH 
AT HOME AND MISSIONARY ABROAD. 

The Board is the creature of the General 
Assembly; it is the executive arm of the 
Church as represented in its General Assem- 
bly; organized and sustained to prosecute 
the work of proclaiming the glad tidings to 
the unevangelized heathen nations. It is 
the responsible body to whom the Church 
entrusts this sacred work and from whom it 
receives reports from time to time of its 
stewardship. It studies plans and methods, 
opens new fields, and develops old ones as 
the Church furnishes the men and the 
money. It selects and appoints secretaries, 
the treasurer and other officers and em- 
ployes; selects and commissions missionaries 
and teachers; directs the work in the field 
and is the organ through which the mission- 
aries abroad communicate with the Church at 
home. To the missionaries at the front the 
Board is the base of supplies and is their 



agent to look after their temporal wants. 
To some extent it care- for their children 
who have returned for health or to attend 
school, or for other purposes. For some of 
the fields it acts as a purchasing agent, buying 
and forwarding many articles necessary for the 
health and comfort of the missionaries; 
medicines and surgical instruments for dis- 
pensaries and hospitals; books and appara- 
tus for the schools; literature for the mis- 
sionaries, and attends to a great number of 
commands other than the few enumerated. 
Its executive officers are in constant corre- 
spondence with the missionaries; the 
treasurer in his field, and the secretaries in 
advising, supervising and directing the 
work in their fields. Between the officials 
at home and the workers at the front there 
exists the tenderest sympathy and love, as 
there should be where such relations exist ; 
not always do they see " eye to eye" in 
their plans, yet each has the fullest confi- 
dence that both have but one end in view, 
namely, the glory of God in the salvation 
of souls. 

MEMBERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION. 

When complete the Board consists of 
twenty- one members, eleven clergymen and 
ten laymen, all being residents of New 
York or its immediate vicinity. It may be 
said, however, that it is seldom full, as much 
difficulty is experienced in securing the 
services of suitable persons who can give 
the necessary time; the duties are very 
exacting, notwithstanding the fact that the 
executive officers practically do the work. 
The Board holds two stated meetings each 
month, with an occasional special meeting; 
at these regular meetings the volume of 
business transacted is very large, embracing 
a great range of subjects, and practically 
covering the world. Prior to each of these 
meetings, the council (composed of the 
secretaries, and in some matters including 
the treasurer) carefully considers all sub- 
jects which they desire to place upon the 
docket, making a digest of them which 
helps to expedite business when it is pre- 
sented. 

When the Board assembles there is a 
report from the treasurer as to finances, the 
income since last meeting, and upon other 
matters connected with his department. 
The secretaries then present the subjects to 
be brought forward from the various fields. 



178 



MISSIONARY ADMINISTRATION. 



[March, 



Long experience has given them facility in 
expressing in few words the salient points 
to be considered, so that much is accom- 
plished in a short time. Then come reports 
of committees, and miscellaneous business. 
The report from the Finance Committee is 
often of much length and covering many 
subjects, for to it are referred all property 
interests, settlement of wills, sales of real 
estate given to the Board and scores of other 
matters. In all there are ten standing 
committees, with frequent special commit- 
tees. The standing committees are Finance, 
Auditing, Clerical, House (this is a joint 
committee consisting of three from the 
Home Board and three from the Foreign 
Board), Library, Policy and Methods, 
General Committee on Fields, Committee on 
China, Japan and Korea; on India, Siam 
and Laos; on Mexico, Guatemala and South 
America; and on Persia, Africa and Syria. 
As has been stated, there is difficulty in 
keeping the membership of the Board com- 
plete. Of the seventeen now serving, 
twelve have been appointed during the last 
ten years. Sixteen names have been 
added to the roll during this period and 
fourteen taken from it, six through resigna- 
tion and eight having been removed by 
death. 

The names of the latter are mentioned to 
recall to our minds some of the efficient 
servants of the Church who did faithful 
work during many years upon the 
Board: David Olyphant, Robert Lennox 
Kennedy, James P. Wilson, D.D., Hon. 
Hooper C. Van Voorst, Robert Carter, 
Charles K. Imbrie, D.D., William A. 
Booth, and Edward Wells. All honor to 
their memory! 

There remain in the membership of the 
Board four who have through long service 
earned the title of veterans: The president, 
John D. Wells, D.D., and ex-president, 
William Paxton, D.D., LL.D., were 
elected in 1861 ; Robert Russell Booth, 
D.D., LL.D., in 1870, and Henry Ide in 
1872. 

MAGNITUDE AND VARIETY OF OPERATIONS. 

Few of the friends of the Board have an 
adequate conception of the magnitude and 
variety of the work and of its endless detail. 
It has been well said that the Foreign Board 
does in its field what is managed in the 
home field by several of the other Beards. 



Besides its missionaries, it employs and 
directs, through the missions, native preach- 
ers, teachers and Bible readers; it builds 
churches, schoolhouses, and dwellings; it 
founds colleges and theological schools; it 
runs great printing establishments where 
millions of pages of Holy Scripture and 
religious literature are struck off in the 
languages of the people for whom they are 
intended; opens dispensaries and hospitals, 
and ministers in the name of the Divine 
Healer to the spiritual and physical neces- 
sities of the heathen world. In times of 
famine and epidemic its missionaries have 
never spared themselves, but have been min- 
istering angels to multitudes of people, who, 
except for the aid rendered, would have 
perished. 

Over all of this great work, the Board, 
with its executive officers, has supervision. 
The details are all carefully studied and 
planned by the secretaries and treasurer, 
requiring unceasing watchfulness and super- 
vision. It is well to remind ourselves of 
the fact that the mission fields are not near 
at hand where they can be personally super- 
vised, but are thousands of miles away, and 
in some instances not easy of access, so 
that the work of directing and advising is 
through correspondence, thereby adding 
immensely to the work. During later 
years, something has been done in the way 
of visiting the missions, Secretary Speer 
being now upon such a tour. Drs. Ellin- 
wood, Gillespie and the late Dr. Mitchell 
all made similar visits. The general result 
of these trips has been a great acquisition 
of knowledge on the part of the secreta- 
ries, and a quickening of interest all along 
the lines. To the devoted missionaries 
these visits have been bright spots in their 
lives of toil, and sometimes of danger. Of 
the work of the executive officers at home, 
in disseminating information, little need be 
said, but it is extensive through the leaflet 
department and in the line of editorial work 
for the organs of the Church. Then there 
are addresses to be made before the General 
Assembly, synods, and presbyteries; ser- 
mons to be preached in the churches; 
missionary conferences and congresses to be 
arranged for and attended, all taking much 
time and strength. The interviews with 
outgoing missionaries and with those return- 
ing on furlough, over their work are of 
great importance and no small magnitude. 



1897.] 



MISSIONARY ADMINISTRATION. 



179 



Is'it any wonder that secretaries and treas- 
urers wear out, as they are but human and 
have great responsibilities resting upon them, 
and sometimes are the subjects of unpleas- 
ant criticism ? 

MISSIONARY POLICY. 

The Board has but one end and purpose 
in all its extensive plans and operations, 
which is to fulfill the divine command, " to 
go into all the world to preach the gospel to 
every creature." 

The founding of schools, colleges and 
theological seminaries is to educate and 
prepare a godly native ministry who shall 
preach the gospel to their ow T n countrymen. 
The opening of dispensaries and hospitals is 
for the purpose of more easily reaching the 
people and gaining access to their minds 
and hearts that God's word may be more 
effectually preached. The missionaries 
themselves do not expect to convert the 
heathen world to Christ, but they are lay- 
ing foundations and setting in operation 
forces which, with the blessing of the Great 
Head of the Church, will accomplish this 
end. The thought is to make the native 
churches self-supporting as rapidly as possi- 
ble, and to make them the source for help 
to others. Missionary societies are organ- 
ized and carry forward their work ; synods 
and presbyteries are organized as in 
Christian lands, and for the same purpose, 
and it is all in the idea that the great work 
must necessarily be done through the na- 
tives themselves. The missionary is the 
pioneer, opening the way, laying the foun- 
dations and developing the work, planting 
institutions, which will perpetuate them- 
selves, helping the natives to help them- 
selves, in building their places of worship 
and in training a native ministry, as in 
apostolic days, to carry the work forward to 
completion. The Board seeks to do its 
work efficiently, with an eye to the health 
of its missionaries, to have comfortable 
homes for them, and yet at the same time to 
accumulate as little property as possible. 
In other words, have what is necessary to 
the work; to lease property rather than 
purchase, thereby restricting its permanent 
investments. 

HOW THE MONEY IS RAISED AND EXPENDED. 

As is well known to all who love the 
Foreign Mission cause in our Church, the 
Board depends upon the gifts of God's 



people for the money wherewith to prose- 
cute the w r ork. From the beginning the 
cause has been laid upon the hearts and 
consciences of the living members of our 

communion, and the work was undertaken 
in the thought that the Church could Dot 
be true to its Living Head, unless it was 
heartily engaged in an effort for tin.' evan- 
gelization of the heathen world. As the 
hearts of believers beat in unison with the 
heart of Christ, so are they in sympathy 
with efforts in this direction. As the Church 
is revived and religion flourishes, interest 
is increased; as the Church is prayerless and 
inclined to worldliness, the cause of missions 
droops and there is leanness in the treasury. 
If God's professed followers w r ere whole- 
hearted in this matter, there would be no 
lack of men or money. There are those 
who are in earnest and self-sacrificing; alas 
that there are not more, and at this time in 
particular, when there are such urgent calls 
from many fields for enlargement. Instead 
of enlargement there is curtailment, absolute 
reduction. Oh! for a glorious outpouring 
of the Holy Spirit that there may be pros- 
perity instead of leanness. The Board's 
general plan of reaching the hearts of givers 
is through the dissemination of information 
bearing upon the work, its progress and 
needs; as the Church is informed, so its 
gifts increase ; the difficulty is to inform the 
indifferent ones, to get them to take journals 
that contain missionary information or to 
read the publications from the leaflet de- 
partment of the Board. 

The Board depends very largely upon the 
pastors to instinct their people, but, alas! 
there are pastors who by their works show 
very little interest in Foreign Missions. 
The returned missionaries do very much to 
extend knowledge as they gO from church 
to church addressing the people. The 
Board's secretaries do a great work in this 
direction; also the committees of synods and 
presbyteries. 

Perhaps it is through the Women's Soci- 
eties that most is being gained, for they 
work through mission bands and other juve- 
nile societies, thus sowing the seed in recep- 
tive hearts. The money comes to the Board 
from the churches, from Women's Boards, 
from Sunday-schools, from Young People's 
Societies of Christian Endeavor, from 
legacies and from miscellaneous sources. It 
largely comes to the Board during the last 



180 



MISSIONARY ADMINISTRATION. 



[March, 



four months of the fiscal year which ends 
April 30. To meet the obligations during 
the latter part of summer and autumn, the 
Board is obliged to borrow from bank, 
sometimes to the extent of over one hun- 
dred thousaud dollars. As the gifts come 
into the treasury, these loans are paid and 
current obligations met. The salaries of 
the missionaries are always promptly paid, 
as the Board has heretofore been able to 
borrow sufficient to carry them through. 
The treasurer at regular intervals remits 
drafts to the mission fields, drawn upon 
himself in New York, or upon the Board's 
Loudon bankers, where the Board always 
has sufficient to meet drafts as they mature. 
The method is simple, wise and inexpensive. 
The Board's credit is so high in the lands 
where the drafts are sent that the mission- 
aries have no difficulty in selling them upon 
the most favorable terms. 

CAUSES OF DEBT. 

It can readily be seen that under the 
wisest management possible there is liability 
of occasionally ending the year with a debt. 
As has been said, most of the receipts reach 
the treasury during the last four months of 
the fiscal year, which is an important factor, 
for the expenses have to be met month by 
month, in the faith and expectation that 
during the said last four or five months the 
money will come in, but occasionally there 
is a failure. The gifts from the churches 
and from Sabbath-schools are reduced ; leg- 
acies yield a smaller sum than the average, 
or receipts from miscellaneous sources are 
curtailed. 

In making its estimates the Board is very 
conservative — some people doubtless think 
too much so, but the work is carefully super- 
vised. Requisition blanks go to the mission 
fields in the summer for next year' s work, 
beginning with the first of next May, eight 
months ahead. The missions hold their 
annual sessions usually in the autumn, 
when plans are discussed and decisions made 
as to all matters for which they are to ask 
money. These blanks are ruled into 
columns, nine or more of them, the first 
being salaries of missionaries; of course, 
these being fixed, the amounts are easily 
filled in, when the next column is taken up, 
and so on through them all. The columns 
for native preachers, teachers, new work, 
buildings, etc., are all filled in, and in due 



time the requisitions reach the secretaries 
with explanations in abundance. Each 
secretary studies and analyzes the requisi- 
tions from his fields and prepares a digest. 
When all are in and ready, then the sessions 
of the council and Finance Committee 
begin. The first question to be settled is, 
How much is it safe to appropriate to accom- 
plish the work for the ensuing year, without 
leaving a debt ? The statistics for the five 
preceding years are studied, the general 
outlook discussed, the probable course in 
the market price of silver, and a variety of 
other questions considered, when a conclu- 
sion is reached and the sum is named ; as an 
illustration we will call it $900,000. 

This being a smaller sum than the year 
previous, and much smaller than the aggre- 
gate of the requisitions from the fields, the 
sad duty devolves upon the joint committee 
of cutting down here and there to adjust the 
reduced appropriations and the increased 
demands to a common basis. Every item 
is carefully considered and reductions are 
made where it is hoped least harm will be 
done. In some instances certain cuts are 
referred back to the mission stations for 
them to distribute, and not infrequently has 
it been the case, that the missionaries have 
from their own salaries contributed suffi- 
cient to continue certain work rather than 
permit it to be ruined from lack of funds from 
the Board. In due time the committee reports 
to the Board, when discussion follows ; some- 
times changes aie made, but as a rule the 
report is adopted. At the time of the meet- 
ing of the General Assembly, the work of 
communicating with the mission stations is 
going forward. At the very hour that the 
Assembly is voting that the Church should 
advance its gifts and raise a million dollars, 
the missionaries are being informed by letter 
that a reduction is necessary. At the end 
of the fiscal year it is usually found that 
the action of the Board was a wise one. 
Possibly there may be a better method sug- 
gested for doing this work, the Board is 
desirous of following the wisest plans, but 
the course as mentioned is the one now 
being followed. So long as the receipts are 
subject to such fluctuations as take place it 
is difficult to always avoid a debt. It is not 
an easy thing to effect a change in methods 
of giving, as each church follows its own 
plan, but if there was more method in it, if 
some lessons could be learned from the 



1897.] 



THE BOARD AND ITS SECRETARIES. 



181 



women who manage the business with great 
wisdom in their societies, there would be 
an increase in revenue. There is one church 
within the bounds of the General Assembly 
which adopted a plan when organized over 
thirty years ago which has proved quite suc- 
cessful. Six collections a year are taken 
for Foreign Missions and six for Home 
Missions. The first Sabbath in January 
Foreign Missions has a collection ; the first 
Sabbath in February Home Missions has its 
collection, and so on through the year — 
monthly concerts of prayer have continuous- 
ly been held, and the subjects are ever 
upon the hearts of the people. For over 
thirty years this has been going on and 



never a failure. If the columns of the 
Genera] Assembly's Minutes are scanned, 
it will be found that there an- no blank 
spaces opposite the name of this church, and 

that the sums contributed show steady gains. 
This plan has advantages in that it pom- a 
somewhat steady stream of money into the 
treasuries of these two Boards, which, were 
it generally followed, would tend to greater 
reliability in receipts and greater infre- 
quency in accumulating a debt. 

[Note. — The church referred to above is 
the Throop Avenue Church, of Brooklyn, 
of which the Rev. Lewis R. Foote, D.D., 
is pastor, and of which Mr. James is an 
elder. — Ed.] 





Rev. J. Leisiiitoii Wilson, D.D. 



Rev. John C. Lowrie, D.D., LL.D. 



THE BOARD AND ITS SECRETARIES. 

REV. HENRY H. JESSUP, D.D., LL.D. 



I speak as one of the foreign missionaries 
of our Church and will recount a few of the 
lessons a missionary learns at home. 

We have new admiration of our Board of 
Foreign Missions, as the highest type of a 
faith mission. We have seen in distant 
lands a few men and women, claiming to be 
living in a peculiar manner by faith, with 
no assured support, and none of your 
" humanly devised " Boards behind them. 
But these individuals in time of need gen- 
erally turn to the missionaries of the estab- 
lished Boards to care for them. 



About thirty years ago an enthusiastic 
young Scotchman went to Cairo, Egypt, to 
do missionary work on the principle of 
living by faith alone, with no dependence on 
any board or society. But he soon found 
his way to the house of the Rev. Dr. Lans- 
ing, of the United Presbyterian Mission, 
and his visits uniformly occurred at dinner 
time. He was cordially welcomed, but 
after a month or more had elapsed Dr. 
Lansing said to him one day: " Brother 

, you are welcome to our hospitality, 

but this matter is becoming monotonous. I 



182 



THE BOARD AND ITS SECRETARIES. 



[March, 




Rev. John D. Wells, D.D. 

have to work for my bread, and if you share 
my bread you must share in the expense." 

The fact is, that it is no more honorable 
or Christian to live a shiftless life in a for- 
eign land than at home. Faith in God 
does not prevent a Christian father at home 
from buying a barrel of flour or providing 
for his household, and faith in God does not 
prevent a foreign missionary from providing 
such supplies of food, clothing and medi- 
cine as shall enable him to give his whole 
time to the special spiritual work to which 
the Lord has called him. There are mis- 
sions called " faith missions," but in our 
own Board we have, indeed, the highest 
illustration of faith. A score of men, min- 
isters and elders, with financial estimates 
before them, from twenty-seven missions, in 
eighteen different countries, sit around a 
table and appropriate nearly a million 
dollars to these missionaries to be sent out 
during the coming year, and without a 
dollar in the treasury and without the 
pledge of a dollar from any church or indi- 
vidual. Here is faith; faith in God, faith 
in the Church, faith in you, fathers and 
brethren, faith in your families, in your 
children, and how rarely, if ever, has this 
faith been misplaced ? 

We feel that among the hardest worked 
men in the missionary ranks are the secre- 
taries and treasurer of the Board in New 
York. In the winter of 1882 and '83, it 



was my lot to act as secretary, in the 
absence from illness of Dr. Ellinwood. I 
then learned what I escaped in 1870, when 
I felt it my duty to decline the post of sec- 
retary of the new Presbyterian Board of 
Foreign Missions, and I learned how to 
sympathize with the faithful men who act 
as our foreign mission secretaries. After 
three months of this work the dread nine- 
teenth-century malady — nervous prostration 
— laid me aside. 

A man once remarked to me: " One 
secretary could do all the work in that 
Mission House if he had a good type- 
writer." I could add one other assistant 
whom he would soon need — a gravedigger! 

The native Protestant Church in Hums, 
Syria, once turned off its native pastor and 
insisted on having a foreigner. As no for- 
eigner was forthcoming they said they would 
do their own preaching. So one of them 
took his turn the next Sunday, and entered 
the pulpit. The hymn and the reading 
went well enough, but when he read his 
text, he hesitated, looked around, and said, 
" Brethren, I move that we call back the 
native pastor. Preaching is not so easy as 
it seemed." 

We who are at the other end of the line 
can appreciate the work done at the Mission 
House. We can see the great increase of 
the missionary force, the immense corre- 
spondence to be carried on, the variety of 
questions growing out of the governments, 
climates, languages, customs, and religions 
of Asiatic and African and South Ameri- 
can peoples; the problems, financial, politi- 
cal, industrial, social, educational, ecclesias- 
tical, and personal; the need of minute and 
conscientious examination, and prompt reply 
to all these questions, the anxieties, the 
sense of responsibility, the hurry and crowd- 
ing of business, the necessary interruptions, 
the correspondence with home pastors and 
elders, with Sunday-school superintendents 
and teachers, and with theological students 
and professors; the examination of candi- 
dates and their credentials ; the preparations 
of matter for the periodical press; inter- 
viewing returned and outgoing missionaries ; 
preaching Sunday in churches here and 
there, visiting conventions, meetings, pres- 
byteries and synods; entering into sympa- 
thy with sorely tried missionaries, with the 
sick and dying, with the widows and the 
orphans, with the persecuted and the per- 



1897.] 



THE TREASURY OF THE FOREIGN BOARD. 



is:; 



plexed; trying to decide grave questions, on 
which missionaries older than himself and 
of long experience and great wisdom hon- 
estly and decidedly differ, and going home 
at night to toss with headache and insomnia! 
In declining in 1870 the post of secretary 
of this Board, I was not afraid of work, but 
I regarded the missionary service as a life 
enlistment, and I am sure that no missionary 
withdraws from the work unless constrained 
by reasons providential and imperative, but 
I can say that I would rather drive, as I 
have done, for miles over the range of 
Lebanon in midwinter, through snow from 
three to ten feet deep, or in August, in a 
scorching sirocco when the fig leaves curled 
up from the heat and dropped to the 
ground, and the grapes were cooked on the 
clusters and turned white from the burning 
blast, or journey amid Druze and Bedouin 
robbers, or edit two Arabic newspapers with 
a Turkish censor waiting to cut out half 
the matter from the proof-sheets an hour 
before the time of issue, or preach in 
Arabic on a housetop iu a bitter north wind, 
or by my tent-door in a harvest held with 
the black flies swarming in clouds until the 
white canvas of the tent was as black as the 
" Tents of Kedar," or as Pittsburg, or read 
Arabic proof-sheets until midnight, or teach 
Hodge's Theology through Arabic gutturals, 
than to undergo for. a series of years the 
mental and physical strain required of a 
foreign mission secretary. 

Every Saturday for twenty-five years the 
missionaries in Syria, with their families, 
have offered special prayer for our Board 
of Missions and all its officers, and we love 
to think of the wise, experienced, sagacious 
and devoted men w T ho, as members of the 
Board, volunteer their services and give 
their valuable time, their deep study, and 
patient investigation, week after w T eek, to 
the great questions and problems of general 
mission policy and individual mission inter- 
ests which are now becoming world-wide in 
influence and far-reaching in results. 

If there be any scheme or plan or system 
of raising the revenue of our great benevo- 
lent Boards, by which the annual anxiety 
and suspense of the Boards and officers can 
be lessened, then let us adopt it. 

There surely must be wisdom enough, 
wealth enough and consecration enough to 
bring gifts into the treasury in an overflow- 
ing stream. 









H I 




\ 



Rev. David Irving, D.I). 

THE TREASURY OF THE FOREIGN 
BOARD. 

HON. S. M. CLEMENT. 

[It will be remembered that the last General 
Assembly instructed the special committee of nine 
appointed "to confer with the Home Missions 
Board " to consider the expediency of having one 
treasurer for the three Boards in New York and 
one for the three Boards in Philadelphia. In 
obedience to this instruction, a sub-committee was 
appointed to inquire into the work done in the 
treasurers' offices of the Boards concerned. The 
chairman of this committee was the Hon. S. M. 
Clement, president of the Marine Bank, of Buffalo, 
N. Y., and an elder in the Westminster Church of 
that city. Knowing Mr. Clement to be an excep- 
tionally able, experienced and clear-headed busi- 
ness man and financier, and believing that business 
men throughout the Church would be interested in 
the result of his inquiries, I requested him, without 
anticipating in any way the judgment of the com- 
mittee as to the expediency of consolidating the 
treasurerships, to write out his opinion of the way 
in which the treasury of the Foreign Board is con- 
ducted. He has very kindly responded by sending 
me the following article. A. J. B.] 

Translated into the language of the com- 
mercial world, the Presbyterian Church of 
the United States in its foreign missionary 
work is a great joint-stock corporation, with 
thousands of shareholders, whose stock is 
never " full -paid," or " non-assessable/' 
and whose operations are world-wide. It 
has agencies in eighteen different countries, 



184 



THE TREASURY OF THE FOREIGN BOARD. 



TMarcti, 



represented by more than seven hundred 
mission stations and outstations, with up- 
wards of 2700 native and foreign mission- 
aries, who are its paid agents in the man- 
agement of churches, schools, and hos- 
pitals, and in the dissemination annually 
of over 100,000,000 pages of Christian 
literature, printed in twenty-one different 
languages. 

The management of this great enterprise 
is vested in the Board of Foreign Missions, 
which, besides determining the selection 
and policy of the agents who represent it in 
foreign countries, is charged with the col- 
lection and receipt of nearly a million 
dollars annually, and in its disbursement in 
the maintenance of its agencies scattered 
throughout the world. 

The executive agency of the Board 
through which all this vast work is super- 
vised and the enormous correspondence con- 
ducted is the executive council, which is 
composed of the four corresponding secre- 
taries and the treasurer, each of whom is 
charged with the administration of a great 
department of the Board's work, demand- 
ing close attention and severe and exacting 
labor, and who, acting together as a coun- 
cil, pass upon all important matters in each 
department before they are submitted to the 
Board, the majority of course deciding what 
recommendation shall be made, though the 
outvoted officer has the right to state his 
dissent to the Board, a right, however, 
which there is seldom occasion to exercise, 
as the council is usually unanimous in its 
findings. 

In accordance with Dr. Brown's request, 
it is my purpose in this article to give a 
hasty glance at some of the varied opera- 
tions which the work as outlined above 
entails upon the treasury of this Board, and 
which make that office something more than 
a mere disbursing agency, receiving contri- 
butions from the churches and individuals 
throughout this country and transmitting 
them to their destination. 

This part of the treasury work, however, 
is naturally the first to be considered, both 
in its important bearing upon the work of 
the Board and the large number of transac 
tions which pass through it. The cash 
receipts during the past year have numbered 
over ten thousand separate items, and the 
disbursement of them furnishes a striking 
illustration of the complexity of the much- 




William Rankin, Esq. 

discussed " Silver Question." The appro- 
priations are made in American money, on 
a gold basis. These have to be converted 
into the currency of the country to which 
the appropriation is sent, as they are stated 
and used on the field in local currency, ex- 
cept that the salaries of missionaries and 
personal allowances are paid in gold; so 
that it is necessary to keep a careful record 
of the varying values of silver in each 
foreign country. These values are constant- 
ly fluctuating, so that the calculation of 
gold values has to be made from time to 
time, to approximate the gold equivalent of 
the silver disbursements. The treasury 
may therefore be said to have a department 
of foreign exchange, which is constantly 
requiring new quotations and careful re- 
vision. 

The mission stations under the charge of 
the Board make up annually their budget of 
estimated expenses, which is forwarded to 
the secretaries, who thoroughly study it. 
Then after the executive council and the 
Finance Committee have carefully estimated 
the probable income and have made a com- 
parison with former grants, an appropriation 
for each station is determined upon and 
turned over to the treasurer's office. He 
enters up these appropriations to the credit 
of the various stations, the secretaries ad- 
vising the missions of the amount which has 
been granted, so that they know exactly 



1897.] 



THE TREASURY OF THE FOREIGN HOARD. 



IX.") 



what they can depend upon for the current 
year. Remittances on account of these 
appropriations are made by the treasurer 
month by month, or in emergency the local 
mission treasurer is authorized to draw upon 
the New York office. Some fields are paid 
in English money, which necessitates the 
keeping of a London account, and the 
circulation of a large amount of foreign 
exchange, on an average about $250,000 
outstanding all the time. Each station is 
required to render at stated times accurate 
accounts of its expenditures, and these 
accounts are carefully checked over, com- 
pared w T ith appropriations and entered and 
filed for future reference. 

It comes about in the varied relations 
which the treasurer of the Board bears to 
the treasurer of the local mission, that he 
becomes the fiscal agent in this country of 
the individual missionaries on the field; 
attending to all sorts of payments on private 
account, as, for instance, payment for life 
insurance premiums, for personal expenses 
of children pursuing their education in this 
country, and for the purchasing of all kinds 
of family supplies, as well as of those re- 
quired by the mission itself. 

Imagine a family in a country like Africa, 
cut off from their base of supplies, and then 
consider the calls that such a family is com- 
pelled to make upon their representative in 
this country — to whom they must look for 
the furnishing of nearly all their needs, and 
you can imagine something of the detail and 
the extent of the work which the purchas- 
ing and shipping department of the treasury 
is called upon to perform. The statistics 
show that about 350 tons of such freight 
on about 3000 purchase orders, represent- 
ing a value of $50,000, are shipped annu- 
ally by thi3 department. These purchases 
include an immense variety of articles, and 
their shipment means a careful selection of 
the goods, and of packing to conform with 
the requirements of the various means of 
transportation, from railroads and steam- 
ships to caravans, and also to meet various 
customs requirements in foreign countries. 
The work of this department shows a con- 
stant increase. 

Another important function which the 
treasury of the Board performs is the keep- 
ing of full and accurate records of all the 
properties which the Board owns in foreign 
countries, together with diagrams of build- 



ings and grounds, and showing the use to 
which each building and parts of building 
are put. The titles are also carefully 
looked into, and the method of holding title 
made to conform to the laws of the foreign 
countries in which the property is located. 
This may be called the law department of 
the treasury, and to it is added the care and 
collection of a large proportion of gifts 
which come to the Board in the form of 
legacies. Of these, 111 have been settled 
during the past year, leaving 155 in process 
of settlement and collection, which require 
careful attention, some involving compli- 
cated annuities and others the care of prop- 
erty in different parts of the country. 
Some fifteen of these are in litigation and 
require very close watching. 

Aside from these features of what may be 
termed the legal department, is the care of 
the various securities in which the trust and 
permanent funds of theBmrd are invested 
and the sale of such securities as come by 
bequest. 

These various departments of the treasury 
leave their record in a heavy correspondence 
which, during the past year, has numbered 
22,439 letters received and answered. 

It will be readily seen that the adminis- 
tration of this department of the Board 
requires the services of a clear-headed and 
capable executive, one whose judgment and 
business experience shall be of value in the 
councils of the Board, and it is a matter of 
congratulation to the Board and to the 
Church at large that it has in the present 
treasurer, Mr. William Dulles, Jr., just 
such an officer. Having obtained a thor- 
ough business education as assistant to the 
president of one of our largest railroad cor- 
porations, the valuable experience gained in 
that position has shown itself in every 
department of his work. The books and 
records of the office are kept on the best 
principles of modern bookkeeping, and a 
very complete set of blauk forms has been 
devised for the systematic management of 
each department. It is a pleasure for one 
who has had an opportunity of seeing some- 
thing of the general working of the treas- 
urer's office of the Board of Foreign 
Missions, to bear testimony to the complete 
and business-like methods that are followed 
in the office management, which we believe 
are fully up to the best practice in the lead- 
ing: financial and industrial institutions of 



186 



MEMBERSHIP OF THE BOARD. 



[March 



the country, and give assurance that the 
business entrusted to this office is promptly, 
efficiently and economically transacted. 



MEMBERSHIP OF THE BOARD. 

The Board is the agent of the whole 
Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America, acting through the General 
Assembly, with powers delegated to it by 
the Assembly, to which it is responsible for 
the administration of its trust. Manifestly 
the confidence of the Church in the Board 
is therefore primarily confidence in the 
Presbyterian method of Church government 
and of the General Assembly, which is the 
highest and most authoritative judicatory of 
the Church. Every pastor, officer and 
member of the Presbyterian Church there- 
fore should be loyal to the properly con- 
stituted and responsible agency of his 
Church for the conduct of the great work of 
foreign missions, and should remember that 
his gifts cannot be withheld from it or 
diverted to other channels without virtually 
ignoring or repudiating the institutions and 
methods of the Church to which he belongs. 

A few months ago a young man, calling 
at the Board's rooms in New York, made 
the following remark: " I have recently 
awakened to the fact that this Board is my 
Board, doing my foreign missionary work; 
and, having a holiday to-day, I thought I 
would come in here, and become better 
acquainted with the Board's location, its 
directors and its methods of work." Had 
not this brother struck upon an important 
truth ? And if all our church members 
were to discover the same truth, what an 
impulse would come to the whole foreign 
missionary work! Is it not a fact that every 
member of the Church is bound to the 
Board by a very close and sacred personal 
tie ? Look at the two propositions : ' ' My 
missionary ivork. ,f Is there a disciple of 
Christ who can avoid the personal obliga- 
tion to regard some part of the missionary 
work as his own ? Does he ask, " How is 
it mine?" A conscience taught of the 
Holy Spirit replies: " Mine, from the fact 
that it has been laid upon me by my Lord 
and Saviour;" " mine because I love my 
Lord who died for the heathen as well as for 
me." 

Now take the other proposition. " My 
Board." Does not that pronoun apply 



equally to every individual member of our 
Christian Church ? In what sense is it 
yours ? In this, that the Church to which 
you belong, and whose order and adminis- 
tration are deserving of your confidence and 
affection, has established this Board of 
Foreign Missions to facilitate your efforts in 
fulfilling Christ's command. It selects the 
missionaries who may go in your stead to 
foreign lands with the gospel ; it accepts 
your gifts for their support; it designates 
the most desirable parts of the world for 
their operations; it aids them in every pos- 
sible way by counsels and pecuniary grants, 
as you could not, for the most economical 
and effective prosecution of their great 
work, undertaken for you and your fellow- 
Christians in Christ's name. By the Board 
you reach out and touch the far-off heathen 
with your heart of love to Christ. Through 
it, as over a long-distance telephone, you send 
into China, and India, and the wilds of Africa, 
as well as many other lands, the invitation 
of the world's Redeemer, " Come unto 
me." Hence this Board should be dear to 
you. To it should be given your sympa- 
thies, your prayers, your contributions, your 
personal enthusiasm inspired by the loftiest 
motive of our mutual endeavors. 

Confidence in a Board must, of course, 
be determined to some extent, however, not 
only by the character of the body which 
selects its members, but also by the charac- 
ter of the individual men who are selected 
Who constitute the executive staff and the 
membership of the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions ? Here is the list, look it over: 

Executive Officers. 
Corresponding Secretaries. 
Kev. Frank F. Ellinwood, D.D., LL.D., 
Kev. John Gillespie, D.D., 
Mr. Robert E. Speer, 
Kev. Arthur J. Brown, D.D. 
Treasurer, 
William Dulles, Jr., Esq. 
Members. 
Eev. John D. Wells, D.D., Pastor South Third 
Street Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, New York. 
Rev. Robert R. Booth, D.D., LL.D., Pastor Em- 
eritus, Rutgers Riverside Presbyterian Church, New 
York City. 

Rev. William M. Paxton, D.D., LL.D., Profes- 
sor Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, 
N. J. 

Rev. George Alexander, D.D., Pastor University 
Place Presbyterian Church, New York City. 

Rev. William R. Richards, D.D., Pastor 
Crescent Avenue Presbyterian Church, Plainfield, 
N. J. 



1897.] 



C03T OF ADMrNISTRATION — SPECIAL OBJECT DEPARTMENT. 



187 



Rev. John Balcom Shaw, D. D., Pastor West 
End Presbyterian Church, New York City. 

Rev. David Gregg, D. D. , Pastor Lafayette 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, X. Y. 

Rev. John A. Kerr, D.D., Pastor Fourth Pres- 
byterian Church, New York City. 

Rev. John R. Davies, D.D., Pastor Fourth 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, New York City. 

Rev. Howard Duffield, D.D., Pastor First Pres- 
byterian Church, New York City. 

Rev. John Fox, D. D., Pastor Second Presbyte- 
rian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Henry Ide, Merchant, New York City. 

Mr, Warner Van Norden, President National 
Bank of North America, New Y'ork City. 

Hon. Darwin R. James, Merchant and President 
Board of Trade and Transportation, New York 
City. 

Mr. Alexander Maitland, Merchant, New York 
City. 

Mr. D. W. Mc Williams, Secretary and Treasurer 
Manhattan Elevated Railroad, New York City. 

Mr. John T. Underwood, Manufacturer, New 
York City. 

Four vacancies on account of the deaths of 

Hon. William A. Booth, Ex-President Third 
National Bank, New Y'ork City ; 

Edward Wells, Esq., Lawyer, New Y'ork City ; 
and the resignations of 

Mr. Ezra M. Kingsley, Treasurer Union Theo- 
logical Seminary. 

Mr. Elbert A. Brinckerhoff, Banker, New York 
City. 

Is it not a fair question whether the stand- 
ing and ability and disinterestedness of 
these men do not furnish a reasonable guar- 
antee that the foreign missionary operations 
of the Church are wisely conducted ? 

The valuable work of the Field Secretary, 
the Rev. Thomas Marshall, D.D., will of 
course be more properly considered in con- 
nection with the topic, " The Home Church 
and Foreign Missions," a few months later. 



COST OF ADMINISTRATION. 

If it be admitted that the aim of foreign 
missions is wise and right and good, can we 
say the same of the means that are used to 
reach it ? Are they well chosen or ill 
chosen, are they calculated for success or 
misdirected toward failure ? 

The missions of to-day are making use of 
the most modern, practical and sensible 
methods that can be found in any enterprise. 

The plan of foreign missions is substan- 
tially the same in all churches, and may be 
briefly stated : First, to send out living men 
and women, the best and the best educated 
that can be found, to teach, and preach, 
and live the gospel. Second, to equip them 
just as mercantile agents and explorers are 
equipped for the new climate and conditions 



In which they have to live, and to furnish 
them as far as possible with the strongest 
weapons of civilization, the printing pi 
the school and the hospital. Third, to draw 
into the work as rapidly a- possible an army 
of native workers, that the Church in every 
land may belong to the people of that land, 
and embody the Christ life in their own 
forms of thought and speech. Fourth, to 
administer the enterprise on sound business 
principles. 

The comptroller of the New Y'ork Central 
Railroad writes me that the expenses of 
administration for that corporation last year 
were 4.83 per cent, of the whole. A part- 
ner in one of the oldest and most successful 
importing houses in the country writes me 
that the expenses of their wholesale business 
average from sixteen per cent, to eighteen 
per cent, of the annual sales. Of this 
about one-half is for salesmen, etc., leaving 
from eight to nine per cent, for the other 
expenses of administration. The agent of 
one of the largest linen manufacturing 
concerns in the world informs me that their 
yearly expenses of administration are from 
eight and one-half to ten per cent. A 
member of one of our greatest publishing 
firms writes me: "I should say that the 
cost of administration with us is about 
twenty per cent, of the cost of production." 
The cost of administration of the Presby- 
terian Board of Foreign Missions last year 
was five per cent, of the expenditures. In 
other words, to send a dollar to the mission- 
aries costs just about five cents. Is not this 
a plain statement on a business basis ? 
And does it not show that the method of 
foreign missions, even from the lowest point 
of view, is no failure, but a great and cred- 
itable success ? 

REV. HENRY J. VAN DYKE, D. D. 



SPECIAL OBJECT DEPARTMENT. 

An increasing number of contributors 
prefer to give toward the support of some 
particular work or worker. The Board 
cordially encourages such giving, provided, 
of course, the money is sent through the 
Board and for objects which are approved 
by it, and included in the regular appropri- 
ations, as otherwise it would simply embar- 
rass both the Board and the missionaries on 
the field. The Board is always willing to 
correspond with any individual, church or 



188 -THE DIVISION OF WORK AMONG THE SECRETARIES. [March, 

Young People's society, on this subject, and our young missionaries. A short article 
to recommend a suitable object. This was sent to the Golden Rule, urging the 
department of the Board's correspondence young people to help in sending out fifteen 
is in the hands of Mrs. H. H. Fry, a wise or twenty young men who had offered to go 
and capable woman, who, in addition, is the to the foreign field, but whom we had no 
general secretary of all the Women's Socie- money to send. Contributions began to 
ties and Boards. As is well known, the flow in, and as they were received the soci- 
women of the Church give largely to special eties were arranged in groups, and to each 
objects assigned them by the Board, but as group was assigned a missionary. The 
women's work will be separately considered work went on until over thirty missionaries 
in a later number, it is not included in the were supported by these general groups 
following table of special objects supported composed of societies in all parts of the 
at present through the Board: country. This did not give perfect satisfac- 
missionaries supported. tion > as there was n0 union of feeling among 
By Churches 28 soc i et ' es g0 widely scattered ; and the mis- 
Colleges 4 sionaries also felt the need of greater unity. 

Theological Seminaries 3 It was therefore thought advisable to organ- 
Individuals .. . . . 26 i ze presbyterially, and at present we have 

S. S. and other Associations 8 . X • . . r ,-,. , , 

seventy -tour missionaries supported in whole 

Total 69 or in part by presbyterial groups (one, or 

number of native preachers supported. two or three siting) and by synodical 

., , groups. Their contributions from 1890- 

7 Y P 1 &"c. E . . .... 11 ^891 have been as follows : 

Sabbath-schools 23 assembly's board. 

Churches ■••••••• 18 year. No. Societies. Amount. 

Societies and Bands 19 1890-1891 250 $3,405 41 

rp , , ~ 1891-1892 540 9,035 60 

lotal ' * ' 1UU 1892-1893 760 16,446 57 

shares in schools. 1893-1894 985 17,790 62 

By Individuals 16 ^f" 1895 1289 18,90*49 

Y. P. S. C. E 18 1895-1896 1381 20,482 94 

Churches 80110018 6 3 Many ° ther Youn g Peo P le ' s societies are 

Sodeties S and Bands "V. .7. 7.7.' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 5 contributing through the women's societies 

— ■— and Boards. The following table shows the 

Total 105 total number of societies giving through 

The relation of the Young People's socie- both channels : 

ties to this work is particularly interesting. assembly's board and women's boards. 

We received some subscriptions from the C. Year - No - Societies. Amount. 

E. societies in the fiscal year 1888-1889. \m'ml 874 14 492 52 

The gifts were mostly applied to scholar- 1892-1893 1283 24^671 99 

ships, but there were so few of them that 1893-1894 1856 29,243 54 

their work was not kept distinct from other 1894-1895 2437 33,160 53 

special work. In 1890-1891 there was an 1895-1896 2860 35,629 75 
awakening among the societies, and the 

inquiry frequently came, " What special THE DIVISION OF WORK AMONG 

work can we undertake?" At that time THE SECRETARIES, 

the Rev A. A. Fulton was in this country, The WQrk of ^ gecretaries of our Board 

and at the request of the Board visited the fa distributed as fo]lows . 
State conventions and the international 

convention, speaking for the cause of for- T , ,,. . DR - ellin wood. 

. . r T t p j i.i • .' Korea Mission, 

eign missions. He found enthusiastic Canton (China) Mission 

listeners, and to the many who were eager North Brazil Mission. 

to give he proposed the plan of giving two South Brazil Mission. 

cents a week a member, which was cordiallv JJ a . inan Mission. 

t T , ,i , ,i , n , Chinese and Japanese in America, 
received. It was in that year that we first Special lit e r ary work relating to Presbyterian mis- 
thought of grouping them for the support of sions. 



1897.] 



HISTORY OF THE HOARD. 



1 89 



DR. (III.LKSIMK. 

East .Japan Mission. 

West Japan Mission. 

Lodiana (India) Mission. 

Furrukhabad (India") Mission. 

Gaboon and Corisco (Africa) Mission. 

Guatemala Mission. 

Editorship of the Foreign Missions Department of 
Tfie Assembly 11 raid. 

Correspondence with candidates for missionary ap- 
pointment. 

DR. BROWN. 

Eastern Persia Mission. 

Western Persia Mission. 

Syria Mission. 

East Shantung (China) Mission. 

West Shantung (China) Mission. 

Peking (China) Mission. 

Western India Mission. 

Editorial Correspondence on Foreign Missions for 
The Church at Home and Abroad. 

Leaflets, maps and missionary speakers. 

Minutes and records of the Board. 

Home correspondence with synodical and presby- 
terial committees, pastors, Sabbath-school 
superintendents, etc. 

DR. LABAREE (IN MR. SPEER's ABSENCE). 

Central China Mission. 
Siam Mission. 
Laos Mission. 

Colombia (South America) Mission. 
Chile (South America) Mission. 
Liberia (Africa) Mission. 
Mexico Mission. 

News items and letters for the religious press. 
Notes and letters for The Church at Home and 
Abroad. 

No one not familiar with the details of cor- 
respondence with the missions can rightly 
conceive the multiplicity and complexity of 
grave and delicate matters which call for 
studv, conference and careful letter writing. 
A secretary is not merely a corresponding, 
but an administrative officer, an executive 
of the Board in its vast and varied work, 
each mission comprehending not only mis- 
sionaries, but native pastors and helpers, 
churches, schools of several kinds, hospitals 
and dispensaries, in some instances large 
printing presses, and in all problems of 
magnitude, difficulty and delicacy. Never 
did the question of methods and policies in 
the conduct of missions press so heavily on 
the attention and hearts of the secretaries as 
at the present time, for modern missionary 
work is conducted on scientific and business 
as well as spiritual principles. 

Then the calls here at home in the pre- 
paration of missionary literature are simply 
enormous. The demands on Dr. Ellin wood 
alone from all quarters for his assistance to 
a better understanding of world-wide mis- 



sionary and ethnic conditions are constantly 

OD the increase and can scarcely be ignored. 
Dr. Brown's department, in addition to his 
foreign administrative work in the corre- 
spondence with seven missions, includes a 
bureau of information, to which are coming 
from the whole country requests for litera- 
ture, missionary speakers and suggestions for 
aid in preparing sermons or addresses on 
missionary topics. 149, 500 leaflets were 
sent out in the single month of January, 
beside many hundreds of letters. 

Moreover, the correspondence with scores 
of candidates for missionary service is a 
most delicate and responsible branch of the 
work, demanding many hours of time in 
letter writing and the discriminating study 
of missionary qualifications. 

In addition to the work thus outlined, 
there are innumerable committee and coun- 
cil meetings, conferences with arriving and 
departing missionaries, the reception of a 
constant stream of callers, and the delivery 
of addresses in various parts of the country 
— a labor often exhausting in character, in- 
volving night journeys and a congestion of 
administrative work and correspondence 
which can only be relieved by " burning 
midnight oil." One corresponding secre- 
tary recently traveled 4000 miles and deliv- 
ered thirteen addresses in twelve days, and a 
little later he spoke nine times in three and 
a half days, while several addresses a week 
are a common experience. Dr. Jessup's 
article illustrates what all this means in 
mental and physical strain. 



HISTORY OF- THE BOARD. 

REV. P. F. ELLIN WOOD, D.D. ,LL.D. 

The New York Missionary Society, con- 
sisting principally of members of the Presby- 
terian churches, was organized in 1~!M;. 

In 1821 this society was transferred to 
The United Foreign Missionary Society. 
But meantime various smaller societies had 
been organized. Thus in 1815 a Young 
Men's Missionary Society was formed. This 
society carried on active operations for some 
years in the State of Xew Jersey and else- 
where, aud during the last year of its exist- 
ence it employed nine missionaries. In the 
year 1816 The Standing Committee of the 
Presbyterian General Assembly was suc- 
ceeded by a Board of Missions, still under 



190 



HISTORY OF THE BOARD. 



[March, 



the authority of the Assembly, though with 
a great enlargement of its powers, and with 
a membership representing each and all of 
the synods. This Board was recommended 
to all the churches for their regular support. 
There appear to have been not a few auxil- 
iary societies at that early date, as the 
Board, according to Dr. Green's History, 
recommended " the formation of auxiliary 
societies in every presbytery, and the 
formation of missionary societies, as far as 
practicable, in all the congregations of each 
presbytery. " To a considerable extent this 
recommendation was complied with. 

In the same year the General Assembly 
entered into a correspondence with the Re- 
formed Dutch Church and the Associate 
Reformed Church which resulted the follow- 
ing year in the establishment of The United 
Foreign Missionary Society, having as the 
objects of work " the North American 
Indians, the inhabitants of South America 
and other parts of the heathen world." 
The United States Government, under the 
presidency of James Monroe, gave to this 
society its patronage for work among the 
Indians. In 1821 it established missions 
among the Osages in Missouri and among 
the Cattaraugus Indians of New York. It 
received under its care the work which had 
been undertaken by various smaller societies. 
When this Society transferred its work to 
The American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, it had " nine missions, 
embracing sixty missionaries, male and 
female," with a growing work in schools, 
etc. 

The union of the United Foreign Mis- 
sionary Work of the Presbyterian and 
Reformed Churches with that of Congrega- 
tionalists under The American Board, about 
the year 1825, was the result of a pro- 
tracted discussion and was not without 
serious opposition. The generous and effi- 
cient support of the Presbyterian and Re- 
formed Churches was, however, for many 
years given to the American Board, whose 
history is so full of thrilling interest. 

Mean while various synodical societies had 
been formed for missions, home and foreign. 
The Synod of Pittsburgh had formed one 
as early as 1802, known as the Western 
Missionary Society for home and foreign 
work. This society appointed a Board of 
Trust which was afterward chartered by the 
State of Pennsylvania. 



Among the best supporters of the mission- 
ary interests of this early day were the 
women of the churches. ' ' Their gifts, ' ' says 
Green's History, "were in many cases 
the work of their own hands, by weaving, 
cutting and sewing, in preparing articles of 
food, for transportation in a rough way, and 
in readiness to go as missionary teachers and 
helpers at Indian stations. None were 
more liberal in their gifts. Their meetings 
for prayer were often largely attended then 
as now. All praise for their labors of 
honor." It is truly a matter of thanksgiv- 
ing to God that these worthy mothers are 
worthily represented by their daughters and 
granddaughters whose work has reached 
such proportions in the present generation. 
God bless the work of Christian women ! 

THE WESTERN FOREIGN MISSIONARY 
SOCIETY. 

The next important step in the mission- 
ary work of Presbyterians was the forma- 
tion of a strictly Foreign Missionary Society 
in the Synod of Pittsburgh. 

In 1831 this synod, feeling that the work 
of foreign missions could not adequately be 
presented to the Church by a Board which 
was also engaged in home missions, and 
feeling that many embarrassments must 
attend a great missionary work, conducted 
through voluntary and interdenominational 
agencies, formed the Western Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society, designed to embrace " min- 
isters, sessions and churches of the Synod of 
Pittsburgh, together with any other synod 
or synods, presbytery or presbyteries, that 
may hereafter formally unite with them." 
The superintendence of this movement was 
confided to a Board of Directors with head- 
quarters at Pittsburgh. The originator of 
the movement was Rev. Elisha P. Swift, 
who also became the first corresponding 
secretary. Mr. Swift, who was born at 
Williamstown, Mass., in 1792, and gradu- 
ated at Williams College and Princeton 
Theological Seminary, had been ordained as 
a missionary under the American Board in 
1817. His health failing him, he spent 
some months in visiting the churches of the 
West in the interest of missions, and finally 
settled as a pastor in the Second Presbyte- 
rian Church of Pittsburgh. It was Mr. 
Swift whose appeal before the synod with 
suggestions and proposals led to the estab- 
lishment of this society. 



1897.] 



HISTORY OF THE BOARD. 



191 



By this Society in 1833-34, the first mis- 
sionaries, Revs. J. C. Lowrie, Reed, Pinney 
and Kerr, were commissioned. 

At this time Hon. Walter Lowrie, Secre- 
tary of the Senate of the United States, 
with an interest in missions already increased 
by the gift of his eldest son as a missionary 
to India, contributed anonymously $1000 
to defray the salary of Mr. Swift. This 
fact is of especial interest as indicating a 
zeal which finally led to his own appoint- 
ment as secretary, in the year 1837. 

Dr. Swift resigned his secretaryship in 

1835, but continued his duties to January, 

1836, when he again entered the pastorate 
in Allegheny City. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ASSEMBLY'S 
BOARD. 

The transfer of the Western Foreign 
Missionary Society to the General Assembly 
for the purpose of forming the Assembly's 
Board cost much discussion and a protracted 
opposition. In the Assembly of 1835, a 
committee was appointed with power to 
accept the transfer, but the next Assembly 
showed a division of sentiment, and not till 
the Assembly of 1837 was the arrangement 
consummated, and the present Board fully 
established. This event is a part of the 
history of the division of the Presbyterian 
Church. The transfer of the Western 
Society has, no doubt, greatly advanced the 
missionary epoch of the Church. 

At the meeting of the General Assembly 
in Philadelphia in 1853, Rev. Dr. J. 
Leighton Wilson, who had returned from 
missionary work in West Africa, appeared 
as a commissioner from Harmony Presby- 
tery, S. C. Hon. Walter Lowrie, William 
Rankin, Esq., and other members of the 
Board, were present. At a special meeting 
of the Board held during the session, Dr. 
Wilson was elected as an additional secre- 
tary. He held this relation, working in 
great harmony with his brethren, until the 
outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, when 
he felt it to be his duty to withdraw, and 
cast in his fortunes with the South. 

As the war progressed and sectional 
feeling naturally became more bitter, the 
Southern presbyteries and synods withdrew 
from the Northern Assembly and formed a 
separate body with its own Executive Com- 
mittee on Foreign Missions. This commit- 
tee is now acting in the most fraternal 



relations with the Northern Board and 
formal terms of organic missionary coopera- 
tion have been agreed upon by the two 
General Assemblies. 

THE REUNION OF THE PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF MIS- 
SIONS PREVIOUSLY SUPPORTED BY THE 
AMERICAN BOARD. 

In 1870 occurred the reunion of the 
two bodies known as the Old School and 
New School Presbyterian Churches in the 
Northern States, and as the Churches of the 
New School Branch had for more than forty 
years borne a part in the support and 
administration of missions under the Ameri- 
can Board, an amicable arrangement was 
made by which they should take over a part 
of the missions to the Presbyterian Board, 
with which they now became connected. 
These were the Syrian and Nestorian mis- 
sions, the Gaboon mission and several mis- 
sions among our Indian tribes. 

Meanwhile the Board had lost a number 
of its native churches by the distraction of 
the Civil War, and the final withdrawal of 
the Southern Presbyterian synods, so at the 
time of the reunion and even after the Amer- 
ican Board missions had been taken in charge, 
the total number of communicants under 
the Board was still reduced to between three 
and four thousand. 

Since the reunion, missions have been 
established in Mexico, Guatemala, Chile, 
Hainan and Korea, and additional missions 
have been extended into East Persia, West 
Japan, West Shantung, and the German 
territories of West Africa. 

w t oman's work and young people's 
societies. 

The development of women's work since 
the reunion of the Church has been one of 
the most wonderful of all the many phases 
of our missionary history. Two societies 
were formed, one in Philadelphia and one 
in New York in 1870, and one in Chicago 
a little later, and these have been followed 
by others, until now there are seven great 
organizations, having their headquarters in 
different sections of the Church. 

The amount of funds which they have 
raised from year to year has been phenom- 
enal, while their prayerful interest and the 
leaven of their manifold and ubiquitous 
influence have filled all hearts with rejoicing. 



192 



LAOS. 



[March, 



They are still in full and vigorous and ever- 
increasing activity and success. Perhaps it 
is a natural result of the influence of these 
women of the Church in their Christian 
homes that a great tide of interest has been 
developed within the last few years in the 
multiplication of Young People's societies 
and in the general increase of interest among 
the young of the Church. This, too, is 
among the auspicious signs of promise that 
now attend the cause of missions. 

A careful review of the work — if there 
were space for anything more than this bare 
historic outline — would touch many tender 
chords: the martyrdom of the Board's mis- 
sionaries in India in 1857, the tragic death 
of other missionaries in various lands, and 
the long list of honored names of the 
departed, which are still cherished — all 
these, if reviewed, would give emphasis to 
the moral earnestness which the Church has 
invested in this great work and which in the 
hands of him to whom " all power is 
given ' ' can never be lost. 

It is worthy of mention that Dr. John 
C. Lowrie, the first appointee of the West- 
ern Foreign Missionary Society, and who, 
having been compelled to return to this 
country after two years of ill health, has for 
almost two generations been connected with 
the Board as secretary or emeritus secretary, 
still lives to behold what God hath wrought. 
William Rankin, Esq., also the esteemed 
treasurer of the Board for forty years, still 
lives to rejoice in its prosperity and success. 
Two secretaries, Rev. David Irving, D.D., 
and Rev. Arthur Mitchell, D.D., after sev- 
eral years of earnest toil, were gathered to 
their rest, beloved and lamented by all. 
Many of the fathers in the membership of 
the Board also have passed to their reward, 
having borne an honorable share in the 
great and blessed work, to which they felt it 
an honor to devote their loving service. 



Letters, 



Rev. Daniel McGilvary, D.D., Chieng Mai, 
Laos : — As a member of a committee on visitation 
of the churches, and village work, I have had the 
best opportunity for short tours, having taken 
in the three churches in the north on the long tour 
with Dr. Denman. The last short one was to Maa 
Ow. In villages where there are Christians, we 
have fond no other plan so profitable as the systema- 
tic study of the word of God, with the old and the 



young, men and women, and inquirers, interspersed 
with singing and teaching to sing our new gospel 
hymns, by Mr. Wilson, and prayer, in which near- 
ly every Christian leads. It is stimulating to 
teacher and taught, and the responsive reading of 
the Scriptures is an encouragement and incentive to 
all to learn to read. 

Maa Ow is a good example of the influence of 
gratuitous instruction, unspoiled by paid laborers, 
and of the influence of consistent, godly examples. 
The work was begun there during the stay of Rev. 
Chalmers Martin, to which he contributed not a 
little. Loong Tah, the first Christian in the 
village is a plain farmer, somewhat past middle 
age, who has never learned to read. But he has been 
a living epistle that his neighbors have all read, and 
he stimulates the others to study. And now there 
are twenty thoroughly Christian families, with two 
ruling elders ; the modesty of Loong Tah alone 
prevents a third. 

Probably in no other village is there a stronger 
leaning toward Christianity than in this and the 
villages connected with it. 

Fourteen new communicants were added during 
the week there ; three others were ready to join, but 
for sufficient reasons delayed ; one was restored, 
and ten children were baptized. 

The second Sabbath of the month was the bi- 
monthly communion in the First Church. Eleven 
adults were admitted to the communion, and fifty- 
nine others were examined by the session between 
five P.M. Saturday and sunset on Sabbath ; occupy- 
ing all the time except the hours of worship, in- 
cluding a late night session. The congregations 
had been very large, even to the utmost seating 
capacity of our church, and a deep interest was 
manifested. Yet our unbelief was rebuked, and 
our expectations surpassed when twenty-four girls 
and twenty-two boys from the two schools, with 
others to make up the fifty-nine, appeared before 
the session and gave satisfactory evidence of their 
faith in Christ and consecration to his service. 

The third Sabbath we were at Maa Ow. As the 
schools would close before another communion, it 
was decided best to receive on last Sabbath, the 
fourth, those of the applicants who belonged to the 
bounds of the First Church, including two from 
San Sai Church, at the request of its session. 
Those who naturally belonged to the other churches 
were delayed to make their profession in their own 
church. With these deductions there remained 
forty-two after another satisfactory examination 
who stood up for baptism or public profession from 
the non-communing roll. It was a sight over 
which angels and saints surely rejoiced. Rev. 
Nan Tah received the same day, at Maa Doka 
Church, fifteen, including the pupils from there 
who were allowed to attend and others, and ten 
that we know of were admitted to the San Sai 
Church on the third Sabbath. So that within 
three successive Sabbaths sixty-nine were added to 
the communion roll of the city church ; fifteen at 
Maa Puka, ten at San Sai, besides those to join 
Lappoon, Bethel and Wang Man. Ninety-four in 
fifteen days ! In self-abasement we may exclaim, 
What hath God wrought ! No other three succes- 
sive such Sabbaths have been known in the history 
of the mission, and no one equal to the last Sabbath 
of the year. 



EDUCATION 




WORKING-ROOMS OF THE BOARD 
OF EDUCATION. 

As the months go by, and the Wither- 
spoon Building, which is to be the new 
home for those Boards of the Church which 
have their headquarters in Philadelphia, 
approaches completion, the necessity of pre- 
paring our minds for the abandonment of 
rooms hallowed by the prayers and labors of 
many devoted men becomes pressing. Over 
the head of the corresponding secretary, as 
he sits daily at his desk, is the portrait of 
\h\ Charles Hodge, who was president of 
the Board from 1862-1869. In the treas- 
urer's room, over the big safe, hangs the 
likeness of Dr. Herrick Johnson, the first 
president after the reorganization of the 
Board in 1870. The faces of other presi- 
dents also adorn the walls, e. g., Alexander 
Henry, Esq. (1831-1847), Rev. E. R. 
Beadle, D.D. (1873-1874), Rev. T. J. 



Shepherd, D.D. (1878-1882). Over the 
fireplace in the treasurer's room are seen 
side by side the portraits of John Brecken- 
ridge and Cortlandt Van Rensselaer, the 
two corresponding secretaries who of all the 
number undoubtedly made the most pro- 
found impression upon the Church by the 
work which they did in the cause of minis- 
terial education. There are also excellent 
portraits of Dr. Poor, but lately retired 
from the secretaryship, and several of his 
predecessors, Drs. Neill, Ely and Speer. 
But that our readers may see for themselves 
we put at the head of this article a view of 
two of the rooms. The veteran treasurer, 
Jacob Wilson, who has had thirty years of 
experience in the service of the Board, sits 
in the distance between the fireplace and 
the safe, while Norman Heston, the clerk, 
stands in the doorway. On the long table 
in the foreground lie some of the imple- 
ments of his trade. A private room adjoin- 

193 



194 



MISSIONARY CONFERENCE AT LINCOLN UNIVERSITY. 



[March, 



ing contains the phonograph on which letters 
by the thousand are dictated to correspon- 
dents all over the United States, students, 
pastors, chairmen of Education Committees, 
professors, et al. plur. Around the long 
table in the corresponding secretary's room 
the Board meets once in two weeks and with 
patient care endeavors, under the faithful 
presidency of Dr. Baker, to solve the many 
and often most difficult problems with which 
it finds itself confronted. Here the Finance 
Committee and the Legal Committee, com- 
posed of business men and lawyers of high 
standing, ability and experience, give their 
recommendations as to legacies, investments 
and appropriations. From these rooms, 
first occupied by the Board in November, 
1872, streams of influence of the most far- 
reaching and beneficent character have 
constantly issued. Here, in fact, have been 
the secret springs of a large portion of the 
pastoral and missionary efficiency of the 
Church during a quarter of a century. 
At this recruiting station of the Church 
have been enrolled year by year a good 
proportion of the noble army of volunteers 
who have enlisted in the service of Jesus 
Christ to be trained as leaders of the puis- 
sant host of God's elect. Maya new era of 
helpfulness and blessing be ushered in as the 
Board takes up the quarters assigned to it 
in the Witherspoon Building. We beg our 
readers to lift their hearts in prayer to God 
that his presence may follow us there, and 
consecrate the place to his praise. 



MISSIONARY CONFERENCE AT LIN- 
COLN UNIVERSITY. 

The hopes of the founders of Lincoln 
University have been realized by the success- 
ful work done by the institution in different 
directions. The graduates have given a 
most excellent account of themselves in 
various fields of labor in our own land, and 
the thorough education which they received 
has made them men of large influence in 
many communities. It was a primary 
object, however, with the founders, to raise 
up missionaries for Africa, as the first circu- 
lar issued by the trustees plainly shows. 
Forty years have passed since the college 
building was erected, and a stone set in the 
front of it with the inscription, " The night 
is far spent: the day is at hand." In the 
meantime highways have been opened up in 



a most remarkable manner through Africa, 
while here in America, by the abolishment 
of slavery, and by the educational work of 
such institutions as Lincoln University, the 
Afro-American has been gradually made 
ready for the task, which seems peculiarly 
appropriate for him, of giving the light of 
the gospel of Christ to the Dark Continent. 
At such a crisis as this, therefore, and in- 
spired by the hops that the time would prove 
to be now come when graduates of the 
University might be accepted by the Board 
of Foreign Missions for labor in Africa, and 
with the further hope that a deep impression 
might be made upon undergraduate stu- 
dents, it was determined to devote an entire 
week to a missionary conference, beginning 
January 8. 

The hope is cherished that the occasion 
may prove historic, and the place of meet- 
ing worthy of remembrance. A view of the 
chapel is given in this magazine, June, 
1895, p. 507. 

THE PERSONS IN CONFERENCE. 

The Board of Foreign Missions was 
represented by Secretary Gillespie. Repre- 
sentatives were present from the Board of 
Trustees and from the Presbytery; but 
interest largely centred upon the five gradu- 
ates of the institution who came by special 
invitation to represent the active workers 
on the field. The addresses of these young 
men were delivered with earnestness and 
solemnity, indicating plainly an awakened 
conscience on the subject of the evangeliza- 
tion of Africa. Each one, as he spoke, 
was conscious that the call might come to 
him to be one of the two presently to be 
selected to inaugurate the work to be done 
by the grace of God beyond the sea. Other 
friends of the University, and friends of the 
work of foreign missions, were present to 
express their sympathy, and to help by their 
addresses to deepen the impression made 
upon the minds of the students in attend- 
ance. The subjects discussed at the con- 
ference were such as these, " Africa as a 
Foreign Mission Field," " The Qualifica- 
tions of a Foreign Missionary," " The 
Claims of the Most Needy," " The Agency 
of the Holy Spirit in the Extension of 
Christ's Kingdom," " The Day of Africa's 
Redemption is Come, " ' ' The Effect of the 
Missionary Movement upon Those who 
Remain at Home." It may be confidently 



897.] 



OUR 



REFUNDED ACCOUNT. 



L95 



assumed that from this time the University 
will bear a closer relation to one of the 
greatest, most interesting, and probably 
most difficult tasks which the coming cen- 
tury offers to human effort — the redemption 
of the continent of Africa. 

There are many reasons why that task 
should be largely in the hands of the colored 
people of America. God grant that many 
of the sons of " Lincoln" may have the 
honor and the privilege of such a service. 

WHAT IS IN A NAME? 

There may be much. Was not the name 
first borne by this institution a premonition 
of what is now transpiring within its halls ? 
Bonaparte's soldier said to the surgeon 
who was probing his wounded body for a 
musket-ball, "Probe deeper, and you will 
find the emperor." Deep in the heart of 
this school, from the time of its founding, 
might be found Africa. The name, "Ash- 
raun Institute," was an indication of this. 
Jehudi Ashmun, from whom this name was 
derived, gave himself for Africa. His short 
career of six years, 1822-1828, was devoted 
for her welfare. The brig Strong which 
carried him from America to her distant 
shore, had a streamer floating from the mast- 
head with this motto, " For God and 
Africa. ' ' He was the first colonial governor 
of Liberia, and exerted himself to secure 
peace with neighboring tribes, to establish 
missions among them, to set up schools, and 
by good government provide security of life 
and property. It was a little strip of coast 
land only which was then seized for God 
and for Christianity and civilization ; but 
it was an omen for good, an anticipation 
and a pledge of the work of continental 
proportions reserved for a period three- 
quarters of a century later. That period is 
now present with all its responsibilities, all 
its labors, all its hopes, all its anxieties and 
difficulties. May the Church be found 
ready for the emergency, and may the spirit 
of Jehudi Ashmun rest upon the educated 
colored youth of America. The Board of 
Education has had a large share in assisting 
these youth to secure their academical, col- 
legiate and theological training, and it 
looks with the utmost satisfaction upon the 
rising disposition among them to turn 
thought and attention to the task of helping 
to redeem the land of their origin. 



OUR " REFUNDED ACCOUNT." 

"A scholarship afforded by the Presby- 
terian Church, through the Board of Edu- 
cation, is not to be given or regarded a< a 
loan .... but as her cheerful contribu- 
tion to facilitate and expedite " preparation 
for the holy ministry. The recipients " are 
only obliged by it to a warmer interest in 
her efforts for the advancement of the Iv'> 
deemer's kingdom, and especially to the use 
of the means necessary to instruct and 
stimulate her members in the duty of multi- 
plying and sending forth preachers of the 
gospel of salvation to all the world." 

On the other hand, " the sums of money 
appropriated by the Board shall be refunded 
to it with interest in case a student fails to 
enter on, or continue in, the work of the 
ministry (unless it appears that he is provi- 
dentially prevented) ; or if he ceases to 
adhere to the standards of the Presbyterian 
Church . . . . or if he withdraws his con- 
nection from the Church of which this 
Board is the organ, without furnishing a 
satisfactory reason." 

These rules are the expression of the 
principles on which the Board conducts its 
work. The comparatively small amounts 
granted in aid of its candidates have borne 
abundant fruit in lives of devoted service 
on the part of a very large majority. But 
some have not been content without sending 
back the money by which they have been 
helped to get their education so that it may 
be used over again for the education of 
others. In many cases the incomes received 
as pastors, or as missionaries, is so small 
that such repayment is practically impossi- 
ble. Some see to it that large contributions 
come to our treasury every year from their 
churches; giving perhaps a goodly portion 
of it from their private purses. One minis- 
ter wrote a year or two ago that one hun- 
dred dollars a year should come to the 
Board through him as long as he continued 
in the ministry as an expression of his 
gratitude, even if he paid the most of it 
himself; and the check for that amount 
comes regularly to hand. 

And here is a short but interesting letter, 
received a few days ago by the treasurer, 
enclosing five hundred dollarSj which, added 
to amounts previously sent, makes a total 
of three thousand five hundred dollar* paid 
by this gentleman, whose entire receipts 



196 



THAT BLACK LIST. 



[March, 



from the treasury of the Board were only 
one hundred and eighty-seven dollars and 
fifty cents. 

Here again is the case of a minister hard 
at work in a home missionary field who, in 
the course of three years, has paid into the 
treasury of our Board twelve hundred and 
thirty-five dollars and eighty cents, being the 
total amount received from the Board, a 
number of years ago, of $670, with interest 
at six per cent, amounting to $565.80. 



We commend these examples to those 
who have in years past been under the care 
of the Board, not so much with the expecta- 
tion that they will be able to pay back from 
their private income what they have re- 
ceived, but with the hope that they will use 
all their influence to instruct and interest 
their people in the cause of Ministerial 
Education, and so secure from them the 
largest possible contributions. 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF 



" THAT BLACK LIST." 

A venerable and beloved brother has just 
written to me concerning his church, " in 
all the forty-seven years that I have been 
here, we have never failed to contribute to 
every Board of our Church, so far as I can 
remember," and then he expressed his sor- 
row that those who are receiving annuities 
from the Board of Relief " must suffer be- 
cause 3714 churches failed to make offerings 
last year," and adds that he does not want 
the name of his church on " That Black 
List." 

" That Black List " of non- contributing 
churches! Brethren, there is food for 
thought in this striking characterization of 
the churches which have made no offering 
to the sacred fund devoted to the relief of 
our honorably retired servants of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and the families of the conse- 
crated men who have fallen on the field of 
battle. Is the expression, " That Black 
List," too harsh a term, too severe a charac- 
terization of the non- contributing churches ? 

What is God's imperative law ujxm the 
subject of providing a proper living for all 
his ministering servants ? Was it not a 
violation of God's positive law to forsake 
the Levite under the old dispensation ? 
And has not " the Lord ordained that they 
which preach the gospel should live of the 
gospel ?" And does not the Apostle Paul 
say, " Bear ye one another's burdens, and 
so fulfill the law of Christ?" 

If, then, it is the law of the Lord that 
his ministers should " live of the gospel," 
and if there comes a time in the providence 
of God, when they can no longer render an 
active service in the work of the ministry, 
and in consequence receive no income for 



services being rendered, is God's law to be 
trampled in the dust, and are his worn-out 
servants to be turned out to die, or are they 
to still " live of the gospel ?" And if, by 
God's ordination, they are to " live of the 
gospel," in the light of divine inspiration is 
it not a crime against God to refuse to fur- 
nish his needy ministers the necessities of 
life ? Is it not a forsaking of the servant of 
the Lord that is utterly unjustifiable in the 
light of God's law ? And is it not a black 
ingratitude to God and his servants in face 
of all the inestimable blessings the religion 
of Christ has conferred upon our hearts and 
our homes ? 

WHO READS "THAT BLACK LIST" ? 

Have you seriously thought of the influ- 
ence produced by the reading of the long 
list of non- contributing churches? Many 
faithful Christian people, who conscientiously 
contribute to this cause, are deeply grieved 
because every year one-half of our churches 
fail to make contributions to this most worthy 
cause. Many of the honorably retired ser- 
vants of the Master read this list,' who won- 
der if the Church has lost her gratitude for 
the life-long service they have rendered. 
Many needy widows of deceased ministers 
read the list, who wonder if it is possible 
for a church session to refuse to give their 
church an opportunity to make an offering 
to relieve their unspeakable distress. Many 
orphan children of deceased ministers read 
the list, and wonder why their fathers gave 
their lives to the service of a Church that 
refuses to provide for them in their helpless 
orphanage as God's people in older times 
provided for the orphans of the Levites 
who died in God's service. 

We would fain hope that the long list is 



1807.] 



HE CARETtt. 



197 



not read^by the outside world, who may be 
ready to brand Christianity as a false relig- 
ion when its professors do not pay the just 
debts of the Church, due to her worn-out 
servants and the families of those who have 
given all their working force to the cause of 
their adorable Master and Redeemer. 

We would fain hope, too, that it is not 
read by young men who are thinking of 
entering the ministry, and who may be so 
disheartened as to turn their backs upon the 
sacred work, and say, we cannot think of 
entering the ministry of a Church which is 
so neglectful of her hard-working, self-deny- 
ing servants when they become too old to 
earn a living, and a Church that can turn 
away in heartlessness and indifference from 
the widows and orphans of those who have 
given their lives to the service of God, and 
have died on the field of labor. 

It must be remembered, however, by all, 
that this long "Black List" is read by 
our loving Master and the righteous Judge 
of all men! And what does Christ 
think when he sees that so many churches 
contributed nothing whatever during the 
whole past year to the relief of his servants 
who are so dear to his heart ? 

Is, then, the roll of non-contributing 
churches justly called " That Black List " ? 
Let every member of the Church ponder 
well this question and see if our beloved 
brother and venerated father, who has so 
stigmatized it, has been unjust in the use of 
this trenchant designation. If the designa- 
tion bears a fair semblance of justice in its 
characterization, then let no thoughtless- 
ness or indifference on ihe part of any 
session be the occasion of their church 
being justly black-listed. 

The General Assembly of 1895 adopted 
the report of the Standing Committee on 
Ministerial Relief which says, " Your com- 
mittee would emphasize the sacred nature 
and imperative obligation of the work com- 
mitted to the Board of Ministerial Relief. 
It is the almoner of the churches in distrib- 
uting to the necessities of saints. It is not 
by accident that it is placed first of all the 
Boards in the calendar of the Assembly. 
The Ghureh has not performed its duty until 
it has provided for every aged or disabled 
minister unable longer to serve in its 
ranks." " Their ordination vows required 
them to keep themselves free from worldly 
cares and avocations. They have not been 



permitted to acquire fortunes, and, because 
they have often listened to the cry of the 
needy, they have not saved from incomes 
hardly sufficient to provide their daily 
bread." " Shall they be left destitute, or 
be compelled to seek bread from door to 
door?" No, no! The great Presbyterian 
Church has not lost her sense of justice, 
and she will not permit her helpless one- to 
suffer when even a small contribution from 
each communicant would supply their want-. 
No, the Church has not lost her honor. 



The American Tract Society publishes in a little 
leaflet the following sweet stanzas : 

HE CAKETH. 

What can it mean ? Is it aught to him 
That the nights are long and the days are dim ? 
Can he be touched by the griefs I bear, 
Which sadden the heart and whiten the hair ? 
Around his throne are eternal calms, 
And strong, glad music of happy psalms, 
And bliss unruffled by any strife. 
How can he care for my little life? 

And yet I want him to care for me 

While I live in this world where the sorrows be. 

When the lights die down from the path I take, 

When strength is feeble and friends forsake, 

When love and music, that once did bless, 

Have left me to silence and loneliness, 

And my life-song changes to sobbing prayers, 

Then my heart cries out for a God who cares. 

When shadows hang o'er me the whole day long 
And my spirit is bowed with shame and wrong ; 
When I am not good, and the deeper shade 
Of conscious sin makes my heart afraid, 
And the busy world has too much to do 
To stay in its course to help me through, 
And I long for a Saviour — can it be 
That the God of the universe cares for me ? 

Oh, wonderful story of deathless love ! 
Each child is dear to that heart above. 
He fights for me when I cannot fight, 
He comforts me in the gloom of night, 
He lifts the burden, for he is strong, 
He stills the sigh and awakens the song ; 
The sorrow that bowed me down he bears, 
And loves and pardons because he cares. 



Let all who are sad take heart again ; 
We are not alone in our hours of pain ; 
Our Father stoops from his throne above 
To soothe and quiet us with his love. 
He leaves us not when the storm is high 
And we have safety, for he is nigh. 
Can it be trouble which he doth share? 
Oh, rest in peace, for the Lord does care. 



FREEDMEN 



SOUTHERN NEGRO EDUCATION. 

MRS. FRANKLINA GRAY BARTLETT, 
PASADENA, CAL. 

At a largely attended missionary meeting 
held recently, the following inquiry was 
found in the " Question-box:" " Why are 
the public schools of the South not sufficient 
for the education of the Negroes '?" The 
reply given by the chairman was: " Be- 
cause Negroes are not admitted to the 
schools for whites." This seemed to en- 
tirely satisfy the audience, for none rose to 
further question or remark. Since then we 
have taken pains to ascertain the opinion of 
a number of women on this point, and, while 
their answers vary, there is a strange mis- 
apprehension of the truth. 

In the first place it seems pertinent to 
inquire: " Can the public-school system, as 
administered in the United States, under 
even the most favorable circumstances, 
prove sufficient for the education of a 
practically heathen race ? Can a curriculum 
which excludes all religious instruction, and 
which takes no account of ethics, hope even 
to civilize, in the higher sense, a people who 
have no standard of morality which is applied 
to daily living ? In other words, will the 
' Three R's,' even when made to include 
literature, rhetoric and algebra, be equal to 
the task of converting the freedmen into 
upright self-respecting citizens, strong to 
combat the heredity of centuries?" For 
the purpose of intelligently replying to this 
question, let us look for a moment at a 
brief history of public-school education for 
the Negroes in the South ; our authority for 
the following facts being the last United 
States Government report on the subject. 

Only two millions, or one-third of the 
white population in the South before the 
war, were slave owners; the remaining two- 
thirds being classed as " poor whites," and 
being largely illiterate. At the beginning 
of the strife, all the Negroes, except a few 
freedmen and the upper household ser- 
vants, were unable to read and write. 
Very early in the war the Government came 
198 



into possession of large districts along the 
southern Atlantic coast, of the city of New 
Orleans, the Valley of the Mississippi, as far 
as Vicksburg, and a good portion of Ten- 
nessee. At the same time multitudes of 
vagrant freedmen and destitute whites 
were thrown across the border; often a seri- 
ous incumbrance to military operations at 
critical points. With a most laudable zeal, 
the friends of Christian education in the 
North pressed in wherever there was an 
open door. In 1861 the American Mission- 
ary Association, representing the evangeli- 
cal Congregational Church, opened its first 
school for the " Contrabands," at Hamp- 
ton, Va. In the following January, schools 
were opened at Hilton Head and Beaufort, 
S. C. In March, 1862, sixty teachers were 
sent to the eastern Atlantic coast, from 
Boston and New York, and in June, 1862, 
eighty-six teachers were at work at various 
points. Thus, through an atmosphere 
darkened with the smoke of battle, surcharged 
with the angry passions of war, shone the 
calm light of an educational dawn. In 
1863 the gathering of vast crowds of col- 
ored people threatened the most serious 
embarrassment to the armies of General 
Grant, moving upon Vicksburg. The Gen- 
eral selected the Rev. John Eaton, the 
young chaplain of an Ohio regiment, and 
placed in his hands the distracting task of 
superintending the colored people through- 
out the entire region of the army operations. 
This meant, first, the separation of these people 
from the active army, the employment of 
their effective men and women in various 
kinds of labor, the support of myriads of 
their poor, with an indefinite military 
authority. To John Eaton the country 
owes the largest and most successsful system 
of educational operation in any one district 
of the Southern States between 1863 and 
1865. In 1866 Col. Eaton had 770,000 
people under his charge, and schools in four 
States. In 1865 the Government organized 
the Freedmen' s Bureau; and an Act of 
Congress was passed in 1866 bestowing 
upon it the rents and sales of all Confeder- 



1691.] 



SOUTHERN NEGRO EDUCATION. 



lll'.l 



ate States' property. This Bureau was 
abolished in 1871, having expended in five 

years more than five million dollars for the 
education of the Negroes; and having at 
the time two hundred and fifty thousand 
pupils in its schools. One by one, as the 
reconstruction period ended, the Southern 
States organized a system of common-school 
education for both races — painfully inad- 
equate, it is true, but nobly generous in 
view of the bankrupt condition of the 
South. In thirteen years, from 1876 to 
1889, sixteen Southern States have ex- 
pended $216,644,099 on public schools of 
both races. During these years the average 
attendance of Negroes has been 916,667, 
the school tax almost entirely paid by whites. 
No finer record of the kind exists in any 
land. And what is the result of this stupen- 
dous effort to educate the Negro ? 

The report of the Commissioner of Edu- 
cation for 1892-93 shows that in the South 
more than sixty per cent, of the Negro 
population is illiterate. " Although the 
colored people compose less than one-eighth 
of the entire population of the United 
States, nearly one-half of the illiterates of 
the country are colored. " 

If we consider that in 1860 it was esti- 
mated that ninety-eight per cent, were 
illiterate, the record is encouraging; yet it 
must be remembered that a great number of 
these cannot do more than work their way 
through a child's First Reader, and that 
many can only write their names. "What 
moral uplift can be hoped for from such a 
veneering of education ? 

This question can be best answered by a 
few statistics taken from records in different 
parts of the South, therefore unaffected by 
any local influence. In one county in Mis- 
sissippi there were, during twelve months, 
300 marriage licenses issued for white peo- 
ple. According to the population there 
should have been, in the same time, 1200 or 
more for Negroes. There were just three 
issued to blacks; although there can be no 
legal marriage in Mississippi without a 
license. 

The jail register of Vicksburg, from 1886 
to 1887, showed 446 commitments, of which 
426 were colored. In 1889, in Charleston, 
2202 Negroes were arrested, as against 1250 
whites. The United States Census gives the 
relative criminality of blacks ami whites: 
In Tennessee, five Negroes to one white; in 



South Carolina, six and three-quarters to 
one; in Georgia, seven to one. The pres- 
ent growing peril of white women in the 
South was unknown before, and even during 
the war. 

These are facts, and cannot be gain-aid. 
How then are we to reconcile them with 
such statements as the following, which I 
quote from an editorial in the January 
( 'entury: 

" No patriotic American could have read 
the reports of the opening exercises of the 
Atlanta Exposition, last September, without 
feeling a thrill of joy run through his veins. 
It was the formal birth of the new South, 
founded on free labor, and the burial for- 
ever of the old South and Negro slavery. 
The free Negro was not only represented in 
the Exposition by a department filled with 
evidences of the progress which he has made 
as a freeman, but by an orator of his own 
race, who spoke from the same platform 
with white men and women ; and spoke 
with such lofty and impassioned eloquence 
as to arouse the assembled ' beauty and 
chivalry ' of the South to a perfect tumult 
of enthusiasm and delight. His color was 
forgotten, and the race, which had been his 
oppressor, avowed itself not merely his 
equal, but his hearty and frank admirer. 
This was a demonstration the making of 
which alone would have justified the hold- 
ing of a great Exposition. It showed that 
slowly but surely the Negro is making prog- 
ress, not only in moral, intellectual and 
material condition, but in the esteem of 
Southern white people 

"Surely, there is in all this great cause 
for national rejoicing. If the Negro prob- 
lem, which, since the war, has constituted 
the darkest cloud hanging over the nation, 
is to be solved in a way so just and benefi- 
cent, there is nothing left for the South to 
fear." 

In these reflections the Century is refer- 
ring to the exceptions, which only prove 
the rule, and which in almost every case 
owe their existence not to the common 
schools, maintained by the State, but to our 
noble religious schools which Christian 
charity has scattered throughout the South. 
Through the gospel of Christ, and the gospel 
of work, the Negro's soul must be re- 
deemed, and his body trained to true man- 
hood. 

Sectional prejudices have long — much too 



200 



children's day, 1897. 



[March, 



long — been used for the neglect of this im- 
portant field of labor. The subject is often 
spoken of as an " unpopular" one. " This 
is our first freedmen's meeting," said an 
Auxiliary president recently, " and I am so 
glad that it is over without any one's feelings 
being hurt." Alas! the Master's feelings 
must be sorely hurt when he calls his reap- 
ers, and finds them unwilling to gather any 
but lilies; when he cries to them to go out 
into the byways and hedges, and they reply 
that his garden is alone their charge; when 
he says, " I have washed these souls white 
in my blood ' ' and they answer in disgust, 



''Yea, Lord, their souls but not their 
faces." 

When that light flashes forth which is to 
shine from the East unto the West, dissolv- 
ing in its divine alembic all metes and 
bounds, all longitudes and latitudes, it will 
be found that a soul is not estimated by com- 
parison, but that each one, shedding its 
garment of flesh, stands forth in the image 
of God, and is deemed worth the sacrifice 
of his only-begotten Son. Of the neglected 
black as of the white he will say in sorrow- 
ful reproach : ' ' Inasmuch as ye did it not to 
one of the least of these ye did it not to me. ' ' 



PUBLICATION AND SABBATH-SCHOOL WORK. 



CHILDREN'S DAY, 1897. 

Children's Day this year will fall on June 
13. Programmes of exercises have as usual 
been prepared by the Superintendent of the 
Sabbath- school and Missionary Department, 
with the assistance of a special committee. 
The difficulty of satisfying all views and 
opinions as to what constitutes a good pro- 
gramme, especially in the matter of musical 
selections, is considerable, and many letters 
have been received by the Department on 
this subject, some in commendation and 
some in criticism. There has been a strong 
feeling in some quarters that while the 
music of last year's programme was of a 
high class, it was not suitable for the average 
school. Desiring to give due weight to 
these representations and to produce the best 
programme possible, the superintendent of 
the Department has this year called for 
counsel and practical suggestions from a 
large number of representative Sabbath- 
school superintendents, and with the further 
aid of well-qualified specialists he has pre- 
pared a main programme for 1897, which 
he hopes will meet with general approval. 
It is entitled " In the Days of Thy 
Youth," and is arranged in three parts: 
" The Saviour's Love for Youth," 
" Youth's Love for the Saviour," 
' ' Youth' s Consecration. ' ' There are seven 
musical pieces, besides the concluding 
hymn, ''America," which is given without 
the notes; and from these seven melodies it 
is expected that five will be selected, a 
school being perfectly free, of course, to 



choose pieces in place of any that may be 
thought unsuitable for that particular 
school. There is also a supplementary 
programme containing recitations, and Mr. 
Israel P. Black has prepared a programme 
for the primary classes as usual. 

The plan of distribution will be the same 
as in recent years. The superintendents of 
all our Sabbath-schools have, as far as pos- 
sible, been supplied with sample copies of 
the programmes, and notified by circular of 
the plans suggested by the Board under the 
direction of the General Assembly. This 
circular contains the recent deliverances of 
the General Assembly on the subject of 
Children's Day and Sabbath-school missions, 
with explanatory notes and suggestions, and 
following these are full details of the general 
plan for Children's Day, hints to superin- 
tendents for the successful carrying out of 
this plan, directions for obtaining supplies 
of programmes and other material, direc- 
tions for forwarding offerings, and informa- 
tion as to Sabbath -school missions. All the 
supplies will be furnished and forwarded 
without charge to Presbyterian Sabbath - 
schools, on request, and it is earnestly 
hoped that every school will heartily observe 
the day and make as liberal a contribution 
as possible to the Sabbath-school Missionary 
Fund. Should any superintendent not 
receive by mail before the middle of March 
a copy of the circular herein referred to, it 
will be because his address is not known to 
the Department, and he should lose no time 
in writing for a copy. 

To quicken interest in this growing and 



1897.] 



TRIUMPHS IN MISSOURI 



201 



most useful work of our Church in the 
minds and hearts of pastors and all friends 
of the children and of all believers in the 
benefits of Christian civilization, we present 



a number of extracts from communications 
received from the field, praying that these 
may be the effectual means of drawing to 
us a great multitude of willing offerings. 




Ethel Presbyterian Church. Missouri. 



TRIUMPHS IN MISSOURI. 

The judicious and continuous labors of 
Mr. S. A. Meredith, our missionary in 
Palmyra Presbytery, are steadily helping 
towards solving the religious problem in this 
State. Our illustration shows the gratifying 



outcome of much anxious toil in the town of 
Ethel, where we have had for some years a 
mission school. The town has a central 
population of about six hundred, and with 
the adjacent district constitutes an important 
region. The little school had varying 
fortunes, and for a long time every attempt 



202 



SABBATH-SCHOOL EXTENSION IN ST. LOUIS. 



[March, 



to establish a permanent preaching service 
failed, and the few earnest workers there 
were much discouraged. It would have 
been very easy at any time to drop the 
enterprise. Persistent eftort was at length 
rewarded. Friends were raised up in the 
town and neighborhood, a Presbyterian 
church was organized, and a handsome 
building erected, costing $2300. As we 
understand it, the building was planned 
originally for a union church, but the enter- 
prise proving a failure, was finally turned 
over to the Presbyterian church. The 
building is thirty-four feet by sixty-five feet 
in dimensions, with an alcove in the rear for 
the pulpit, and a tower, as shown in the 
illustration. There is an excellent bell in 
the tower. The interior is finished in hard- 
wood with curved back seats highly polished, 
and the edifice is said to be " a little gem." 
It will be painted a darker color this 
spring. Owing to a mistake as to the hour 
fixed for taking the photograph, most of the 
Sabbath-school children were not present, 
and the camera being too far from the 
building, the faces in the group do not show 
very distinctly. The cut, however, gives a 
good idea of the substantial basis for the 
new church organization, which we trust 
will be greatly blessed to the entire region. 

In another letter, Mr. Meredith describes 
some more interesting phases of the work. 
Of one community he says: " The school 
will, I think, be permanent, the only diffi- 
culty being that there are so many denom- 
inations. Nine different denominations are 
represented in the school, which makes the 
work very much like handling dynamite." 
Of another school he writes: " It is in a 
hard, rough community. During the rainy 
weather the men congregate round the drug 
store, drink whisky and bitters, and 
gamble. This is interspersed with horse- 
racing and fighting. The day I organized 
the school there were forty-three young men 
and boys on horseback. After school they 
commenced racing. One young man was 
nearly killed, and three horses were injured. 
Three or four Christians in the town had been 
trying for five or six years to start a Sab- 
bath-school, but through rowdyism and the 
opposition of religious ' cranks ' had always 
failed. Some of the people said they would 
not have a school in which an organ was 
used, as ' music in motion ' is ' the devil's 
work.' I told them plainly, but in a Chris- 



tian spirit, how such a community was 
regarded by the civilized world outside, and 
I am happy to say that some of the audi- 
ence seemed ashamed of themselves and 
spoke to me after the service in a very 
friendly spirit. I counted eighty young 
people at the service between the ages of 
twelve and twenty-one, and there are many 
older and many younger waiting to be 
gathered in. What a power for good will 
they be if we can enlist them in Christ's 
cause!" 



SABBATH-SCHOOL EXTENSION 
IN ST. LOUIS. 

On December 14, 1896, the Tyler Place 
Sabbath -school, organized in the preceding 
April by Mr. W. H. Herrick, developed 
into a Presbyterian church of fifty-one 
members, and steps have now been taken 
towards the erection of a place of worship. 
An addition to Faith Chapel of twenty feet 
by fourteen feet has been made. This gives 
much-needed accommodation to this grow- 
ing school. The members of the Kirkwood 
Presbyterian Church have begun the erec- 
tion of a chapel twenty feet by forty feet, at 
Meacham Park, for their branch school. 
The building is to cost $400, and will 
occupy a lot 100 feet square donated for the 
purpose. This mission was started by Mr. 
Herrick in May last. At Baden the mis- 
sion Sabbath- school rents a building, but as 
the school is getting too large for the struc- 
ture the owner is putting an addition to it of 
twenty feet by sixteen feet. These facts, 
with many others, amply attest the value of 
Sabbath-school missions in large cities. 



A BRIEF MESSAGE FROM ILLI- 
NOIS. 

Rev. M. A. Stone, our missionary, writes 
cheerfully of his work : 

Last Sabbath I spent in Grand Tower. Two 
elders were elected and ordained, and five members 
received into the church. A Sabbath-school was 
organized. The people now have a church build- 
ing, having moved one from a distance into the 
town, re-roofed it and fitted it to their wants. On 
Sunday night there was a good crowd out to the 
service, and among them a number who had not 
been to church before. The cause is now on its 
feet and will be properly looked after by the pres- 
bytery. 



COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES. 




Albeit Lea Colic; 



ALBERT LEA COLLEGE, ALBERT LEA, MINN. 

ELLA YOUNG, PRINCIPAL. 



A recent article in Harper's Weekly says: 
" Every obstacle to the higher education of 
women has been removed by experience ex- 
cept one — prejudice." And prejudice, we 
promise you, cannot live long near the noble 
army of college-bred women who, being 
gracious, retain honor; in whom the hearts 
of their husbands do safely trust ; who order 
their households aright, and busy them- 
selves in many ways too modern to be set 
down in King Lemuel's list of activities 
which, mark you, " his mother taught him." 

Where shall our girls get the education 
whose value no one questions ? 




Students' Sitting Room 



203 



204 



ALBERT LEA COLLEGE, ALBERT LEA, MINN. 



[March, 



In the East, with Vassar, Smith, Welles- 
ley and Bryn Mawr, the answer is simple. 
Not so in the West, where, until recently, 
as President Duncan, of Coates, has aptly 
said, " In twenty-five States no young girl 
could find a good semblance of an eastern 
college for women." The opportunities for 
coeducation are unsurpassed and unsurpas- 
sable, but the West needs a well -equipped 
and liberally endowed college for women; 
moreover, it begins to feel the need so keen- 
ly that the building up of one or more such 



but the whole of the greater, rich Central - 
West. 

We have not yet reaped the harvest of 
honor and fame that is certainly waiting for 
our ideal college because our means are 
limited, and we are comparatively un- 
known. But we are fighting a good fight, 
we have kept our faith in our ultimate suc- 
cess, and we are holding our standards so 
high that when we grow rich and famous we 
shall never have cause to blush for this, our 
" day of small things." We are a college 







"• ' ' ,-- / 


• 






g^4^ 


jj 


^ ^ 








- 








m 


s?r^^ w m %^ 






* 









College as Seen from the Lake. 



institutions is a question of time only, and 
of a short time. 

Eleven years ago, the Presbyterian ele- 
ment in the State of Minnesota founded a 
college for women at Albert Lea, in the 
southern part of the State. Our location is 
beautiful to see, with a pretty little lake on 
one side of the campus, and on the other the 
rich, rolling prairie. It is also a good 
base for our work, as we can claim for our 
constituency not only our own great State, 



or women, managed by women. Is there 
no woman who will look into our needs, 
understand our great opportunity and sym- 
pathize with our ambition to do the work 
that only a well -equipped college can do ? 
Or is there not some man who will build a 
" monument more enduring than brass " to 
the memory of wife, daughter or mother ? 
Come and help us. It will do you good 
now, and generations of women to come 
will rise up and call you blessed. 



HOME MISSIONS. 



NOTES. 

Church treasurers or friends remitting con- 
tributions, either by check, draft, />o.4-afliec 
or express orders, arc respectfully requested 
to make them payable to the order of the 
Board itself, or to the order of its treasurer 
as treasurer and not to him as an individual. 
Observance of the above request will save the 
Board, and those forwarding remittances, 
much trouble. 

In behalf of the Hoard, 

wm. c. roberts, 
d. j. McMillan, 

Corresponding Secretaries. 



A church of thirty members was recently 
organized in Galveston, Tex., by Rev. Dr. 
Little, our synodical missionary. Other 
members are soon to be received. 



There are seven Presbyterian churches in 
Alaska, with an aggregate membership of 
820. The First Church of Sitka has 400 
members. There are eight mission schools 
with 32 teachers and 570 scholars. 



By order of the Synod of New Mexico, 
Rev. John Menaul has issued the Confes- 
sion of Faith in a cheap form iu the Span- 
ish language. It is in great demand. Dr. 
Menane has also issued a Spanish hymn 
b^ok. 

The evangelical churches of this country 
report a net increase of three quarters of a 
million iu their membership in the year 
1896. Churches everywhere report large 
accessions, and yet there have been no great 
revivals. 

Among the many tribes of Indians in 
Arizona, aggregating 40,000 members, we 
have but one minister with two young In- 
dian helpers. These three consecrated men 
preach the gospel to one church with 240 
members, and at half a dozen mission sta- 
tions. 



In the City of New York, fifty years ago, 
there was one Protestant church for every 
2000 inhabitants. Now there is only one 
for every 4000. The proportion is approx- 
imately the same in each of our large cities. 
But the seating capacity of the churches is 
much greater now than it was then, and 
services more frequent and the meetings 
varied to suit the different classes. 



According to the wise regulations of the 
Synod of Michigan, every aid-receiving 
church is required, first, to hold a congre- 
gational meeting at which at least one 
member of the Presbyterial Home Mission 
Committee shall be present for conference 
before application is made to the Board for 
aid; second, every member and adherent of 
the church is personally asked to contribute 
toward the support of the church and its 
minister; third, a plan of systematic benefi- 
cence is urged upon each church whereby 
every person connected therewith is urged 
to contribute systematically and propor- 
tionately to every Board and benevolent 
object of the General Assembly. 

Concerning medical missionary work in 
Alaska, Dr. Wilbur's annual report is full 
of interesting facts. There were 191 patients 
treated during the year with but two per 
cent, of deaths, one per cent, unimproved, 
twelve per cent, improved and eighty-five 
per cent, cured. 

There are four young women who act as 
assistants to Miss Gibson, who are given 
instruction in the care of the sick, as far as 
their education will permit them to receive. 
Rev. Mr. Austin holds regular weekly ser- 
vices in the wards. Short services are held 
by Dr. Wilbur and his assistant in each 
ward every evening, and the Sabbath- 
school lesson is taught on Sunday by Miss 
Gibson. Morning prayers are held with 
the nurses. 

Moses Thatcher, who for years has been 
an apostle in the Mormon Church, became a 
candidate for a political office without ask- 

205 



206 



THE NEW YORK INDIANS. 



[March, 



ing the consent of the Church authorities. 
He has been pursued with the demand that 
he apologize and humble himself before the 
first presidency of the Church. This he 
steadfastly declines to do, maintaining that 
he has done nothing that it was not his right 
and privilege to do as a churchman or as a 
citizen. He has been suspended from 
exercising the functions of an apostle and 
denied entrance to the Temple. Now he 
announces himself as a candidate for the 
U. S. Senate as an opponent of Mormon 
tyranny and an advocate of civil liberty. 
The Legislature is overwhelmingly Mormon, 
but the Mormons had a little taste of 
political freedom while preparing for State- 
hood, and it is now an interesting question 
to what extent they will dare to exercise 
that freedom. There are half dozen can- 
didates for the office, and the fight is on. 
Thirty -seven ballots have been taken in the 
Legislature up to date, and no choice. Mr. 
Thatcher is in the lead, and has been from 
the start. He is supported by young Utah 
and the Gentiles. 

Church statistics tell us that the 
membership of evangelical churches in the 
United States in 1800 was 7 per cent, 
of the entire population; in 1880, 20 
per cent. ; in 1890, 21.42 per cent. 
The proportion is now three times as great 
as it was ninety years ago. This is all the 
more significant when we remember that 
the area and population of new and unevan- 
gelized States and Territories is proportion- 
ately much greater now than in the earlier 
years of this century. The kingdom is 
advancing and destined to triumph. 



THE NEW YORK INDIANS. 

MES. SARAH L. TRIPPE. 

[The constant readers of The Church at Home 
and Abroad may remember that they have been 
favored before with articles from the pen of Mrs. 
Trippe concerning the interesting people among 
whom she and her husband have so long lived and 
labored. Those articles are in Vol. x, p. 560 
(Dec, 1891) and Vol. xiii, p. 145 (Feb. 1893). 
We are very glad to hear from them again.] 

To all interested in the New York Indians 
we send the good news of gracious revivals. 

The special meetings of one week in each 
church, which are usually held during the 



winter months, began in November, on the 
Tonawanda Reservation. Three from the 
pagan party were there received into the 
church, one being the head -chief. He is 
very earnest in his Christian life. 

The meetings in December at Orroville 
and Corn Planter were marked by the 
presence of the Holy Spirit, the result 
being felt in the churches especially. 

On January 12, special meetings were 
begun at Jemisontown, on the Allegheny 
Reservation, which continued nearly two 
weeks. The custom in this Indian work is 
for Christian workers to visit the homes of 
all, holding a meeting in each home during 
the daytime so as to bring each person face 
to face with his condition before God. The 
elders of our churches are all pastors, 
usually unpaid, and the Christian workers 
who conduct these meetings are the elders 
of the church, with a few earnest workers 
invited from other reserves, and the mission- 
ary. As the Seneca language is the home- 
tongue, a native pastor usually takes charge 
of these home-meetings. He begins by 
saying, " We, as Christian brothers and 
sisters, have come here to encourage you in 
your Christian life," or, " to encourage you 
to give yourself up to Jesus," " and to 
know how you feel towards God." After 
two or three prayers and hymns, usually in 
the Seneca language, words of earnest 
exhortation are spoken and each member of 
the family is invited to speak of his or her 
spiritual condition. Then follow helpful 
words, prayer and song, usually hymns of 
penitence or invitation. Sacred to the 
heart of every Indian Christian are Psalm 
51 in Seneca, and " Come ye sinners, poor 
and needy," which in Seneca is 

Gu oh 7 da, swet, iis, ne jo gweh, 
lis, neh swaiwaneh/ a goh ; 

During the twelve days of meetings 
forty homes were visited, and beginniDg 
with the first we found . that the Spirit of 
God had gone before showing the people 
their sins. At the evening services also, 
from the first, every soul seemed to realize 
the immediate presence of God. In the 
well -filled church, seat after seat was filled 
by young men, numbering thirty or forty in 
all, yet the silence was such that, excepting 
the speaker and au occasional earnest amen 
from some brother, no sound would indicate 
the presence of another person. 



1897.] 



THE OLDER STATES. 



207 



From that solid block of young men 
every night some gave themselves publicly 
to Christ, until at the close of the meetings 
only six were left in the back of the church 
on the men's side, and none remained on 
the women's side. Some of the penitent 
ones were wandering church members ; but 
of the whole number, fifteen young men for 
the first time gave themselves to Christ. Six 
of these were heads of families. Besides 
these, three boys about twelve years of age 
and fourteen women confessed their faith in 
Christ, making in all thirty-two received 
into the church. Four of the number 
came by letter. 

Plans are formed for continuing the work 
during the wiuter in other parts of the 
reserves, and we are earnestly praying for 
more and more of that which alone gives 
salvation to our people. 



Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work at Home. 

THE OLDER STATES. 

Each general division of our country has 
its separate history, its physical peculiarities 
and its industrial conditions which differen- 
tiate it from every other, and diversify the 
mission work. The romance of missions is 
to be found on the frontier; the exceptional 
populations with the special methods of work 
adapted to their needs are almost exclu- 
sively in the South and West. But the 
work in the older States can never be of 
secondary importance. As the nation's 
strength, numerical, financial and social, 
must be found for a long time to come in 
the older States, the spiritual interests of 
those communities must be inseparably con- 
nected with the welfare of all parts of the 
country; and, as we are to have the poor 
always with us, there must be in all parts of 
the country dependent churches and helpless 
communities requiring home missionary aid. 
Then there must be an endless variety of 
work. The almost depopulated rural dis- 
tricts, the moribund villages, the down- 
town districts of cities, the new communi- 
ties constantly springing into being as the 
result of our industrial system, and the 
development of natural resources constantly 
going on, even in our oldest States, must 



ever increase, rather than diminish, their 
legitimate demands. 

It is of special interest at present to notice 
the status of the work in these older States. 
Relatively a little less than one-third of the 
Board's missionaries are employed in these 
older States. About twenty-two per cent, 
of the Board's appropriations are made for 
their support, while the contributions of these 
States to the Board's treasury are forty-one 
per cent, of the entire receipts. This esti- 
mate leaves out of account New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, 
where special plans of synodical sustentation 
are in operation. 

New England, notwithstanding its age 
and interesting religious history, has come 
to be a very important mission field. In all 
her cities there are large elements of com- 
paratively recent importation who require 
missionary methods and the financial help 
of the Mission Board. In Boston and its 
suburbs alone there are at least fifty thou- 
sand people of Scotch and north of Ireland 
birth or ancestry. The same is propor- 
tionately true of every important manufac- 
turing and commercial centre in New 
England. While in Maine there are 
seventy towns in which no religious service 
is held and sixty-seven thousand families in 
fifteen counties of the State who do not 
attend church services of any kind, there 
must be a great mission field which is sadly 
neglected. 

Many of our New England churches came 
into existence with strength enough for self- 
support. Churches were organized recently 
in Waltham, Springfield, Brookliue, Brock- 
ton and Graniteville without help of any 
kind from the Board. It is a significant 
fact which certainly reflects credit upon the 
discretion and the wise use of money on the 
part of the Board, that all our home mission 
churches in New England are in cities, and 
among people who by their ancestry and 
denominational affinity have special claims 
upon our sympathy and help. It has not 
been the purpose of the Board to enlarge its 
work in New England, although the oppor- 
tunity is great and the calls frequent for 
the ministry of our Church. 

It is also significant of religious need in 
New Eugland, that twenty-one States in our 
Union are in advance of the foremost New 
England State in the percentage of popula- 
tion found in the membership of Protestant 



208 



THE OLDER STATES. 



[March, 



churches. That foremost State is Connecti- 
cut. The second New England State in 
this category is Vermont, which stands 
twenty-sixth in this respect. New Hamp- 
shire stands thirtieth, Rhode Island thirty- 
first, Massachusetts thirty-second, and Maine 
thirty-fourth. 

These figures do not necessarily prove 
that the character of religion in New Eng- 
land is declining, or that her churches are 
amiss in their duty; there is another explan- 
ation. The enterprising youth reared in 
New England homes seek broader spheres 
of life and public service in newer States 
and larger cities, while the manufacturing 
communities in New England attract tens of 
thousands of operatives from the British 
provinces and foreign countries. If New 
England is falling behind her sister States 
in relative religious strength, it is largely 
because her sons and daughters have left her 
and are helping to redeem other States. 

Conditions approaching those just de- 
scribed in New England are found in New 
York and other older States southward and 
westward. States that have hardly ceased 
to be called new have begun to feel the 
impulse of migration toward the western 
frontier. While their cities are becoming 
populous their rural districts and villages 
find it difficult to maintain the ancestral 
homes and churches. The city churches 
live and thrive upon the lifeblood drawn 
from the villages and the farms. It is said 
upon good authority that three-fourths of 
the business men of New York city were 
once farmers' boys. If this be true of the 
great metropolis which draws from all the 
cities of this country and Europe, much 
more must it be true of the smaller cities 
that feed more directly upon the country 
that immediately surrounds them. The 
boys and girls who are flocking from rural 
communities to the great business centres 
will fill either the prisons or the church 
pews according as they have been neglected 
or trained in the church and Sabbath -school. 
The couutry has supplied nearly all the 
prominent ministers of our denomination in 
New York city. A large proportion of the 
churches of other cities are indebted to the 
same source for their ministry. The Church 
must still look to the wildernesses for her 
John the Baptists, and to the villages for 
her apostles. It would be suicidal to 
neglect the dependent country churches. 



They are the nurseries upon which the 
Church must chiefly depend for its pastors, 
its missionaries and its teachers. Let us not 
think the money wasted or unwisely ex- 
pended that is appropriated for the help of 
these struggling rural churches which may 
never again reach self-support. Says Dr. 
Josiah Strong in The New Era: " When 
population decreases and roads deteriorate 
there is increasing isolation, with which 
comes a tendency toward degeneration and 
demoralization. The mountain whites of 
the South afford an illustration of the re- 
sults of such a tendency operating through 
several generations. They come chiefly 
from good English or Scotch-Irish stock. 
.... Their degradation is due, not to 
their antecedents, but primarily to their 
isolation. Like conditions have produced 
like results in many parts of the world, 
and would prove as operative in Massachu- 
setts and New York as in eastern Tennessee 
and northern Alabama. Indeed the writer 
knows of a town in one of the older New 
England States where such conditions have 
obtained for several generations and have 
produced precisely the same results — the 
same large families of twelve or fifteen mem- 
bers, the same illiteracy, the same ignorance 
of the Christian religion, the same vices, the 
same ' marriage ' and ' divorce ' without 
reference to the laws of God or man. which 
characterize the mountain whites of the 
South. These mountain whites of the 
North came from the old New England 
stock, and lived in the hill country where 
their ancestors settled in isolation from the 
surrounding community. When we con- 
sider the meaning of this depletion of the 
rural towns, it becomes painfully significant 
that there are 932 townships in New Eng- 
land where this process of deterioration has 
already begun ; that there are 641 such 
townships in New York, 775 in Ohio, 489 
in Indiana, 792 in Illinois, 571 in Ten- 
nessee, 919 in Pennsylvania, and more than 
10,000 in the United States. 

" If this migration continues and no new 
preventive measures are devised, I see no rea- 
son why isolation, irreligion, ignorance, vice 
and degradation should not increase in this 
country, until we have a rural American 
peasantry, illiterate and immoral, possessing 
the rights of citizenship, but utterly incapa- 
ble of performing or comprehending its 
duties." 



1897.] 



ALASKA. 



209 



Letters. 



ALASKA. 

Miss Anna May Sheets, Ckttcat: — We have 
had a good many dark days, but they are begin- 
ning to lengthen now ; soon the spring-time will 
be here. The mountains are very picturesque 
when the sun first begins to show itself, about 
eleven o'clock, the light casting such a beautiful 
glow on the snow-covered peaks. 

We had the usual tree on Christmas-eve — a very 
nice one — through the kindness of the St. Paul 
churches in sending a Christmas box, which had 
beautiful things for the children, and Mr. Warne's 
liberality to them has made them quite happy for 
the time. We were awakened about half-past 
twelve by a company of natives singing Christmas 
songs ; it was beautiful music. They are fond of 
music, and many have good voices. Their leader 
is a young man who has led a very wicked life, 
but was recently converted and now he is taking 
an active part in religious services ; it seems truly 
wonderful the way he has taught the boys those 
songs. On Christmas Day the people were com- 
ing and going all day. The usual refreshments 
were served ; altogether it was a very pleasant 
Christmas time. 

The people are very much interested in the 
Christian life. There has been a great stir among 
them. Mr. Warne is so besieged with all kinds of 
questions to advise and settle that it is a wonder 
that he can do anything. Nine marriages have 
taken place on the last three Sabbaths. It looks 
strange to see people who have lived together for 
years and years, and who have grandchildren, 
have the marriage ceremony solemnized. Last 
Sunday a church was organized, and the Lord's 
Supper administered. 

On New Year's Day I attended a wedding dinner 
given by one of the couples who were married last 
Sunday. They had a very nice dinner, and after- 
ward there were speeches and the children played 
games — quite unlike their usual feasts, where 
blankets are torn and Bad Water flows freely. 

Our prayer meetings are well attended, and the 
people prompt to take part. Soon they will have 
to go to the various places to make their living. I 
wish there could be some industry here, that they 
would not have to go elsewhere for employment, 
and yet there would be the evil to counteract that 
always goes with the white man who comes to a 
country like this. I wonder why it is that so few 
who are really wealthy go out as missionaries ; 
true, they contribute liberally, but if they would 
go to the field, start a business in which the people 
could be employed and so support themselves, and 
be surrounded by a Christian influence, how much 
good could be accomplished. We have as line a 
location at Haines Mission for something of the 
kind as could be desired. 



Rev. J. Loomis Gould, Hydah Mission, Jack- 
son: — At no time since our coming to this field has 
the evidence of quiet growth, study, and the mani- 
fest desire to know and do from the best motive 
been more gratifying. The interest and attend- 



ance of school children from the village is a pleas- 
ing feature. The home-coming of a part of the 
people was later than usual, for the reason that the 
wrecking of a vessel delayed the "cashing" of the 
checks for their wages at one of the canneries. 
The new cannery at Hunter's Bay added many 
hundreds of dollars to their earnings. It took 
some advising to make them reasonable in their 
demands and faithful in their service. It also re- 
quired some diplomacy to secure employment for 
all, as strangers were suspicious of their ability 
and trustworthiness. But at the end of the sen -on 
the employers express themselves as more than 
satisfied, as well as surprised at the intelligence, 
good deportment, and faithfulness of the (lately 
savage) Hydahs, and confess that schools, missions 
and Christian example may have some influence. 
From among our young men they have taken 
masters of fishing crews, also pilots and engineers, 
sending them out in entire charge of small 
steamers. 

A pleasant episode in the season was the visit of 
Civil Engineer Whitworth to survey the mission 
grounds, an important matter long delayed. It 
was to us a rare treat to entertain one so different 
from the major part of the men with whom our 
contact mainly must be. 

The serious question of refusing the ordinances 
to some is upon us with even greater weight than 
ever. The old, who can never be anything but 
ignorant, the middle-aged and the young who are 
in danger when beyond our reach of becoming the 
"scandalous." Dare we refuse them? 

November 14 an opportunity offered for me to 
make close connection at Mary Island with a 
steamer going north, and I decided it was my 
duty to attend court at Juneau and went. I never 
left home so reluctantly. Mrs. McFarland and 
Mrs. Gould will work on just the same ; no ser- 
vices will be neglected. I wrote to Mr. Loomis, 
at Klawack, as there are no people there now, to 
go down to Hydah, and gave the many things a 
man must all the time be doing at a station like 
ours into the hands of faithful "Joseph," who 
said, "All right, sir, Nucatry, Mrs. Gould, will 
boss." 

" At "Saxman" I met the teacher of the public 
school, Mr. J. W. Young, who is quite cheered by 
the goodly number of people gathering to build at 
the new town. He declared his intention of com- 
pelling me to stay with him a few days, as they 
were hungry for religious teaching, if not quite 
ready for baptisms and church organization, but 
duty moved me on. So wherever we go we may be 
about our Master's business. Saxman, Tuxican, 
Klawack, etc., are samples of how much a Presby- 
terian missionary might find to do in this region. 
These very evidences of advance, the ripening for 
the harvest, stimulate the devil to a more fiendish 
zeal for his share of the harvest by hindering, 
sowing more tares, or gathering those that are 
ready to burn. 

I think I had an evidence of native integrity a 
few days since. A young Hydah came and said, 
"I have had a temptation, and want to talk to 
you." I said, "Say on." He said, U A man to 
whom I owe a small sum of money offered it to me 
if I would go into the court and testify as he told 
me, and threatened me with the law if I would 
not. This I refused to do, for I would not testify 



210 



ARIZONA — KANSAS — MINNESOTA — NEW MEXICO. 



[March, 



falsely." These are not his exact words, but the 
digest of a long talk. He asked my advice. For 
which have you more respect, the white man, with 
his opportunities, who would bribe and coerce, or 
the ignorant native, just learning of God, deter- 
mined to stand in his integrity ? 

The opportunity to look into the public schools, 
not often visited, and to give a word of cheer to 
teacher and pupils, has been pleasant. 

I received a cordial welcome home, and am glad 
to be with my people and cheer those who stood in 
the breach while I was away. We have had ter- 
rific storms, which will necessitate a small expendi- 
ture to repair damages. 



ARIZONA. 



Rev. H. A. Thompson, Phoenix: — Peoria is a 
country field. Congregations growing, people com- 
ing regularly to services from one to five miles. 
Sabbath-school attendance equally good. During 
the month of January a week' s special services were 
held, and at the closing service three new members 
were added on profession of faith and three by 
certificate. 

The congregations at Casa Grande, while con- 
taining some very intelligent and good people, also 
always contain some of the worst element of the 
town, the gamblers and some of the saloon-keepers 
attending quite regularly. The many young peo- 
ple who have been brought up almost totally de- 
void of religious training are also being interested. 
A good Templar Lodge has done much good. 
This lodge has served to draw the young folk 
together, and is proving a stepping-stone by which 
I may be enabled to draw them into more distinc- 
tively Christian work. The Sabbath- school at 
Casa Grande is doing good work. 

Gila Bend is awaiting the completion of the dam 
which will impound water for the irrigation canal 
which goes through Gila Bend. Our services do 
not conflict with any others, and are always well 
attended. The completion of the irrigation system 
will bring many people into that section in a very 
few months. 



KANSAS. 

Rev. H. M. Gilbert, Caney: — Sedan is the 
county seat of Chautauqua county, a town of some 
fifteen hundred souls. An encouraging feature of 
the work in the Sedan church is the Young Peo- 
ple's Society of Christian Endeavor, which is 
doing a grand work for Christ and the Church. 
At our last communion service we were greatly re- 
joiced in receiving into the membership eight per- 
sons, most of them heads of families. Two ruling 
elders were elected and ordained. 

At Caney, through the blessing of God upon our 
labors, there has come a wonderful change. We 
held special meetings for three weeks, which were 
blessed of God in the awakening and quickening of 
the church. Seventeen new members were added, 
many prominent citizens included. This has 
greatly strengthened our cause. We now have a 
weekly prayer meeting, largely attended and 
deeply spiritual and interesting. The young peo- 
ple have a flourishing society in operation. 



MINNESOTA. 

Rev. G. G. Mason, Fergus Falls, Ottertail Co.: — 
We have just closed a series of meetings with 
the church at East Grand Forks. This is what is 
known here as a railway town, hence very difficult 
to get the men to attend meetings. However, this 
is not the greatest discouragement. In this little 
place there are twenty- eight saloons, with as many 
nouses of vice. Nevertheless the Lord is helping 
and blessing every effort put forth in his name. 
Several have professed conversion, and several of 
God's people have been brought nearer to his 
bleeding side, and will do more for his cause in 
the future. 

I have also been supplying the churches of 
Western and Lawrence, they having no supply or 
pastor this year, but we hope to secure a man in 
the near future who will go in and out among them 
and break to them the bread of life. 



NEW MEXICO. 

Rev. Matthias Matthieson, Socorro: — I am 
thankful to the Lord for his great mercy. I have 
visited my churches where the evangelists are 
working and find them prospering. At Jarales 
three new members have been received ; at Colora- 
do, N. M., five, and at Socorro three ; in all eleven 
souls born into the kingdom of God. I have 
preached sixty-three times (in three months) to 
about 1 500 people, my largest congregation 200, my 
smallest ten persons. Many Roman Catholics have 
heard the gospel who never would consent to listen 
before. It is true that the work is prospering on 
my field, and we are slowly but surely undermining 
Romanism and sin. If it was not for the abomina- 
tion of the making and drinking of wine in this 
Rio Grande valley the work of Christ would pros- 
per tenfold more. It is not so much the Church of 
Rome itself as the sins that she permits her people 
to do that retards the work of God. If we could 
shut up the saloons and gambling dens, our churches 
would soon be full. 

A woman joined our church here in Socorro at 
our last communion. She earns her living by 
washing and has very little of it, but she washed 
every Monday for a French family (saloon-keeper) 
whereby she earned fifty cents, and also for another 
French family where she also earned fifty cents, 
both Romanists. With that dollar she provided 
for herself and four children. But when these 
good people heard she had actually joined the 
hated ' ' heretics' ' she was told on the Monday after 
that her services were not needed any more. I 
told her never to mind, for if Satan shut one door 
the Lord would open another. Afterwards (the day 
after) I was down town and the druggist called me 
and asked if I could not get him a good washer- 
woman. I was glad to recommend our new poor 
sister, and she earns now the dollar in a Protestant 
family without the smell of whisky upon it. Thus 
all the members of the church rejoiced as much as 
the poor woman herself. A little thing in the 
eyes of some, yet, "not a sparrow falleth to the 
ground," etc. God does care for each of his chil- 
dren individually. Praise his holy name. 

Rev. J. J. Gilchrist, Mora : — My churches 
show gain in spirituality, some gain in numbers at 



1897.] 



SOUTH DAKOTA — UTAH. 



211 



service, while there is a general desire to hear the 
preachers in all places where we have had services. 
My three helpers have shown a much deeper inter- 
est in preaching to win souls than they did at other 
times. They made a brief visit to each church and 
to some stations for a brief series of meetings, with 
good effect. 

On December 23, I had a wedding in high life, 
where some 150 penitents were present. There is 
reason to believe that the wedding service will 
open the way for church work, as much of our 
work goes by family lives. If we can get the head 
of the family or relationship the rest follow. In 
this case we made a break into two large relation- 
ships, drawing to us the fathers of the young people 
in such a manner that it is hardly possible that they 
will draw back. 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Rev. A. Gertsch, Emery: — We are the only 
Protestant Church in this town, which has five 
saloous. I must commend the few church mem- 
bers here. Though there are only in reality about 
fifteen who are actual members of our church, they 
are bravely persevering against all opposition. 
They have contributed about thirty-five cents per 
member for the Home Board, although they have 
a church debt of about $600. 



Mr. J. Chalmers Ross, Goodwill:— I do not 
feel myself as much discouraged as has been the 
case sometimes ; perhaps, partly because I have 
learned what one should expect of the Indian 
children, but partly because last year's experience 
has enabled me to do better work. We have more 
large boys than we had last year. Some are doing 
just class work, while others do what they are 
compelled to and no more. This fall has been a 
fine time for "Matka" (snow arrow) throwing. 
The " Matka" is a pear-shaped piece of wood, 
about four inches long and one and one-half inch 
in diameter, with a slender stick two and one-half 
feet long driven into the larger end. The Indian 
boys take hold of this near the end and throw it 
against the frozen snow at an angle of about twenty 
degrees. It goes bounding and gliding over the 
snow for a hundred yards or more. They acquire 
great skill in throwing them, and there is quite a 
good deal of rivalry among them in it. I have 
tried my hand at it, but as yet have not been able 
to send one more than twenty steps. 

Our Y. P. S. C. E. is a live society this year. 
All our prayer meetings are well attended, and we 
have warm, interesting meetings. All or nearly 
all are willing to lead when they are called upon. 
We have thirty-five active and sixteen associate 
members. 

Our home mission meeting, conducted by the 
chairman of the Missionary Committee, was a suc- 
cess. It has been reported, and the collection sent. 



Rev. W. S. Peterson, Lead :— We have reason 
to feel that interest in religion has greatly deep- 
ened. Individuals, as we have met them in the 
sick-room or in their homes, or even on the streets, 
have often been found approachable and even seri- 



ous in conversation upon the subject of personal re- 
ligion. In one ease, especially, we record a happy 
conversion. One man, brought up by earnest, 
Christian parents in Nova Scotia, to whom in hi- 
protracted illness we were able to extend help, was 
found during his convalesence to be thinking 
deeply. He one afternoon opened to us his heart, 
and said he would like to be a Christian, but he 
could not understand it ; it was all to him a mys- 
tery like the air and the sunshine. " But," we 
replied, " you breathe the air and enjoy the enin- 
shine and the fact that they are mysteries does not 
prevent you. And God in Christ is present with 
you as truly as the air and the sunshine. Why 
not take Christ now as your Saviour?" "But," 
he replied, "I thought there were some helps to 
becoming a Christian?" " How can that be," was 
answered, "when Christ himself is here and says, 
' Come unto me.' What can come between Christ 
and a soul, to be of assistance, when he is himself 
the Saviour?" We left him, and the next day but 
one he came to us and with joyful face and tearful 
eyes told of the fearful struggle through which he 
had passed trying to get away from or trying to re- 
alize that divine presence, when at last he simply 
cast himself upon the Saviour, and found himself 
saved. He has since united with the church, and 
with him his devoted wife, who came to us by 
letter. 

UTAH. 

Rev. Newton E. Clemenson, Logan, Cache 
Co.: — There has been real progress made in our 
work during the past three months. There are 
many things in a community like this to sadden 
and discourage one, but there are other things that 
cheer and encourage and nerve one for the fray. 
Our adversary, the Mormon Church, was never 
more alert and active than at present. No stone is 
left unturned to keep their people away from us, 
and no effort is considered too severe to keep them 
busy with their own meetings. They aim to 
checkmate us at every point. They call us by old 
names, "Gentile" and "Outsider," and let it be 
clearly understood that it is perfectly safe to keep at 
a safe distance from us. In all their public utter- 
ances they make it perfectly clear to their audiences 
that, we are grossly in error and they only have the 
truth. I make no mistake when I say that the old 
conditions have returned since statehood was 
granted. The two promises made by the Church 
to our Government have both been grossly violated. 
The "Celestial Law" is being obeyed all over the 
State, and "Utah's best crop" flourishes. The 
political rights of the people perished in the issu- 
ance of the new manifesto last April, which reas- 
serts the right of the Church to say who shall and 
who shall not aspire to political office, and the peo- 
ple vote for the men who obey the Church. Unless 
the signs of the times belie themselves, we shall 
have the old struggle over again ; the forces of 
Christian and American ideas will be pitted against 
the Mormon hosts. Mormonism cannot keep its 
hands off our free institutions, and Americans will 
not bow the knee to the Mormon priesthood or 
the neck to the Mormon yoke. Let the struggle 
come, the sooner the better. This Mormon ques- 
tion will never be rightly settled until it is settled 
on its merits. 



212 



APPOINTMENTS. 



[March, 



APPOINTMENTS. 

E. G. McKinley, Hawthorne and Waldo, Fla. 

S. C. Faris, D. D, Glenwood and stations, " 

P. F. Brown, Bartow, 1st, " 

G. E. Lincoln, Auburndale and station, " 
H. M. Goodell, Titusville, 1st, 

D. A. Dodge, Kissimmee, " 
W. B. Phelps, Crescent City, Cal. 

C. H. Emerson, Pope Valley, Chiles Valley, 

Capelle Valley, Howell Mountain and 
vicinitv, " 

E. E. Clark, Fruitvale, Prospect Hill, " 

D. M. Ross, San Francisco, Lebanon, " 
D. Kingery, El Moro, Engle and Hastings, Colo. 
J. E. Weir, Poncha and Talida, " 
S. G. Fisher, Purcell, 1st, and stations, I. T. 
S. W. Mitchell, Paul's Valley, Wynne wood, 

and stations, " 

J. K. Hall, Bellevue, Iowa. 

C. F. Ensign, Pilot Grove and Arlington, " 

W. D. Hart, Gravity and Morning Star, " 
L. S. Mcchel, Farley, 
N. Feather, Emmet Co , 1st, Hoprig, Depew 

and Maple Hill, 
M. M. Whiteford, Sioux City, 4th, 

J. Wynia, Ebenezer, 1st Holland, " 

R. G. Carnahan, Halstead. 1st, Kans. 

B. H. Gragg, Pratt and Iuka, " 
R. M. Wimmell, Sedan, 1st, " 
J. M. Crawford, Milliken, Memorial and Central 

City, 
A. T. Aller, Cawker City and Glen Elder, " 
H. Farwell, Fairmont and Hoge, " 

M. C. Long, Topeka, 3d, 

A. H. Lindsay, Greensburg, Ky. 

H. N. Faulconer, Barbourville and Boyle, " 

C. Daniels, Port Hope, Bloomfield, and Grind- 

stone City, Mich. 

W. D. Cole, Bridgehamton and Decker- 

ville, 
W. Sidebotham, Spring Lake, 1st, " 

D. Morrison, Iron Mountain, 1st, " 
W. K. Wright, Traverse City, 1st, 

S. Todd, Mongers, 1st, and stations, " 

J. Wilson, Hazlewood Park and Highland, Minn. 

W. J. Johnson, Cloquet, 1st, " 

T. A. Ambler, Two Harbors, p " 

J. W. Hood, Island Lake and Russell, * " 

C. E. Davenport, Heron Lake, 1st, 

R. Tweed, Kinbrae, Brewster and Dundee, " 
L. P. Paulson, Minneapolis, 1st Norwegian, " 

D. E. Evans, Minneapolis, House of Faith 

and station, " 

D. P. Grosscup, Long Lake, Maple Plain and 

Crystal Bay, 
H. A. Barton, Ashby, 1st, and Evansville, " 
G. West, Red Lake Falls, 1st, " 

R. L. Barackman, St. Paul, Westminster, " 

T. N. Weaver, Austin and Blooming Prairie, " 
J. C. Sefton, Pastor-at- Large, Mo. 

J. W. Todd, Cowgill Dawn and Polo, 
G. H. Duty, Ironton and Graniteville, 
S. I. Lindsay, St. Louis, Page Boulevard, " 

H. F. Williams, St. Louis, Covenant, " 

G. Edwards, Stanford and stations, Mont. 

A. R. Griggs, Pony, 1st, and Sand Creek, " 
C. H. Grube, 
S. R. Belville, Wood River, 1st, Neb. 



C. A. Stewart, Fairmont and Sawyer, Neb. 

B. F. Pearson, Wakefield, " 
J. D. Kerr, Omaha, Clifton Hill, " 
J. W. Little, Monroe and Oconee, " 
A. Guerrero, Morenci, Ariz. 
R. M. Craig, Santa Fe, 1st, " 
J. Dooly, West Milton and station, N. Y. 
W. P. Harmon, Conklingville, 

C. C. Cook, Stephentown, " 

D. N. Morden, Lockport, Calvary, " 

E. W. Twitchell, Middleport, 

J. J. Crane, Heuvelton, 1st, " 

0. C. Auringer, Troy, 3d, " 
J. Byers, Mandan, N. D. 
J. F. Landsborough, Cypress and Hannah, " 
J. S. Hamilton, Cavalier and Hamilton, " 
C. McKibbin, Forest River, 1st, and sta- 
tion, " 

C. Slack, Gilby and stations, " 
J. R, N. Bell, Baker City, 1st, Oreg. 
W. S. Wright, Sellwood, 

W. C. Scott, Bandon, 1st, and stations, " 

T. Brouillette, Gervais, Fairfield, Liberty 

and station, " 

F. F. Cristine, Centre Hill and Spring Mills, Pa. 
W. Burton, Langford, S. D. 
W. H. Jennings, Bethel, Elk Grove, and 

Plainview, " 

P. La Point e, Hill, Indian, " 

D. Renville, Crow Creek, Indian, " 
J. W. Lynd, Mayasan, Indian, " 

E. S. Evans, Parkston and Union Centre, " 

1. H. Polhemus, Asheville, Oakland Heights 

and Brittain's Cove, N. C. 

T. J Miles, Grassy Cove, Tenn. 

J. P. McMillan, D.D., Chattanooga, Park 

Place and Hill City, " 

W. A. Erwin, Wartburg, Kismet and Rock- 
wood, " 

A. J. Coile, Knoxville, Bell Ave., " 

J. A. Irvine, Sweden and stations, Tex. 

V. Pazdral, Fayetteville and Smithville, " 

C. F. Richardson, Ogden, 1st, Utah. 

A. T. Rankin, Brigham, 1st, and Corinne, " 

G. M. Hardy, St. George, 

C. Thwing, FortWrangel, Alaska. 

J. L. Gould, Hydal Mission, " 

J. L. Thompson, Olympia, Wash. 

R. G. Pettibone, Hoquiam and Ocosta, " 

T. Coyle, Everett, " 

C. W. Stewart, D.D., Kent, 
A. J. Canney, Palouse, Bethany, " 

E. N. Condit, Walla Walla, 1st, 

C. H. Ticknor, Waitsburg, 1st, " 
A. Adair, Pastor-at-Large, " 
P. Lindsley, Lapwai, 1st, and Cottonwood, Idaho. 

D. O. Ghormley, Moscow, " 
T. K. Fisher, Mellen, Hurley and Iron Belt 

Missions, Wis. 

W. Allison, Superior, 1st, " 

T. C. Hill, Neillsville, Dell's Dam, Short ville 

and stations, " 

T. W. Malcolm, South Superior, " 

I. Fredrickson, Avalanche, Scandinavian, and 

stations, ' ' 

D. Anderson, Monroe, 1st, 

W. J. Turner, Kilbourn City, 1st, " 

C. A. Adams', Buffalo, Packawaukeeand Mon- 

tello, 
C. C. Hamilton. Trapp and stations, " 



Young People's Christian Endeavor. 



Of a famous maker of pianos it was said that 
he was "like his own instruments — square, up- 
right and grand." 

* 
If I ever feel like envying any one, it is not the 

world-famous author, hut some serene, devout 

soul, who has made the life of Christ his own, and 

whose will is the divine will. — J. G. WMttit r. 

* 
The liberality of the churches in Macedonia 

abounded in a time of deep poverty. They gave 

even beyond their ability. The secret is explained 

by the statement that " they first gave their own 

selves." 

Miss Lizzie Coult, of Newton, Kans., who has 
a message on another page for Junior superintend- 
ents, is leader of the Juniors in the Newton Pres- 
byterian Church, and also superintendent of the 

Junior department of the Kansas C. E. Union. 

* * 

Of Mr. Speer's " Studies of the Man Christ 
Jesus," used in our Christian Training Course, the 
Knox College Monthly says : "This book is fresh, 
vigorous, reverent, and well fitted to be helpful to 
growth in grace, strengthening of faith in the Lord 
Jesus Christ as the Son of God, and to increase our 
admiration of his perfect and glorious humanity." 

. * 
The article on evangelistic work in our Feb- 
ruary issue has awakened much interest in 
this branch of Christian Endeavor work. Soon 
after its appearance letters of inquiry came from 
pastors and missionaries in several different States. 
The writer of the article, a successful Presbyterian 
pastor, is Superintendent of Christian Endeavor 

Evangelistic Work in Pennsylvania. 

# * 
* 

Prayer for our churches is the suggested subject 

of prayer this month for the World's Christian 

Endeavor Prayer Chain. Pray that churches may 

be filled with the evangelizing spirit of Christ ; 

that the members may dwell together in Christian 

unity and service ; that they may loyally uphold 

the pastor's hands ; and that the great mission of 

the Church in winning men and training them 

into Christlikeness may be fulfilled. 

* 
Christian Endeavorers in Idaho are aiming at 

three things, writes the Rev. J. H. Barton, presi- 
dent of the State Union — a high standard of 
spiritual life on the part of members, which will 
qualify for, and impel to, active work ; an intel- 
ligent interest in the extension of the Redeemer's 
kingdom ; such a sentiment in favor of Sabbath 



observance as will make it possible to secure the 

enactment and enforcement of a Sunday law. 

* 
There is no great Christian Endeavor Society, 

writes Dr. George B. Stewart. The Washington con- 
vention was a convention of thousands of separate 
societies which are bound together by the frailest 
and at the same time the strongest of all bonds, the 
bond of fellowship in faith, hope and love. Chris- 
tian Endeavor is not even a movement, and is only 
an influence, but it is an immeasurable influence to- 
ward binding the whole family of believers together 

with the bands of love. 

* * 
* 

The Permanent Committee on Young People's 
Societies of the Synod of New York reported last 
October 1062 Christian Endeavor societies, with 
more than f,0,000 members. The societies out- 
number the 865 Presbyterian Sunday-schools in 
the State by 197. The report adds, "They hold 
the same relation to the Church as the Sunday- 
school, the one being a teaching organization, the 
other for training. Whatever relation they hold 
to other bodies is fraternal and not organic." 

w * w 
The religious vow, says a writer in one of the 

weeklies, is a sign of a quickened conscience, a 
keen sense of duty, and a resolute purpose. It 
implies that the person making the vow has rec- 
ognized some great obligation, has taken into ac- 
count the difficulties besetting it, and in spite of 
all opposition, has determined to pledge himself. 
The men who have done much for the world, in 
a moral or religious way, have been the men who 
have vowed unto the Lord and performed their 



The new Governor of West Virginia is a con- 
sistent Christian man. In the trying circumstances 
of public life he has retained his popularity among 
politicians of both parties, but has not betrayed his 
religious principles. One who knew him well re- 
ports in The Christian Advocate that when em- 
ployed on the Government Secret Service he kept 
one of the Psalms pasted on the inside of the crown 
of his hat. When asked to drink or to play at 
doubtful games, or to enter improper places, he 
simply took off his hat and pointed to his favorite 
psalm, which he declared was his platform. 
* 

The pastor of a prominent New England church, 

in which the missionary concert is always a suc- 
cess, has apian, briefly outlined in the Missionary 
Herald, which may furnish a practical suggestion 

213 



214 



KNOWING GOD. 



[March, 



to the missionary committee of the Endeavor so- 
ciety. He says : "The pastor never leads. I ap- 
point my leaders a year in advance, and thus far, 
in three years, have never had the same leader 
twice. The leaders have taken great pains in 
working up their meetings, some devoting months 
to it. There is possibly a bit of rivalry in the 
matter, but it gives us rousing missionary meet- 
ings, and has wrought a great change in the mis- 
sionary feeling in my church." 



The Rev. Robert A. Hume of India, writes in The 
Advance : "One of the chief obstacles to the Chris- 
tian Endeavor society in India is the separation of 
the two sexes. There are very, very few of even 
mission schools where boys and girls study to- 
gether. Nowhere do they play together, sit to- 
gether or walk together. It is most difficult to 
have a Christian Endeavor Society in which males 
and females cooperate. Think of what an obsta- 
cle it would be to the Christian Endeavor Society 
if this were so in America ! " 



In Welcome, a monthly magazine published by 
the Endeavor society of the Third Presbyterian 
Church, Chicago, the assistant pastor, Rev. W. H. 
Reynolds, gives the young people this invitation 
to a specific act of consecration : " That you give 
your money offering undeterred by shame, if be- 
cause of small resources it must be very little in 
amount, nor lured by love of it, if because of tem- 
poral prosperity you realize it ought to be a con- 
siderable sum ; but humbly, in the fear of God . 
Give according to your ability for the necessary 
support of the great work for the advancement of 
Christ's kingdom in this city which is carried on 
by our Young People's Society of Christian En- 
deavor." 

*** 

Thoroughly assimilate one missionary life and it 
will kindle and keep flaming a zeal for missions 
throughout our life. Mrs. Merrill E. Gates writes 
thus in Life and Light, and continues : Once in- 
corporated with the being, how could we fail to 
act out that which was a part of us ? Who can 
tell what the influence of the study and assimila- 
tion of the lives of Judson and Carey did for the 
whole cause in its initial stages? Nothing so lays 
hold of our enthusiasm as the glorious enthu- 
siasm of one we admire. His fervor creates fervor 
in us. Other nobler lives than our own are our 
nourishment. We draw on lives that are intel- 
lectually or spiritually higher than our own for 
our own ennoblement, expansion, enlargement. 



A GLEANER. 

ERVILLA GOODRICH TTJTTLE. 

Leviticus 19 : 9. 
Long years ago I asked that I might he 

A gleaner in the fields of every day — 

The common days, so many, cold and gray ; 
And straightway my dear Lord did answer me, 
By opening my blind eyes that I might see 

How longed-for treasure all around me lay ; 

How corners were uncut along the way : 
A God himself commanded they should be. 

A tossing sea became the meadows green, 
Ensphered, the sun smiled in a drop of dew ; 

A moon bow spanned the mists two days between, 
And earth and sky seemed all created new. 

Each day was glorified when I could glean 
Rich sheaves in every field my life wound through. 



KNOWING GOD. 

He who, on a conspicuous historic occasion, ad- 
dressed to his son, about to succeed him upon a royal 
throne, the exhortation : " My son, know thou the 
God of thy father," was one of the ablest princes 
who ever ruled a kingdom, one of the most famous 
poets who ever sang, one of the most affectionate 
fathers who ever counseled a son ; and that was 
his dying counsel. If any reader should doubt his 
divine inspiration, he would nevertheless be unwise 
not to heed the counsel of such a man. 

Diligent, earnest, patient endeavor to know all 
that can be known of God, is that to which that 
royal counsel urges every reader of it. The 
reasonableness of this is self-evident. If one did 
not feel sure that there is a God — only suspected 
that there might be — he could not find a more 
worthy subject of inquiry. No duty could be more 
urgent than to settle that question. 

If one has settled that question, or if one never 
has seen it possible to doubt it any more than to 
doubt the reality of the earth he lives on, the air 
he breathes, or his own conscious being — such an 
one must see that the infinite God is an object of 
knowledge of immeasurable importance. No duty 
can possibly be more obvious or imperative than 
that of striving to learn the truth, which is 
' ' what man ought to believe, concerning God. ' ' 

But it is not merely theoretic knowledge of God 
which is to be sought. There are some who seem 
to think of God only as a scientific problem. They 
speculate coldly and abstractly about him — whether 
he is, and what he is — as if a child should look at his 
father through a telescope from some far-off hill- 
top, or coming near should study spots on his face or 
hands with a microscope, to find out what sort of a 
man he is ; or should consult curiously with anato- 
mists and physiologists and psychologists about his 



1897.] 



WHY WE ARE PRESBYTERIANS. 



215 



physical, mental and moral attributes ; or should 
diligently gather from his father's contemporaries a 
minute account of his early history — all this while 
holding himself aloof from any direct intercourse 
with him. Is it in any such way that a child can 
know his father? 

Many a filial heart — any filial heart — will 
answer : I know my father immeasurably better 
than any such cold investigation could ever make 
him known. I know the soul of him, the heart of 
him. I have been with him all my life, I have 
felt the grasp of his arms around me, I know his 
voice, I have listened to his wise counsels, I have 
enjoyed the guidance of his prudent advice, the up- 
holding of his timely encouragement, the restraint 
of his faithful admonition. His character has not 
been a curious object of distant observation. It has 
been the atmosphere, the climate in which I have 
had my growth and development. I know my 
father by experience ; I know him by heart. 

It is such a knowledge of God which King David 
commended to his son Solomon. It is such a knowl- 
edge which is commended to Christian Endeavorers 
now, by the experience of the best men and women, 
the most sober and wise men and women you have 
ever known. My son, my daughter, know thou the 
God of thy father.— H. A. N. 



FOUK BIRTHDAY MESSAGES. 

The Golden Rule for January 28 contains words 
of cheer from fifty presidents of Christian Endeavor 
Unions, to usher in Christian Endeavor's seven- 
teenth year. Among them are messages from four 
Presbyterian pastors, each of whom is president of 
the Union of his own state. 

The Rev. Joseph W. Cochran, of Madison, Wis., 
pleads for a higher conception of the pledge, and 
wishes it were called a covenant. "What the cove- 
nant was to Abraham, the pledge is to us. Its 
keeping will bring the same personal blessings ; its 
breaking will mean the same loss of character. 
Transform it from a duty to a joy. The way to 
have faith in God is to keep faith with God." 

Says the Rev. J. H. Barton, of Caldwell, Idaho : 
" A complete surrender and submission to Christ, a 
life of daily trust in and fellowship with him, being 
filled with the Holy Spirit — this is the sure pass- 
port to peace and happiness, and the indispensable 
qualification for service." 

Pastor William J. McKittrick, of Calvary 
Church, Buffalo, N. Y., makes a strong plea for 
a manly Christianity that answers the call of duty. 
' ' Let us be brave enough to carry our rel igion with us 
everywhere — behind the counter, on the industrial 



battle-fields, on the crowded streets, at the dinner- 
table, at the football game, on the saddles of our 
bicycles, at the social party, as well as in the prayer 
meeting." 

"Most vital just now to the hold of the society 
upon the confidence and interest of the individual 
church," writes the Rev. J. Clement French, D.D., 
president of the New Jersey C. E. Union, " is the 
question of absolute loyalty to the pastors, the rul- 
ing bodies, and the Sabbath and midweek services. 
The power of the society would be doubled in one 
year if every member should keep inviolate that par- 
ticular clause of our pledge. It would win oppos- 
ing or lukewarm pastors ; it would attach the favor- 
ing ones to their societies with hooks of steel !" 



WHY WE ARE PRESBYTERIANS. 

This was the topic for January 10 in the young 
people's societies of the Presbyterian Church, of 
Canada. The Rev. W. S. M'Tavish, B.D., writing 
on the topic in the Canada Presbyterian, makes the 
following points : 

1. While our Church insists upon the two great 
conditions of faith in Christ and obedience to him, 
she does not descend to minute details, neither does 
she lay unnecessary burdens upon her members. 
She leaves it to every man to order his walk and 
conversation according to the dictates of his own 
conscience, and the word of God, fairly and honest- 
ly interpreted. 

2. We love our Church because of her catholicity. 
Her communion is open, and members in good 
standing in other evangelical Churches are always 
invited to partake of the Lord's Supper with us. 
Ministers from other denominations may be received 
into our Church, and their ordination is accepted 
as valid, whether they were ordained by a bishop 
or by a conference. If members of other Churches 
wish to come into our membership their baptism is 
accepted as valid. 

3. We believe our doctrines to be founded on and 
agreeable to the word of God. Our doctrinal sys- 
tem, when properly expounded, is calculated to 
humble the sinner, to give the believer a sense of 
security, to exalt God and to honor him as the 
Supreme Disposer of all things in the universe, to 
present Jesus as the only Savour from sin, and to 
show that the Holy Spirit alone can regenerate the 
sinner and sanctify the believer. 

4. We admire our Church because she has always 
been the warm friend of education. From the times 
of John Knox to the present hour she has been the 
patron of learning, the friend of civil liberty, and 
a bulwark of the truth. 



216 



THE TIE THAT BINDS 



-TO JUNIOR SUPERINTENDENTS. 



[March, 



BIBLE STUDY. 

Mary Clark Barnes relates in the Sunday-school 
Times, that in the spring of 1894, a Young People's 
Society of Christian Endeavor in Pittsburg, Pa. , set 
aside the second of the weekly meetings of each 
month as ''Bible Study Evening." In their first 
year they studied the life of Christ ; in the second, 
the foreshado wings of the Christ ; in the third, the 
founding of the Christian Church. 

The course led the young people to see their lack 
of thorough knowledge even of those parts of the 
Bible with which they were most familiar. The 
difficulty which some found in securing fifteen min- 
utes a day for the study, revealed to them the start- 
ling fact that they had not been accustomed to give 
even this small portion of their time to the study of 
the Scriptures, which are to be the guide and in- 
spiration of their lives. 

While the benefits gained from the study were in 
proportion to the time and effort given to it, those 
who gave no time except during the monthly meet- 
ing devoted to the discussion of the topics, declared 
that meeting to be the most helpful to them of all 
the Endeavor meetings of the month. The mental 
discipline of the study was highly valued by those 
who followed it regularly. The effort to put into 
concise and definite terms the answers to the ques- 
tions given was in itself an education, leading to 
clearer thought and more accurate expression. To 
many the study was spiritually helpful, and it led 
to a higher ideal of Bible-school work. 



"THE TIE THAT BINDS." 

The Eev. W. W. Breckenridge, pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church in Hartford, Conn., 
writing in Young People at Work, says the ma- 
chinery of our various organizations, by which we 
expect to do our work, has become a means of 
driving us apart. We may be so fond of our ' ' dis- 
tinctive views" and "particular methods" as to 
lose sight of the essential features of Christianity. 
The tie that binds us together is the essential 
creed of the Christian religion, and that has always 
been a very simple one. ' ' Dost thou believe on the 
only Son of God?" includes the most of it. That 
was enough to save a man in the days of the apos- 
tles, and it is sufficient now. We belittle our re- 
ligion by throwing so much emphasis on the truths 
about religion instead of putting our faith in its 
great essentials. Our Christianity is good and im- 
portant and attractive, just in proportion as we 
emphasize its central doctrines. Five truths lie at 
the bottom of all true Christianity : 1. There is a 
God who was the Creator of the world and is now 



the Preserver of life. 2. Knowledge of right and 
wrong. 3. Consciousness of sin. 4. Immortality. 
5. The historic Christ. Possibly the things which 
divide us most will be found to have no permanent 
place in Christian thought and life. These great 
truths of religion are a permanent possession of the 
human race. 



TO JUNIOR SUPERINTENDENTS. 

MISS LIZZIE COULT. 

Let the watchword for 1897 be, " More consecra- 
tion in bringing the boys and girls to Christ." 

I want to urge you to have your societies do more 
this year for missions. Have a missionary meeting 
once a month, always on the same Sabbath in the 
month ; at this meeting announce what will be the 
next country studied. Ask the Juniors to keep on 
the watch for interesting items about that country. 
Set the Juniors to work and you will find that they 
enjoy their missionary Sunday more than any other. 
Teach them to give to missions systematically. 
An average society of twenty members, each giving 
a penny every week, will have ten dollars for its 
yearly missionary offering — a healthy, steady, sys- 
tematic contribution to the Lord's work. 

In "The Junior Manual" you will find over 
seventy ways to vary your missionary meetings, and 
"Fuel for Missionary Fires," by Belle M. Brain, is 
packed full of bright suggestions. The same is true 
of our own Over Sea and Land. Endeavor to have 
a subscription in each family connected with your 
society. 



PEGUAN MISSIONARIES. 

Rev. E P. Dunlap, of Bangkok, reports that 
a few months ago two devoted missionaries reached 
Siam from an unexpected source. They were sent 
by the native church of Burma, and by that church 
to be supported in their work. They are Peguans, 
a tribe of lower Burma, and are here to labor for 
the Peguans of Siam, a people that have been sorely 
neglected — thousands of them war captives, and the 
descendants of captives, made during Siam's wars 
with Burma. This aged missionary and his wife 
left a strong church in Burma and a large family 
of children and grandchildren, and made their 
way alone for the joy of proclaiming Christ to 
their fellow-countrymen in this land. I have said 
alone. No, not alone, for God is with them, and 
working through them. A few Sabbaths ago fifteen 
Peguans professed Christ and were baptized through 
their labors. 



1897.] 



REV. JACOB CHAMBERLAIN, D.D., M.D. 



217 




Rev. Jacob Chamberlain, D.D.. M.D. 



Through the courtesy of the Rev. A. DeW. Mason, editor of Hie Mission Field, we are able to present 
the face of this veteran missionary to India. For forty-seven years he has been a missionary of the 
Reformed Church in America to the land of the Veda. After a period of rest in this country, Dr. 
and Mrs. Chamberlain left New York last November, on their return to the Arcot Mission. Many 
articles from Dr. Chamberlain's pen have become familiar to the readers of our religious and mis- 
sionary periodicals. At the suggestion of friends, he made a collection of some of these and published 
them, just before his departure, in a volume called " In the Tiger Jungle." These stories of mission- 
ary life and adventure are well adapted to quicken the zeal of those who are but partially interested 
in the great work of the Church abroad. 



218 



MELINDA RANKIN. 



[March, 



MELINDA RANKIN. 

MRS. ALBERT B. ROBINSON. 
[Prepared for the Christian Training Course. See Pro- 
gramme No. 11, Study xi, page 221.] 

To this consecrated woman was entrusted the 
work of laying the foundation of the Church of 
Christ in Mexico. Of her early experiences she 
afterwards wrote, ''When the light of the glorious 
gospel of the Son of God shone into my heart the 
desire for its extension through the whole world 
took possession* of me. ' ' After a time of spiritual 
unrest and vain repinings over her narrow sphere 
in ilife, she was brought by the teachings of the 
Bible to feel that she had a mission to fulfill, 
and to adopt as her pledge of consecration the 
words of another faithful worker for Christ, ■ ' Hence- 
forth, if it pleases him, I am to consecrate myself, 
my soul and body, and all that I have, to a direct 
effort to execute, in union with others, the last 
command of the ascended Saviour.' ' The subse- 
quent years of waiting in her New England 
home were spent in careful preparation for her 
future work wherever that was to be. She was 
often impressed by the command, ' ' Get thee out of 
thy country and from thy kindred, and come unto 
the land which I will show you." 

In 1840, guided by this divine impulse, she re- 
sponded to a call for missionary teachers in the 
Mississippi Valley, to stem the incoming tide of 
irreligion consequent upon European immigration. 
She first went to Kentucky, where she remained 
two years, establishing schools, and then to Mis- 
sissippi for four years. 

But the divine call was again heard, impelling 
her to leave this pleasant field of labor and to seek 
her work among those still more needy. It was at 
the beginning of the war of the United States with 
Mexico. From returning Mississippi soldiers she 
learned of the deplorable condition of the Mexican 
people, into whose fair land the Bible had never 
been allowed to penetrate with its illuminating 
power. Her heart was stirred to its very depths. 
She felt that an important duty devolved upon 
evangelical Christendom to try and do something 
for the moral elevation of this people who had so 
long been sitting in the region and shadow of 
death ; that the honor of American Christianity 
imperatively demanded that some effort should im- 
mediately be made. Her appeals to churches and 
missionary boards receiving no response, she re 
solved herself to go and give to the Mexicans the 
pure word of God. The way was hedged for an 
immediate entrance into the country, but she was 
content at present to take initiatory steps, and await 
God's providential opening in his own way and 
time for the fulfillment of her purpose. 



With this in view, she left Mississippi in 1847, 
and, with heroic faith and courage, started for 
Texas — a dangerous undertaking for a woman — 
alone and unprotected to enter this new State in its 
unsettled condition and infested as it was with des- 
perate characters. 

Yet not alone ! The same providence that had 
guided her steps thus far was still keeping guard 
over his own. All unexpectedly, during this 
journey, strangers became influential friends to 
guide her in safety to the point where she should 
labor and wait for the next advance step towards 
Mexico. Under the escort of these new friends she 
reached Huntsville, where she tarried until 1852. 
Of this time she said, "I remained .... building 
up schools in different parts of the State, and ever 
and anon casting my eye toward the dark regions 
beyond with earnest longings for the time when I 
would be permitted to carry the torch of divine 
truth to the millions of souls in Mexico who were 
buried beneath the rubbish of papal error and 
superstition." In the spring of 1852 Miss Rankin 
felt assured that her time had at last come for 
beginning her long anticipated work for the Mexi- 
cans. The way had been partially prepared during 
our war with Mexico, when the agent of the Bible 
Society accompanied the army and distributed 
Spanish Bibles throughout the country. At this 
time also many an American knapsack contained 
a copy of the Bible. ■ ' In the awful furrows of war 
was sowed here and there the word of life. ' ' 

In 1850 a Presbyterian clergyman journeyed two 
hundred miles up the Rio Grande to ascertain if 
Mexico were ready for evangelical wook. His en- 
couraging report decided Miss Rankin, in 1852, to 
press still nearer toward Mexico. Undeterred by 
the alarming tidings that her intended place of 
destination was invaded by Indians, trusting wholly 
in him whose repeated command to her had been,* 
Go forward ! she crossed the Gulf of Mexico and 
proceeded by stage to Brownsville, a border town 
on the Rio Grande just opposite Matamoras, 
Mexico. At the close of the war this part of 
Texas, formerly claimed by Mexico, came under 
our victorious government. Here still resided 
many Mexican families among whom she could 
labor even while denied entrance into Mexico itself 
because of the stringent laws forbidding the intro- 
duction of the Protestant religion into that country. 
We can best follow this intrepid woman at this 
stage of her perilous enterprise by her own account 
of her arrival at Brownsville, nine o'clock at 
night. A temporary shelter was found for a few 
days, but, unable to secure a permanent boarding 
place, she rented and took possession of two rooms, 
one for her own personal use, and_the other for her 



1897.] 



MELINDA RANKIN. 



219 



school. She wrote, "At dark I had no bed to 
sleep on, nor did I know how I was to obtain my 
breakfast, to say nothing of a supper. But before 
the hour of retiring came, a Mexican woman 
brought me a cot, an American woman sent me a 
pillow, and a German woman came to me and said 
she would cook my meals and bring them to me. 
I never closed my eyes in sleep with more profound 
feelings of thankfulness to God. I fully believed 
I was where my divine Master had called me to go 
— upon the borders of that land where I had so 
long desired to be and to whose people I trusted 
the Lord would make me eminently useful." From 
five pupils the number in her school soon increased 
to forty, to whom she daily gave instruction in the 
Bible — also visiting their homes and leaving Bibles 
with those who could read. At this time she was 
greatly encouraged by the information that Bibles 
were being carried across the river to the Mexican 
side. But her bright hopes were suddenly over- 
shadowed by the unexpected arrival of "priests 
and nuns from France to establish their head- 
quarters at Brownsville, and to erect a convent for 
the evident purpose of educating the youth of the 
Kio Grande Valley." What was her duty in this 
sudden crisis? Should she flee before the foe? 
How could she, single-handed and alone, hope to 
withstand these formidable enemies of the truth? 
Prayerfully she sought divine guidance, and turn- 
ing, as was her wont, to her Bible, she was strength- 
ened to remain at her post of duty by the comfort- 
ing words, (t These shall make war with the Lamb, 
and the Lamb shall overcome them, for he is Lord 
of lords and King of kings, and they that are with 
him are called and chosen and faithful." With 
renewed courage she closed her school temporarily 
and hastened to the United States to raise funds for 
a Protestant seminary which she felt must be 
reared in the Rio Grande Valley under the auspices 
of Protestant Christians of the United States. She 
traveled throughout the Union, at first encountering 
opposition from some who felt that the Mexicans 
were a people just fit to be exterminated from the 
earth. Some even expressed this opinion: "We 
would better send bullets and gunpowder than Bibles 
to Mexico." But she also won many strong friends 
for her cause, and so successful were her efforts 
that in fifteen months she was back at Brownsville 
with the needed funds for the prospective seminary. 
In the interval of waiting for its building, she re- 
opened her school and took up her old work of 
visiting and distributing Bibles and tracts. She 
entered the new seminary in 1854. Gathering her 
Mexican girls around her, she consecrated the build- 
ing to God with reading from the Bible and prayer. 
Her work became so heavy that in 1855 she made 



an appeal for a colporteur for the Mexican frontier. 
No Christian man, understanding the Spanish 
language, could be found for the work. To over- 
come this obstacle, Miss Rankin offered herself to 
become the colporteur of the American and Foreign 
Christian Union if an assistant teacher could be 
provided for the seminary. Thus partially relieved, 
she took up the work with great energy in Browns- 
ville and its vicinity. By the hands of a faithful 
man, a Protestant German, who, as a traveling 
portrait painter, had access to many Mexican 
families, she sent much evangelical literature into 
Mexico. There is abundant proof to-day that the 
simple reading of the Bibles that then passed secretly 
from hand to hand was the means used by God for 
many conversions to the Protestant faith. After 
the struggle for religious liberty, which ended in 
1859, when the Liberal Party under Juarez was 
victorious, many came over from Matamoras asking 
for Bibles, saying, they could now distribute Prot- 
estant books without hindrance. The demand be- 
came so great that a special agent was appointed by 
the American Bible Society, who, in 1860, went 
into Mexico. "He was told by the authorities 
that he might preach, plant schools, build churches, 
disseminate the Bible and do anything that would 
benefit the people." Miss Rankin could not then 
avail herself of this freedom, as no suitable person 
could be found to whom she could commit her 
seminary ; but Rev. Mr. Thompson continued his 
labors with success till the Civil War. He found 
everywhere that the Bible had preceded him. In 
1861, the two first Mexicans (father and son) who 
publicly professed the Protestant faith had, by 
studying the Bible alone, learned of and accepted 
salvation through Christ. But this good work re- 
ceived a temporary check by the Civil War in the 
United States, and by the French intervention, 
when that willing tool of Rome, Napoleon III, 
sought to strengthen the papal power on the Amer- 
ican continent by forcibly establishing an empire in 
Mexico and placing the unfortunate Maximilian 
on his unstable throne. During the Civil War 
Miss Rankin felt constrained to leave her semi- 
nary, and she never returned to occupy it ; but in 
other hands the school was successfully carried on 
for some years, and then placed under the care of 
the Presbytery of Western Texas. For a short 
time she was at Matamoras, where she opened a 
school, rejoicing that at last she was able to labor on 
true Mexican soil. But she soon felt it wise to 
suspend operations till both countries were in a 
more settled condition, and spent most of the time 
of waiting at New Orleans, where she engaged in 
hospital work and in assisting to establish the first 
schools for the freedmen. It was not till 1865, 



220 



MELINDA RA.NKIN. 



[March, 



when Maximilian had decided upon religious 
liberty in Mexico, that she was able to resume her 
labors in that country. Arriving at Monterey, she 
found such encouraging results from the quiet seed- 
sowing of the past years that she felt justified in 
securing the permanent establishment of a Prot- 
estant mission in northern Mexico, under the 
auspices of the American and Foreign Christian 
Union. Monterey, "the centre of strong Koman 
Catholic influences," was the place chosen for the 
"headquarters of Protestantism." 

The Civil War was ended and her way clear to 
visit the United States again to secure money for 
the erection of buildings for the contemplated mis- 
sion. She left Monterey in August, 1865, and re- 
turned in less than a year with the needed funds 
for her purpose. Important changes had taken 
place in Mexico during her absence. Through 
the vigorous protest of the United States, the French 
troops had been withdrawn. Deserted alike by the 
French emperor and the Pope of Eome, Maximilian 
had met his ignominious fate. Mexico was once 
more a republic, with Juarez at its head, and all the 
circumstances were most auspicious for the prosecu- 
tion of Miss Rankin's work. A building, formerly 
built and owned by a Catholic priest, was for sale. 
It was purchased, and while waiting for its enlarge- 
ment and remodeling to " answer the triple office 
of chapel, school and residence," she interested 
herself in a new feature of the enterprise, feeling 
assured that "a good working force might be made 
out of the Mexican converts for propagating the 
gospel in Mexico." But money was needed for 
this purpose. Another trip to New York ! this 
time to enlist the Christian women of the United 
States in the scheme of sending out native teachers 
of the gospel in Mexico. Most nobly they re- 
sponded to her earnest appeals, and in a few months 
she returned with the money they had contributed, 
sufficient to employ seven or eight men. These 
she sent out, two and two, as the Saviour sent out 
his early disciples. They went from house to 
house, from ranch to ranch, within a circle of one 
hundred miles around Monterey, teaching and 
preaching. Dr. Butler tells us, "little congrega- 
tions grew out of this work and Miss Rankin's 
helpers were enabled to go farther into Mexico — 
the work in the city of Zacatecas being started by 
these, and at Cos, also, where they were aided by a 
Christian physician from the United States located 
there." As soon as the mission building was ready 
for occupancy, "public worship was held on the 
Sabbath, and a school was opened for Mexican 
girls." 



Miss Rankin became convinced in 1869 that the 
converts in and about Monterey should be organized 
into churches. An evangelical minister was pro- 
cured who organized churches at different points 
under the charge of native pastors. In 1870 there 
were six Protestant churches and schools, with 
native teachers, besides a girls' and boys' school in 
the mission building at Monterey, with foreign 
teachers. Miss Rankin had again sought aid from 
the United States, and as a result these schools 
where supported by the Sabbath- schools and young 
ladies' institutions of our country. 

The remainder of Miss Rankin's life in Mexico 
was attended with much annoyance from Romish 
persecution, and the dangers and distresses incident 
to revolution, and though the good work was for a 
time hindered and imperiled by this unfavorable 
combination of circumstances, yet, after the resto- 
ration of law and order, the indefatigable colpor- 
teurs were able to go out again, and plans were 
made for extending the work still farther. But 
Miss Rankin' s health at last gave way under the 
heavy strain, and in 1873 the mission was trans- 
ferred to the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions. We quote Miss Rankin's own 
words: "Although I had full confidence in the 
American Board, yet, when I came actually to 
surrender my dearly cherished treasure, the fruits 
of more than a score of years of weeping and bear- 
ing precious seed, my heart again shrank, and I 
exclaimed, ' How can I give it up ? ' I left the 
rooms of the Board without being able to say, ' I 
relinquish the mission into your hands,' and re- 
tired to my dwelling, passing the night in medita- 
ting upon the duty which I felt lay before me. 
' About the fourth watch ' of the night, appeared 
one who in other scenes of trial had come ' walk- 
ing upon the sea' of trouble, and calmed my 
anxious heart. By faith I realized the sympathy 
of my Divine Master, and felt the comforting 
assurance that the mission was his, and that he 
would take care of all its precious interests. In- 
deed, I was made conscious that it was even dearer 
to him than to myself. The next morning I re- 
turned to the rooms, and with the full consent of 
my heart gave the mission and all its interests into 
the hands of the American Board." 

"From her home in Bloomington, 111., she went, 
as much as her strength would permit, to visit the 
churches, interesting the people in the cause of the 
gospel in Mexico. On the 7th of December, 1888, 
she passed to her reward, leaving a name that will 
always be associated with the earliest efforts for the 
redemption of Mexico." 



1897.] 



CHRISTIAN TRAINING COURSE. 



22J 



CHRISTIAN TRAINING COURSE. 
For Young People's Societies and Other Church Organizations. 



[Prepared by the Rev. Hugh B. MacCauley and the Rev. Albert B. Robinson, and approved by General Assembly, & 
1896. See Outline B, with Helpful Hints, in "the August, 1896, issue of The Church at H<>mk am'. Abroad, pp. 146, 117. 



May, 



Outline B. Programme No. 11, March, 1897. 
/. Opening — 10 Minutes. 

1. Hymn. The Pastor in charge. 

2. Prayer. 

3. Doctrinal, Shorter Catechism, Ques. 12. 

Ques. 12. What special act of providence did God exercise 
towards man, in the estate wherein he was created? Gen. 
2: 16, 17; Gal. 3: 12. 

77. Biblical— 20 Minutes. 

4. II vniii. Biblical Leader in charge. 

5. Uiblicrtl Study. The Character of Christ, Study XI 
— The testimony borne to him by the different relations into 
which he came. Part 2. 

Required reading. Speer's The Man Christ Jesus, pp. 142- 
150 ; Questions 53-56, pp. 248, 249. 

Ques. 53. Was he ever disobeyed ? Ans. , p. 142. Ques. 54. 
Was he ever obeyed when obedience must have been blind ? 
Ans., pp. 143-145. Ques. 55. What impressions did he pro- 
duce upon others? Ans., pp. 143-148 ; (1) Admiration, p. 
145; (2) Astonishment, p. 146; (3) Dumb wonderment, p. 
146; (4) Shame, p. 146; (5) Hope, p. 147; (6) Hatred, p. 
147; (7) Fascination, p. 148; (8) Love, p. 149. Ques. 56. 
Could these have been due to deception ? Ans., pp. 149, 150. 

III. Historical— 20 Minutes. 

6. Hymn. Historical Leader in charge. 

7. Historical Study. The Development of the Mis- 
sionary Idea, Study XI ; Methodius and the Slavs ; Missions 
in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. 

Required reading. George Smith's Short History of Mis- 
sions, pp. 96-100. The Slavs, p. 96. Methodius, p. 97. Ad- 
albert of Prussia, p. 98. Otto of Bamberg, p. 98. Vladimir 
of Russia's Baptism, p. 99. The Crusades, p. 100. Have a 
three-minute essay on Methodius, and another longer on the 
Crusades. 

8. Prayer. 

IV. Missionary — 20 Mimttes. 

9. Hymn. Missionary Leader in charge. 

10. Missionary Study, Modern Missionary Heroes, 
Study VIII — Melinda Rankin and Mexico. 

Required reading. The Church at Home and Abroad, 
March, 1897, on Melinda Rankin, pp. 218-220; also, Ques- 
tions on Melinda Rankin, p. 227. Here is the work of a 
faithful heroine. Divide it up by the questions. 

11. Prayer. 
13. Hymn. 



Outline B. Programme No. 12, March, 1897. 
I. Opening — 10 Min << /< .-. 

1. Hymn. The Pastor in charge. 

2. Prayer. 

3. Doctrinal, Shorter Catechism. Ques. 13, 11. 

Ques. 13. Did our first parents continue in the estate 
wherein they were created ? Gen. 3 : 6; Rom 5: 12. Ques. 
14. What is sin? Rom. 4 : 15 ; Jas. 1 : 13-15; Jas. 2: 10; 
Jas. 4 : 17 ; 1 John 3 : 4. 

IT. Biblical— 20 Minutes. 

4. Hymn. Biblical Leader in charge. 

5. Biblical Study, The Character of Christ, Study XII- 
The testimony borne to him by the different relations into 
which he came. Part 3. 

Required reading. Speer's The Man Christ Jesus, pp. 150- 
158 ; Question 57-59, p. 249, Review. 

Ques. 57. What do we know of Jesus' relations to his own 
family? Ans., pp. 151, 152, 155. Ques. 58. What were the 
steps in the development of Peter's opinion of Jesus? Ans., 
p. 152. Ques. 59. How was the faith of the woman of 
Samaria created? Ans., p. 153. In the review pick out the 
most striking points under this head, the testimony borne to 
him. 

III. Historical — 20 Minutes. 

6. Hymn. Historical Leader in charge. 

7. Historical Study. The Development of the Mis- 
sionary Idea, Study XII ; Raymund Lull and the Moham- 
medans ; Missions in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. 

Required reading. George Smith's Short History of Missions] 
pp. 101-109. Review and read The Saracens and the Cru- 
sades, p. 100. Then Francis of Assist, p. 101. Marco Polo 
and Franciscan Missions to Cathay, p. 102. Raymund Lull 
and the Mohammedans, pp. 103-108. Fine hymns are those 
of Bernard of Clairvaux about this period, " Life of the 
world, I hail thee," " Jesus, the very thought of thee " (about 
1150, the time of the second crusades, and sung by knights 
around the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem), " O Jesus, King 
most wonderful." 

8. Prayer. 

IV. Missionary — 10 Minutes. 

9. Hymn. 

10. Missionary Study, Missionary Administration. 
Required reading. The Church at Home and Abroad, 

March, 1897, pp. 177-192 ; also, Questions on p. 227. 

11. Prayer. 
18. Hymn. 



SUGGESTIONS. 

(1) We have put the Shorter Catechism into the opening part of the programme. Distribute the 
texts in advance. Let the Pastor read the question, ('all for the answer from one or all. and the 
texts, and then explain. 

(2) We advise you not to run over the time limit suggested. We have allowed one hour and ten 
minutes for a programme. If fuller treatment is wanted increase the Historical and the Missionary to 
twenty-five minutes each, or one hour and twenty minutes in all. 

(3) We hope you will try these two meetings per month. Have the first followed by short social 
and light refreshments. Have the second two weeks later, and follow with short session for business. 
Begin promptly at ?.] o'clock and close not later than a quarter after nine. 

(4) Try No. 11 at the Church Monthly Concert for Missions and tell us how it succeeded. 



222 



TWO ALASKAN MISSIONARIES — REINDEER IN ALASKA. 



[March, 




Mrs. A. R. McFarland. 

TWO ALASKAN MISSIONARIES. 

Few Presbyterians are unfamiliar with the thrill- 
ing story of Mrs. A. R. McFarland's pioneer work 
in Alaska ; how she set out on five days' notice, 
and arriving at Fort Wrangell took up the work of 
the dying Christian Alaskan Philip, and how, in 
company with an Indian woman as interpreter, she 
remained for a year the only white woman in a 
country where lawlessness reigned, and carried on 
a single-handed fight to save young native girls 
from debasing servitude. 

For the portrait of Mrs. McFarland we are in- 
debted to The Christian Herald. 

Several years ago it was the writer's privilege to 
listen to a bright, spicy letter written by Mrs. 
Eugene S. Willard to a Sunday-school in central 
New York that had contributed generously to the 
support of her work among the Alaskans. This 
was but one of a series of letters so full of infor- 
mation that they were afterwards published. 

Through the kindness of the editor of The Home 
Mission Monthly, Mrs. Willard' s face appears on this 
page. 

REINDEER IN ALASKA. 

It was in 1890 that Dr. Sheldon Jackson, while 
making a tour of inspection in Alaska, was im- 
pressed with the necessity of taking some active 
measures to prevent the extermination of the 
natives by starvation. Returning to Washington, 
he made known his plan to import and domesticate 
the Siberian reindeer. He says there are in 



Alaska fully four hundred thousand square miles 
of territory unadapted to agriculture or the grazing 
of cattle, but producing an abundance of the long 
fibrous white moss, the natural food of the rein- 
deer. This moss is capable of furnishing food and 
clothing for men by transforming it into reindeer 
meat and furs. 

Herds of reindeer, numbering now 1100 head, 
are located at five different places in Alaska. They 
were at first placed in charge of Laplanders skilled in 
the care of the animals, until native apprentices 
learned the business. 

Dr. Jackson's purpose in the importation of the 
reindeer was to secure a new food supply for the 
Eskimos, but now it is found that they are essential 
for transportation purposes. Freight charges from 
the Yukon river to the mines, thirty miles distant, 
were last winter fifteen and twenty cents a pound 
by the slow dog teams that had to be burdened with 
the food for their own maintenance. The trained 
reindeer will make in a day two or three times the 
distance covered by a dog team, and can then be 
turned loose to gather their food from the moss 
which grows everywhere. Fifty of the imported 
deer have already been broken to the harness. 

The stocking of Alaska with reindeer, says Dr. 
Jackson, means the opening up of a vast region to 
colonization and the development of a great com- 
mercial industry. The 9,000,000 reindeer that 
Alaska is capable of supporting would be valued 
at $80,000,000, and would furnish food, clothing 
and means of transportation to a population of a 
quarter of a million. 




Mrs. Eugene S. Willard. 



1897.] 



A CHRISTIAN STATESMAN — A MODEL GOVERNOR. 



223 



A CHRISTIAN STATESMAN. 

One great need in Korea to-day is statesmanship. 
A few intelligent leaders have the feeling that 
much of their energy is expended in trying to get 
other members of the government to consent to 
progress. But the nation is beginning to appre- 
ciate the worth of strong men in public offices, and 
such men are coming to the front. 

In 1884 General Foote, United States Minister 
to Korea, employed as his interpreter and private 
secretary a native youth named Yun Tchi Ho. 
After the attempted assassination of Prince Min 
Yong Ik, in December of that year, Yun was be- 
lieved to be a foreign sympathizer, and was ban- 
ished. But General Foote sent him to the Anglo- 
Chinese College in Shanghai, where he remained 
four years, becoming a Christian in 1887. He 
came to the United States in 1889, and entered 
Vanderbilt University for a course in theology. 
Returning to Shanghai in 1893, he was employed 
as an instructor in the Anglo-Chinese College. 
The following year he married a Chinese lady 
who had been educated in a Methodist mission 
school. 

At the conclusion of the Chino-Japanese war 
Mr. Yun returned to his native land, where his 
abilities where at once recognized. He was first 
made secretary to the prime minister and then vice- 
minister of education. When the king formed a 
new cabinet, Mr. Yun accepted the office which he 
still holds, that of Minister of Education. It is a 
position he had desired to hold on account of the 
possibilities for good that the office would bring 
him. It is said that while cabinet ministers do not 
go out at night without a body-guard, Mr. Yun 
appears on the streets unattended. He preaches 
in the Christian chapels, sometimes in official 
costume, and does not hesitate to speak against the 
evils that hinder the progress of his country. 

For the portrait of Mr. Yun we are indebted to 
the courtesy of Rev. W. R. Lambuth, D.D., 
editor of the Review of Missions. 



A MODEL GOVERNOR. 

Don Miguel Ahumada, governor of the State of 
Chihuahua, Mexico, during the past four years, has, 
by his management of the finances, his tireless ac- 
tivity in behalf of education and his improvements 
promotive of public health and comfort, made his 
administration so successful that the citizens have 
elected him for a second term. The Rev. James 
D. Eaton, a missionary of the American Board, 
writing thus in The Independent, recalls the fact 




Mr. Yun, Korean Minister of Education. 

that Governor Ahumada stood as firm as a rock 
in refusing to allow the disgraceful prize fight of 
last year to take place within his jurisdiction, 
although the promoters offered to pay into the State 
treasury the sum of forty thousand dollars, if he 
would give the permission desired. His recent 
order, which shows that he is not unmindful of the 
need of moral training for the young, is as follows : 
" Since those charged with the work of teaching 
are the ones more directly obligated to conduct them- 
selves well in society and to set a good example, 
whenever they are intrusted with the delicate mis- 
sion of educating and instructing the youth ; and 
since the Governor has been informed that some 
of the aforesaid employes, in forgetfulness of their 
duties, often go to the saloons and gambling houses, 
he has thought it best to inform them, through the 
heads of the districts, that they are absolutely for- 
bidden to frequent such places, and that failure to 
comply with this order will be punished by dismissal 
from their positions." 



The busy world shoves angrily aside 

The man who stands with arms akimbo set, 

Until occasion tells him what to do ; 

And he who waits to have his task made out, 

Shall die and leave his errand unfulfilled. 

—Lowell. 



224 



PRESBYTERIAN ENDEAVORERS. 



[March, 



PRESBYTERIAN ENDEAVORERS. 
Chicago, 111. 

January 18 there was organized in the Third 
Presbyterian Church of Chicago (Dr Withrow's) 
an intermediate society of Christian Endeavor, 
this being the ninth society in this church, in- 
cluding its missions. 

One of our Christian Endeavorers, desirous of 
being a foreign missionary, but detained by in- 
valid relatives, devotes every afternoon to visiting 
and singing to the patients in the Presbyterian 
Hospital.— J". L. 31. 

Horton, Kans. 

The Y. P. S. C. E. of the Presbyterian Church 
held a Christmas service on Sabbath evening, 
December 20, and made "a birthday offering to 
Christ." All the members in the order of the 
number of years they had been connected with 
the church came forward, placed their offerings 
on the table, and testified to the goodness of the 
Lord and their enjoyment of his service. It was 
one of the most spiritually helpful meetings in 
the history of the society. The contributions 
amounted to $12, and will go towards the support 
of Rev. George E. Partch, of Shanghai, China. — 
A. P. 

Saginaw, Mich. 

The Men's Association in the Warren Avenue 
Presbyterian Church is an important factor in 
church work. Its membership, which now num- 
bers sixty, is limited to the men of the congrega- 
tion. Every member is appointed to some one of 
the nine committees, thus giving each one some- 
thing to do. — Michigan Presbyterian, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

At Westminster Presbyterian Church, Sunday 
evening, January 10, four young men of the 
College Young Men's Christian Association, who 
had given up their vacation to work for Christ, re- 
ported the evangelistic work in which they had been 
engaged. Afternoon Bible readings were held, as 
well as cottage prayer meetings and evening ser- 
vices. Many Christians were helped and quick- 
ened into a more intense spiritual life, and several 
persons were hopefully converted. — North and 
West. 

Auburn, Neb. 

One-minute talks by the new and retiring 
officers and committee chairmen helped to give 
practical value to the sunrise prayer meeting with 
which the Presbyterian Endeavorers inaugurated 
the new year. — F. H. G. in the Golden Rule. 

Cold Spring, N. J. 

At the beginning of the year the Endeavor 
society placed $300 of their contributions in the 
hands of the trustees of the church, to be applied 
to the removal of an existing debt. 

Newark, N. Y. 

The Presbyterian Endeavorers unite with the 
societies of other churches in evangelistic work 
among outside young people. They are to engage 
a hall and hold regular meetings, and cannot but 



accomplish great results with such enthusiasm, 
consecration and love for their fellows. Surely 
this is a practical form of Christianity. When 
Mr. Moody was asked, "how to reach the masses," 
he replied, "go to them." Some young people 
will not go to church, but they will attend these 
outside meetings if cordially invited. — F. A. W. 

Salem, N. Y. 

The manner in which the meetings of the 
Junior Endeavor society are conducted may afford 
a helpful suggestion to others. The Juniors are 
under the charge of four ladies— a superintendent 
and three assistants. The meetings are held each 
Sunday afternoon at four o'clock. At these meetings 
the first fifteen minutes are spent in singing, with 
a prayer, and learning a psalm, or other passage 
of Scripture, in unison. Then the society divides 
into four groups, according to the four committees 
in one of which each Junior is a member, and re- 
tires to the four corners of the room, for group or 
committee work. Each lady has one committee 
in her special charge, and spends fifteen minutes 
in seeing that each of her group has a verse to re- 
cite, and in explaining the topic for the day as 
previously announced. She aims to impress some 
one single lesson, or truth, and then appoints one 
of her group to report for them. At the end of 
fifteen minutes the society reassembles, and a 
half-hour meeting is held under the leadership of 
one of the members. After the singing, prayers 
and verses, or during them, the leader calls on 
each group in turn, "What has your committee 
to report on the topic?" or, "What has your 
committee learned as to the topic? " and the one 
selected rises and reports. Then the superin- 
tendent, or the pastor, sums up these four reports 
and perhaps adds to them in a few closing re- 
marks. The advantages of this method are that it 
divides the hour, introduces variety into the ex- 
ercises, gives each lady a more personal contact 
and supervision over a part of the society, em- 
phasizes the committee organization, creates a 
worthy emulation between the committees to 
have some lesson to report, and helps each to learn 
from the others. The plan has proven an aid to 
the superintendents, and has enlisted the constant 
interest of the children. — E. P. S. 

Portsmouth, O. 

A correspondent of the Golden Rule reports that 
more than eighty children ate Christmas dinners 
as guests of the First Presbyterian C. E. society. 
Also, that by serving lunches on two political rally 
days the society raised one hundred dollars for a 
piano in the church lecture-room. 

Toronto, Ont. 

Owing to the large membership of the Endeavor 
society in Cooke's Presbyterian Church, it is 
practically impossible to call the roll at every 
meeting. In order to obviate this difficulty the 
following method has been adopted, and is reported 
by the pastor in the Knox College Monthly. Every 
member of the society, whether active or associate, 
wears a pink badge, on which there is a number. 
In the vestibule there is a framework containing 
numbers corresponding with those on the badges. 
Previous to each meeting the Lookout Committee 
put the badges on their respective places on the 



1897.] 



SABBATH AFTERNOONS — WHAT JUNIORS CAN DO. 



225 



frame, and, as the members come in, their badges 
are handed to them. After the meeting has 
begun, the secretary, by looking over the frame, 
can tell who are present and who are absent, and 
in this way keeps a record of the attendance. 
These badges also serve another purpose, as each 
badge has printed on it the name of the member 
who wears it, and in this way it assists members 
in getting acquainted with one another. A small 
bow of white ribbon attached to the badges of the 
active members distinguishes them from the 
associate. Any one going into the meeting can 
readily find out the names of the members, dis- 
tinguish between the active and the associate, 
and, by the absence of the badges, tell who are 
strangers or visitors. 

Beatrice, Neb. 

The young people of the First Church are re- 
ceiving instruction in Presbyterian doctrine. The 
pastor is giving them a course of Sunday evening 
lectures on the Westminster Confession of Faith, 
reviewing each week the preceding lecture. 

New York, N. Y. 

A combination of fun, work and refreshments, 
made an enjoyable programme for the first social 
given by the Juniors of Madison Avenue Presby- 
terian Church. This is the youngest society in the 
Junior Local Union, and has an editor who writes 
that the first hour of the social was spent in making 
comfort bags for sailors. — M. K. 

Systematic offerings for missions have been 
pledged for the year by the Christian Endeavorers 
of the West End Presbyterian Church. Most grati- 
fying are the results. Last year links were used, 
each member receiving one link in the missionary 
chain upon pledging himself to give two cents a 
week for missions. This year over three times as 
much money has been raised. Once a month en- 
velopes are given the members dated for each Sun- 
day, and as they are dropped in the box each week 
with their offerings the Endeavorer marks off the 
proper space opposite his name on the missionary 
roll hung in a conspicuous place. — M. K. 

Oconto, Wis. 

The Christian Endeavor society gives $63 a year 
towards the support of Mrs. Lilian Reinhart Han- 
sen, of Mosul, Turkey, who went out from this 
society three years ago. Many of the Endeavorers 
assist in the work at the mission stations that have 
been established by Pastor Bossard. 
Tyrone, Pa. 

The Christian Endeavor society has placed in 
the church study a portrait of Rev. II. E. Furbay, 
Ph.D., recently called from this church to Phila- 
delphia. This picture completes the list of por- 
traits of ex-pastors. 

Eau Claire, Wis. 

The Junior society of First Presbyterian Church, 
as reported in North and West, recently paid the 
expense of hanging the bell in the tower of the 
church. 

SABBATH AFTERNOONS. 

"How to Make Sabbath Afternoons Profitable 
and Pleasant for Children," is the title of a little 




booklet of twenty-two pages by Mrs. Fanny A. 
Welcher, the wife of a Presbyterian minister. It 
is the result of practical experience. The writer, 
dependent on her own resources for the instruction 
and entertainment of a family of busy, restless 
children on Sabbath afternoons, having found cer- 
tain plans successful, was requested by friends to 
publish a paper she had written on the subject. 
Junior superintendents, members of the Mothers' 
Christian Endeavor society, as well as mothers and 
older sisters in the home, will find in these pages 
many useful suggestions. The booklet may be 
obtained by sending fifteen cents to Mrs. F. A. 
Welcher, Newark, Wayne county, N. Y. 



WHAT JUNIORS CAN DO. 

MISS MATILDA KAY. 

The Juniors and their leaders who read The 
Church at Home and Abroad will find some 
helpful hints in the following from an Open Parlia- 
ment at a Junior Rally on "The Best Thing My 
Society has Done During the Year : " 

We give systematically — giving twenty-five dol- 
lars towards the support of our own church. 

We have reorganized, and have pledged our- 
selves to be faithful in attendance upon Junior 
rallies, and to give one-tenth of our money to 
God. 

We have adopted a girl in India. 

We have furnished hymn books. 

We gave money for the suffering Armenians, and 
for the debt of the Presbyterian Board. 

We made comfort-bags for sailors. ' ' A comfort- 
bag is a bag for scissors and needles and all things 
to sew up," said a Junior in the audience. "The 
best thing we did was to organize." — From a 
society one week old. 



226 



TWENTY QUESTIONS ON MISSIONARY ADMINISTRATION. 



[March, 



SUGGESTIONS FOE STUDY. 

[FOREIGN MISSIONARY TOPIC FOR APRIL. ] 
Native Christians. 



a 

(c) 

(i) 



Original condition. 

Former religions. 

Difficulties to be overcome in confessing Christ — prej- 
udices — persecutions. 

The number of converts and the ratio of increase. 

Their character and consistency. 

Native agents— their salary and training— normal 
classes. 

The native Church. 

National influence on church organization and 
development. 

Native Christians who come to America. 

For the original condition of the Chinese, read 
" Smith' s Chinese Characteristics" [F. H. Kevell, 
1894]. The condition of the South Sea islanders is 
portrayed in Alexander's " The Islands of the 
Pacific" [American Tract Society, 1895]. Chapter 
x in Wilson' s ' ' Persian Life and Customs' ' [Kevell, 
1895] treats of the condition and needs of Persia. 
For the condition of the Mohammedans, see 
Jessup's "The Mohammedan Missionary Problem" 
[Presbyterian Board of Publication]. Seelye's 
"Christian Missions" [Dodd and Mead, 1875] 
contains chapters on the condition and wants of the 
unchristian world, and the failure of the appliances 
of civilization to improve the world. Kev. W. H. 
Lester, in The Church at Home and Abroad, 
November, 1895, gives reasons for missions to 
Catholic countries. 

"The Keligions of the World," by Principal G. 
M. Grant [A. D. F. Randolph, 30 cts.], is an excel- 
lent handbook. See also "Oriental Keligions and 
Christianity," by Dr. F. F. Ellin wood [Scrib- 
ners, 1892]. Studies in the non-Christian relig- 
ions are given in the Student Volunteer for Novem- 
ber, 1895, and January, February and March, 
1896. Kead also the chapter in "Foreign Mis- 
sions after a Century, " by Dr. James S. Dennis 
[Kevell, 1893], on the " Present Day Controversies 
of Christianity with Opposing Keligions." In 
the "Report of the Missionary Conference, Lon- 
don, 1888," Vol. i, pp. 33-73, may be found ad- 
dresses on Buddhism and other heathen systems ; 
their character and influence compared with those 
of Christianity. 

The articles and letters from our missionaries, in 
The Church at Home and Abroad, abound 
with incidents showing what it costs to confess 
Christ. Kead, for example, Mrs. Thackwell's 
story of a high-caste Hindu's conversion, in our 
issue for November, 1895. Dr. Pierson's "New 
Acts of the Apostles ' ' contains chapters on ' ' The 
Miracle Conversion " and " New Converts" and 
' ' Martyrs. ' ' See also Dr. Dennis on the present con- 
flicts in "Foreign Missions after a Century," page 
187. 

In the same volume, Chapter vi, Dr. Dennis 
treats of the "Success of Missions ; " and Leonard's 
"A Hundred Years of Missions" [Funk and 
Wagnalls, 1895] contains a chapter on "The 
Phenomenon of Missionary Expansion." A good 
summary is also given in a volume by Kev. John 
Liggins, " The Great Value and Success of Foreign 
Missions" [Baker Taylor Company, 85 cents]. 
A file of The Church at Home and Abroad 
contains abundant illustration of the character and 
consistency of native converts. 

" Native Agents and Their Training," by Dr. 



Jam S. Dennis [Christian Literature Company, 
25 cents], and " Methods of Mission Work," by Dr. 
John L. Nevius [Foreign Mission Library], con- 
tain facts of great interest and value. 

"The Problem of the Native Church" is con- 
sidered by Dr. Lawrence in ' ' Modern Missions in 
the East," pp. 234-249. Read also on the " Value 
of Native Churches," Chapter viii, in Ander- 
son's "Foreign Missions " [Scribners, 1869], and 
1 ■ Missionary Presbyteries, ' ' two chapters, in 
Lowrie's "Missionary Papers" [Robert Carter, 
1881]. Mr. W. Henry Grant writes on "Self- 
support in Mexico," in the Methodist Review of 
Missions, February, 1896. Other articles on self- 
support are found in the same magazine for July 
and October, 1896. See also two articles in The 
Church at Home and Abroad : "Self-support 
in Shantung," by Rev. Paul Bergen, February, 
1896, and "Self-support in Syria," by Rev. O. J. 
Hardin, December, 1896. 



TWENTY QUESTIONS ON MISSIONARY 
ADMINISTRATION. 

BY V. P. P. AND S. A. P. 

1. What is the necessity for the Board of Foreign 
Missions ? 

2. When and where was it organized and by 
whom? 

3. Epitomize the main facts in its history ? 

4. What is the relation of the Board to the 
Church at home through the General Assembly? 

5. What relation does it bear to the missionary 
abroad ? 

6. Who compose the Board of Foreign Missions ? 

7. By whom are the members elected and to 
whom are they responsible ? 

8. How is the business of the Board conducted ? 

9. In what lands does the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions operate? 

10. What are the different kinds of work 
over which the Board has supervision ? 

11. Name some of the duties of the executive 
officers. 

12. What is the Board's policy in carrying 
forward its work on the field ? 

13. On whom rests the responsibility for raising 
the funds for the work of the Foreign Board ? 

14. From whom does the money come ? 

15. What is the cost of administration of the 
Foreign Board ? 

16. How is the money spent by the Board on the 
mission fields? 

17. How much money was raised by our Church 
for the Foreign Board last year ? 

18. What causes a debt in the Foreign Mission 
Board? 

19. What was the debt of the Foreign Board 
last year ? 

20. What proportion of our money do we owe to- 
the Lord for this work of Foreign Missions ? 



1897.] 



QUESTIONS. 



227 



QUESTIONS FOR THE MARCH MISSIONARY MEETING. 

[Answers may be found In the preceding pages.] 



WORK AT HOME. 

1. Describe the work, the difficulties, and the 
success of a German pastor in the United States. 
Page 162. 

2. Name three reasons why Presbyterians in the 
East should be interested in the origins of Presby- 
terianisra in California. Page 166. 

3. When was the first Protestant church in 
California organized? Pages 167, 168. 

4. Who were "the three W's," Presbyterian 
pioneers in California ? Page 169. 

5. What is the religious condition of many 
rural districts and villages in our older States? 
Page 208. 

6. To what circumstances is this condition 
largely due? Page 208. 

7. How many Presbyterian churches and church 
members are there in Alaska? Page 205. 

8. Relate an instance of integrity in a young 
Hydah. Page 208. 

9. Describe a revival among the Indians of New 
York. Page 206. 

10. What is " Matka throwing," a sport enjoyed 
by Indian boys in South Dakota? Page 211. 

11. Describe the conversion of a young man in 
South Dakota. Page 211. 

12. Give some account of two model governors. 
Pages 213, 223. 

13. Tell how a Presbyterian church was built in 
1846. Page 171. 

14. What is the influence in a community of a 
church building ? Page 172. 

15. What inscription was placed on a stone in 
the college building at Lincoln University ? Page 
194. 

16. Tell something of the life and influence of 
Jehudi Ashmun. Page 195. 

17. How do some Presbyterian ministers express 
their gratitude to the Board of Education ? Pages 
195, 196. 

18. How did the General Assembly of 1895 ex- 
press the obligation resting upon the church to care 
for aged and disabled ministers? Page 197. 

19. Give a brief summary of the history of 
public-school education for the Negroes in the 
South. Pages 198, 199. 

20. How is the value of Sabbath- school mis- 
sionary work in Missouri illustrated? Pages 201, 
202. 

21. What are the conditions and needs of Albert 
Lea College ? Pages 203, 204. 

WORK ABROAD. 

22. What is the relation of the Board of Foreign 
Missions to the Church at home? Page 177. 

23. Should every member of the Church be 
bound to the Board by a close and sacred personal 
tie? Page 186. 

24. Describe the membership and organization 
of the Board. Page 177. [Names of present 
members are given on pages 186, 187]. 

25. Tell something of the magnitude of its 
operations. Page 178. 

26. How is money raised, and what are the 
of debt? Pages 179, 180. 



27. How does a foreign missionary express his 
estimate of the work of a secretary at the mission 
house? Page 182. 

28. How does the cost of administration compare 
with that of other great enterprises? Page 187. 

29. Describe the varied operations which the 
work of the Board entails upon its treasury. 
Pages 184, 185. 

30. How is the work divided among the secre- 
taries? Pages 188, 189. 

31. What share in the support of our foreign 
missionaries is undertaken by the young people's 
societies? Page 188. 

32. Outline briefly the missionary work of Pres- 
byterians previous to 1831. Pages 189, 190. 

33. Tell the story of the Western Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society, and its transfer to the Assembly's 
Board. Page 190. 

34. What missions were taken over from the 
American Board to the Presbyterian Board in 
1870? Page 191. 

35. Name the chief obstacle to the Christian 
Endeavor society in India. Page 214. 

36. Tell the story of the life of Mr. Y r un, 
Korean Minister of Education. Page 223. 

37. How has the leaven of Christianity changed 
the customs of India? Page 173. 

38. What is the story, related by Dr. Jessup, of 
an Arabic motto worshiped by a Persian babi ? 
Page 175. 

39. What encouraging report of progress comes 
from Laos? Page 192. 

40. Tell how a Bible in Mexico lighted the way 
to Christ. Page 173. 

41. What impulse led Melinda Rankin to choose 
the life of a missionary? Page 218. 

42. While laboring in the Mississippi Valley, 
how was her attention directed to Mexico? Page 
218. 

43. How was she providentially led in the jour- 
ney to Huntsville, and after reaching Brownsville ? 
Pages 218, 219. 

44. What circumstance led her to secure funds 
for the building of a seminary? Page 219. 

45. How was the work of Bible distribution 
begun and carried on ? Page 219. 

46. After the temporary check to the* work 
caused by the civil war and the French interven- 
tion, what did Miss Rankin do in Monterey ? 
Page 220. 

47. What new method did she adopt? Page 
220. 

48. How was Miss Rankin's deep love for the 
mission shown when she transferred it to the Amer- 
ican Board? Page 220. 

49. What new missionary work has been under- 
taken by the native church of Burma ? Page 216. 

50. The distress in India calls for what relief? 
Page 160. 

51. What is the present outlook for reforms 
in Turkey? Page 173. 

52. What progress in self-support has been made 
by our churches in Oroomiah ? Page 175. 



228 



BOOK NOTICES. 



[March, 



Book Notices. 



The Hymnal. Published by authority of the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America. [Presbyterian 
Board ot Publication and Sabbath-school Work, 
1895.] The book was compiled by a committee 
of the Board of Publication, consisting of the 
Hon. Robert N. Willson, the Rev. Elijah R. 
Craven, D.D., LL.D., Franklin L. Sheppard, 
Esq., and the Rev. Louis F. Benson, D D. The 
aims kept in view during its preparation were 
"to produce a manual of the Church's praise, 
a treasury of things new and old, chosen for 
actual service, expressive in some degree of the 
devotional fteliug and also of the culture of 
God's people." After the general selection of 
the hymns had been decided upon, the editor- 
ship of The Hymnal was entrusted to the Rev. 
Louis F. Benson, D.D., and the committee 
secured as musical editor, Dr.Wm. W. Gilchrist. 

The mechanical make-up of the book is well- 
nigh perfect. Both words and music are in 
large clear type, and in spacing the syllables 
each is carefully set under its proper note. The 
book opens easily to the desired place, and re- 
mains open, as well near the end as in the 
middle. On the large beautiful pages there are 
no infelicities to offend the most critical taste. 
The old method of filling up spaces on a page 
with hymns or portions of hymns that may not 
be at all suited to the tune has been discarded. 
Every hymn is set to its own music. 

"Very careful thought was given," we are 
informed in the Preface, " to securing music not 
merely adapted to the rhythm of the hymn, but 
giving the proper musical expression to its senti- 
ment and spiritual quality." The hymns, which 
include the old favorites endeared to the Church 
and enriched by sacred associations, are adapted 
to all phases of Christian experience. 

Careful editing has produced a book that 
closely approaches the ideal. One pastor, after 
giving it a fair trial, expects from it not only 
improvement in worship but spiritual culture 
for the people. In The Hymnal we have not 
only an aid to public worship and private devo- 
tion, but a volume that possesses real literary 
excellence. 

The Hymnal, so well fitted for use in con- 
gregational singing, is a worthy contribution to 
the enrichment of worship. It will help to 
educate the popular taste away from the trashy, 
undignified music used in some evangelistic 
services, and to exalt to its proper place the 
service of song in the Lord's house. 

The International Commentary. [Chas. 
Scribner's Sons.] We would direct the special 
attention of ministers to this exceptionally able 
series of commentaries. Each volume is pre- 
pared by an authority, and all are excellent. 
The volume on the Romans, the work chiefly 
of Dr. Sanday, is specially fine ; it is fresh and 
exact and richly suggestive. 

Dr. Jacob Chamberlain, whose face appears 
on page 217, has written a fascinating volume 
called In the Tiger Jungle. [Fleming H. Re- 
vell Company, $1.00. ] Those who delight in mis- 



sionary literature will read it eagerly, and it will 
doubtless develop a taste for such reading when 
put into the hands of those who love stories of ad- 
venture. Dr. Francis E. Clark, who writes the 
Introduction, says : " The best of this volume does 
not lie in the taking titles of its chapters, in its 
fascinating style, or in the stirring adventure 
which it narrates ; it lies in the genuine mis- 
sionary fervor, which cannot but impart itself 
to those who peruse it, and in the realistic and 
vivid pictures of missionary life, which make 
the countries described, and their people, and 
the work done for them, live again in the glow- 
ing printed page." 

Jesus and the Children, by the Rev 
Charles E. Craven, is from the pen of a pastor 
who must be able to secure the love and con- 
fidence of little children, and who has learned 
the mind of the Master. He shows how children 
were constantly near Jesus and trusted him, 
while Jesus himself loved and respected the 
children. Our Lord also taught that the rela- 
tion of parents and children was a copy of God's 
relation to us, and that as children resemble 
their parents, God's true children will be like 
him. Mr. Craven has written helpful words for 
those whose privilege it is to teach the children. 
[Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sab- 
bath-school Work. 25 cents.] 

Leaders of Junior societies who are not satis- 
fied to entertain the children and send them away 
with the feeling that they have had a good time, 
will be grateful to Dr. George B. Stewart for 
his Lessons on the Life of Jesus. The main 
divisions are : I. The Coming Jesus ; II. The 
Babyhood of Jesus ; III. The Boyhood of Jesus ; 
IV. The Manhood of Jesus. The fourth main 
division is subdivided into six periods, and the 
events in each period are carefully treated, one 
event usually constituting a lesson. More atten- 
tion is given to the events in our Lord's career 
than to his teaching. These eighty lessons, in 
two courses of forty lessons each, were prepared 
for the Junior Christian Endeavor society of 
the Market Square Presbyterian Church of 
Harrisburg, Pa. Dr. Stewart tells us that his 
aim has been "to adapt each lesson to children 
and to keep it from being childish ; to bring out 
the knowledge the children already have and to 
stimulate them to acquire more ; to give them 
an accurate, orderly, complete view of the 
earthly career of the Prophet of Nazareth ; to 
make the man Jesus seem very real and his life 
a positive fact." [United Society of Christian 
Endeavor, Boston. 10 cents each part.] 

The Christian Endeavor Hour. By 
Thomas G. F. Hill, A.M., and Grace Living- 
ston Hill. Part I, January to June, 1897. 
The two pages devoted to each weekly topic are 
so packed with terse, striking, practical notes, 
that the subtitle, "Light for the Leader," is 
justified. This handbook contains also forms 
for the installation of officers and for the recep- 
tion of new members. From the "General 
Hints" to the leader we reproduce this : " Do 
not be afraid of a pause, for it is sometimes a 
solemn, heart-searching time. Do not use all 
your ammunition in your first speech ; keep 



1897.] 



WORTH READING FROM OUR FRIENDS. 



229 



some sweet quotation or some happy thought 
to be put in where it may be needed during the 
meeting or at its close. Study to make the 
close a solemn one or a happy one, as the case 
m;iy be, with always some thought emphasized 
to carry home for help during the week." 
[Fleming II. Revell Company. 15 cents.] 

America's Relief Expedition is the title 
of a volume published by the American National 
Red Cross, containing the reports of Miss Clara 
Barton, the president, Mr. George H. Pullman, 
financial secretary, as well as those of the field 
agents, and Dr. Ira Harris, physician in charge 
of medical relief in Zeitoun and Marash. The 
volume of one hundred and forty pages con- 
tains many illustrations and an outline map of 
Asia Minor. It may be obtained by forwarding 
thirty cents to the American National Red 
Cross, Washington, D. C. The returns, less the 
cost of publication, will be used for the further 
relief of the Armenian sufferers. 

The Expositor. A theological magazine. 
American edition. Few of our ministerial 
readers need to be told anything of the excel- 
lencies of the Expositor. Hitherto it has been 
published in England, under the direction of 
Dr. Robertson Nicoll since 1885, when Dr. 
Samuel Cox resigned the editorship. But now 
arrangements are completed by which there is to 
bean American edition, with Dr. Charles Cuth- 
bert Hall as editor, and the first number — Feb- 
ruary, 1897 — has been issued by Dodd, Mead & 
Co. The place of honor in this number is given 
to a review of Dr. Watson's "The Mind of 
the Master," by Dr. Chad wick, Lord Bishop of 
Derry and Raphoe, who finds the book "su- 
perficially attractive and deeply disappointing." 
The American editor writes a review of Dr. 
Watson's volume of Yale lectures, "The Cure 
of Souls," and also presents a general survey 
of current theological literature. [$3 per year; 
25 cents a single number.] 



WORTH READING. 

Spain and Cuba, by James Howe Babcock. 
The Chautauquan, February, 1897. 

The Present and Future of Cuba, by Fidel G. 
Pierra. The Forum, February, 1897. 

South Africa and its Future, by John Hays 
Hammond. North American Review, February, 
1897. 

The Cuba of the Far East, by the Hon. John 
Barrett, U. S. Minister to Siam. North American 
Rcvieio, February, 1897. 

The Ethical and Political Problems of New 
Japan, by Tokiwo Yokoi. Interational Journal 
of Ftliics, February, 1897. 

The Awakening of a Nation (Mexico), by 
Charles F. Lummis. Harper's Monthly Magazine, 
February, 1897. 

White Man's Africa : Part IV. The President 
of the Orange Free State, by Poultney Bigelow. 
Harper's Monthly Magazine, February, 1897. 



The Making of the Bible, by B. J. W. Dam. 
McClun's Magazine, February, 1897. 

John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers, 
by Rev. 0. S. Davis. Hurl font Seminary Record) 
February, 1897. 

The Peabody Education Fund, by President D. 
C. Gilman. Atlantic Monthly, February, L897. 

Messianic Prophecy : Its Apologetic Value, by 
Professor W. J. Beecher, D.D. Auburn Seminary 
Review, January, February, 1897. 

The Story of Gladstone's Life, Chapters V, VI, 
VII, by Justin McCarthy. The Outlook Maga- 
zine Number) , February, 1897. 



CATECHISM FOR MARCH. 

God created man male and female, after his own image, in 
knowledge, righteousness, and holiness, with dominion over 
the creatures. 

God's works of providence are his most holy, wise, and 
powerful preserving and governing all his creatures, and all 
their actions. 

"When God had created man, he entered into a covenant 
of life with him, upon condition of perfect obedience ; for- 
bidding him to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil, upon the pain of death. 

Our first pareuts, being left to the freedom of their own 
will, fell from the estate wherein they were created, by sin- 
ning against God. 

Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, 
the law of God. 



FROM OUR FRIENDS. 



A FAMILY NECESSITY. 

Remitting for 1897, a subscriber in Colorado 
writes: " Times are hard with us and money is 
scarce, but the monthly visits of The Church at 
Home and Abroad are a family necessity." 
And a friend in New York who is making efforts 
to extend the circulation exclaims: " How well- 
to-do Presbyterians with families can afford to be 
without it seems a mystery ! " 

IN THE U. P. CHURCH. 

We cannot do without The Church at Home 
and Abroad, even though we are in the United 
Presbyterian Church, says one of our readers in 
Ohio. 

THE best. 

A subscriber in the West expresses the opinion 
that "our Church magazine is now the best in the 
United States." 

A GIFT COPY. 

Here is a good suggestion from an enthusiastic 
reader who, when renewing for 1897, said: "It 
grows better and better all the time." Four days 
after that communication the following letter came : 
"In sending renewal a few days ago, I forgot to 
renew my one gift copy. Find enclosed $1 to re- 
new for 1897 to ." 



230 



MENISTERIAL NECROLOGY. 



[March, 



SYNODICAL INDORSEMENT. 

The Synod of Missouri during its annual meet- 
ing in October, 1896, recommended: "That all 
our church sessions be requested to induce the head 
of every family to subscribe for The Church at 
Home and Abroad." 

A recommendation adopted by the Synod of Iowa 
contained this sentence : " The Church at Home 
and Abroad is a necessity to every one who de- 
sires to be well informed concerning the great 
missionary enterprises of the Church." 

The following action was taken by the Synod of 
New Jersey : " We urge ministers and sessions to 
do their best to induce the people to subscribe for 
and read The Church at Home and Abroad, 
that the people may know what the work is and 
how blessed the joy of participation therein." 

The Synod of Ohio adopted this recommenda- 
tion : "Synod recommends The Church at Home 
and Abroad as a valuable medium of informa- 
tion concerning the Boards and beneficiences of the 
Church, and hopes that the officers of the churches 
may use their influence in securing enlarged circu- 
lation and reading among the members of the 
churches." 

And the Synod of Minnesota enjoined its pastors 
to "do all in their power to have the Church at 
Home and Abroad placed in the hands of all 
the people." 

Ministerial Necrology. 

4®- We earnestly request the families of deceased min- 
isters and the stated clerks of their presbyteries to forward 
to us promptly the facts given in these notices, and as nearly 
as possible in the form exemplified below. These notices are 
highly valued by writers of Presbyterian history, compilers 
of statistics and the intelligent readers of both, 

Caldwell, James. — Born at Buena Vista, Pa., 
December 19, 1824 ; graduated from Jefferson 
College, 1851, and Western Theological Semi- 
nary, 1854 ; ordained by the Presbytery of 
Iowa, 1855 ; pastor of the Church of Liberty - 
ville, la., 1854-59; Liberty ville and Batavia, 
1859-67 ; of the Church of Perry, Clarion Pres- 
bytery, Pa., 1868-77. In 1867 he supplied 
for a time the Church of Maple Creek, Pa. ; 
from 1879-1892, stated supply of East Union, 
Church, Presbytery of Kittanning ; 1892-93, 
stated supply East Union and Rac ie, and 1893- 
96, asst. stated supply of Raque. Died at his 
home near Decker's Point, Pa., January 8, 
1897. 

Married, Miss Isabella Martin, September 2, 
1869, who, with five children, one son and four 
daughters, survives. Two other children, 
twins, died in infancy. 

Crane, Oliver, D.D., LL.D. — Born at West 
Bloomfield, Montclair, N. J., July 12, 1822 ; 
graduated from Yale College, 1845, and from 
Union Theological Seminary, 1848 ; ordained 
by the Presbytery of Newark, June 18, 1848 ; 
missionary (A. B. C. F. M.) to Turkey— 
Broosa, Aintab, Aleppo andTrebizond — 1848- 
53 ; returned to America, with health impaired, 
1853 ; pastor Presbyterian Church, Huron, 
N. Y., 1854-57 ; Presbyterian Church, Waver- 
ly, N. Y., 1857-60; again missionary in 
Turkey, 1860-63; pastor Carbondale, Pa., 



1864-70 ; since then in delicate health, dili- 
gent in literary work and preaching. Died 
November 29, 1896. 

Married, 1848, Sibylla Bailey, who survives 
him. 

Holliday, Samuel H. — Born in Lancaster county 
Pa., August 1, 1833 ; graduated from Jefferson 
College, 1858, and Western Theological Semi- 
nary, 1862 ; ordained by the Presbytery of 
Clarion, June 16, 1863; pastor Brookeville, Pa., 
1863-68; Brady's Bend, Pa., 1868-75; 
Bellevue, Pa., 1875-87 ; pastor-elect of Pine 
Creek First Church at his death — not installed. 
Died at Allegheny, January 11, 1897. 

Married Miss Sophia M. Haft, of Canons- 
burg, Pa. One son and two daughters survive 
him. 

Loughran, Joshua. — Born at Armagh, Ireland, 
March 17, 1803 ; came to this country in 1821 ; 
graduated from Jefferson College, 1834 ; prin- 
cipal Green Academy, Pa., 1835-49; presi- 
dent Waynesburgh College, Pa., 1849-56; 
president Collegiate Institute at Hazel Green, 
Wis., 1856-58 ; president college and pastor 
Presbyterian Church at Waukon, Iowa, 1858- 
63 ; served Methodist churches in Missouri, 
1863-71 ; taught, lectured and established a 
seminary in Waukon, Iowa, 1871-84 ; stated 
supply Presbyterian Church, White Lake, 
S. D., 1884-97. Died January 7, 1897. 

Married Miss Lucy Crawford in 1839, who 
with their three children deceased before 1859. 
Married Miss Jennie Dodd in 1860, who, with 
their three children, survives ; children all 
daughters — one married. 

Scott, John P., D.D. — Born at New Scottsville, 
Beaver county, Pa., May 8, 1830; graduated 
from Jefferson College, 1850, and Canonsburg 
(Associate) Theological Seminary, 1853; 
ordained by the Presbytery of Richland (Asso- 
ciate), October 28, 1854; pastor Miller sburgh 
and Keene, O., October, 1854, to September, 
1859 — also principal of Jeffersonian Institute ; 
Detroit, Mich. ( United Presbyterian ) , Novem- 
ber, 1859, to March, 1878 ; Monticello, N. Y. 
(Presbyterian), April, 1878, to July, 1882; 
Lebanon, O., July, 1882, to July, 1896 ; Monti- 
cello, N. Y., 1896. Died suddenly after a two 
days' illness of angina pectoris, January 8, 
1897. 

Married Miss Martha J. Gifford, of Coila, 
Washington county, N. Y., December 6, 1856. 
She died at Lebanon, O., April 14, 1896. 
Four children— William P., M.D., of Hough- 
ton, Mich., John P., Jr., and George G., of 
Detroit, and Mrs. Ralph B. Towner, of Monti- 
cello, N. Y. survive. 

Sloan, David EL, D.D. —Born at Slate Lick, Pa., 
January 26, 1836 ; graduated from Washing- 
ton College, 1859, and Western Theological 
Seminary, 1862; ordained by the Presbytery 
of Kittanning, 1873; pastor of Presbyterian 
Church at Leechburg from 1871-96 ; Clinton, 
1871-87. Died at Blairsville, Pa., January 
17 1897 

Married, October 12, 1865, Miss Cynthia A. 
Jones, who, with seven children, survives him. 



RECEIPTS. 

HOME MISSIONS, Jamuary, 1896 and 1897. 





Churches. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Legacies. 


Individuals, Etc. 


Total. 


1896 


818,236 95 
28,900 08 


830,130 04 
35,696 28 


81,052 77 
17,757 63 


812,615 52 
7,294 87 


862,035 28 


1897 


89,648 86 








810,663 13 


85,566 24 


816,704 86 


85,320 65 


827,613 58 











COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS FOR TEN MONTHS ENDING JANUARY, 31, 1896 AND 1897. 





Churches. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Legacies. 


Individuals, Etc. 


Total. 


1896 


8158,866 54 
225,166 36 


8152,039 72 
170,721 14 


8140,392 20 
68,465 05 


840,676 03 
50,169 74 


8491,974 49 


1897 


514,522 29 








866,299 82 


818,681 42 


871,927 15 


89,493 71 


822,547 80 









FOREIGN MISSIONS, January, 1896 and 1897. 





Churches. 


Women's B'ds. 


Sab.-schools. 


Y. P. S. C. E. 


Legacies. 


Miscellaneous 


Total. 


1896 
1897 


840,986 04 
40,989 05 


822,239 58 
11,064 20 


85,476 04 
5,276 68 


82,115 13 
2,051 74 


85,124 94 
5,154 22 


810,699 53 
11,206 84 


886,641 26 
75,742 73 


Gain 
Loss 


83 01 


811,175 38 


8199 36 


863 39 


829 28 


8507 31 


810,898 53 



Statement of Receipts, for Nine Months Ending January 31, 1896 and 1897. 





Churches. 


Women's B'ds. 


Sab.-schools. 


Y. P. S. C. E. 


Legacies. 


Miscellaneous 


Total. 


1896 
1897 


8135,484 58 
121,206 37 


897,706 99 
78,922 25 


815,594 92 
13,841 97 


814,854 17 
14,574 77 


8123,991 87 
57,317 63 


862,683 20 
49,209 21 


8450,315 73 
335,072 20 


Gain 
Loss 


814,278 21 


818,784 74 


81,752 95 


8279 40 


866,674 24 


813,473 99 

1 


8115,243 53 



Gifts through Reunion Fund not included in this comparison. 



Finances, February 1, 1897. 



Appropriations made May 1, 1896 8904,224 78 Received from all sources to February 1, 1897 385,072 20 

Appropriations added to February 1, 1897 44,961 43 . 

Amount to be received before April 30, 1S97, to 

♦Total appropriated 8949,186 21 meet all obligations 8645,467 51 

Deficit of April 30,1896, 846,235.14, less Gifts, Received last year, Februarv 1, 1896, to April 30 

814,881.64 31,353 50 1896 '. 435,076 05 

Total needed for year 8980,539 71 f Increase needed before the end of the year. 



.8210,391 46 



♦Amount authorized by Assembly 81,034,000 00 

t Note. — Savings due to Unused Appropriations, Gain in Exchange, etc., will diminish this say $50,000. 

231 



232 



RECEIPTS. 

FREEDMEN, January, 1896 and 1897. 



[March, 





Churches. (Sabbath-schools. Woman's Ex. Com. 


Miscellaneous. 


Legacies. Total. 


1896 

1897 


$8,485 48 
7,305 74 


$475 44 $6,193 54 
347 09 5,983 58 


$3,262 26 
3,156 28 


$200 00 $18,616 72 
208 00 17,000 69 


Gain 

Loss 


51,179 74 


$128 35 $209 96 


$105 98 


$8 00 


$1,616 03 


Total Receipts for Ten Months Ending January 31, 1896 and 1897. 




Churches. 


SA BB ATH-SCHOOLS. 


Woman's Ex. Com. 


Miscellaneous. 


Legacies. 


Total. 


1896 

1897 


$36,507 67 
34,962 78 


$2,235 66 
2,314 86 


$22,585 59 
21,863 32 


$22,744 36 
14,591 21 


$13,977 32 
7,431 48 


$98,050 60 
81,163 65 


Gain 

Loss 


$1,544 89 


$79 20 


$722 27 $8,153 15 


$6,545 84 


$16,886 95 


Receipts through Reunion Fund are included in this comparison. 



PUBLICATION AND S.-S. WORK. 

January, 1897. 

Contributions from Churches $1 ,903 34 

" " Sabbath-schools.... 945 24 
" Individuals 524 83 



Previously acknowledged. 
Total since April 1, 



$3,373 41 
78,445 43 



$81,818 84 



MINISTERIAL RELIEF. 

January, 1897. 

Churches $5,927 67 

Individuals 1,374 86 

Interest 11,859 60 

Anniversary Reunion Fund 11 3 19 

For Current Fund $19,275 44 

Permanent Fund 1,000 00 



CHURCH ERECTION. 



General Fund. 



Total Receipts $20,275 40 

Total for the Current Fund to date . . . .$110,881 02 
For same period last year 118,105 32 



Contributions $4,478 92 

Miscellaneous 3,066 73 



Decrease $7,224 30 



$7,545 65 



Loan Fund. 
Amount collected on loans 1,681 67 

Manse Fund. 

Amount collected on loans $2,103 58 

Contribution 100 00 

Miscellaneous 25 65 



2229 23 



$11,456 55 

General Fund Contributions. 

Ten months current year $29,846 52 

Same period last year 29,240 96 



EDUCATION. 
January, 1897. 

Churches, Sabbath-schools and C. E. So- 
cieties $2,315 39 

Miscellaneous sources 785 13 

Legacy 260 00 

Amounts Refunded 177 67 

Income from investments 395 00 



Total $3,933 19 

Previously acknowledged 34,767 48 



Q am $605 56 Total since April 15 $38,700 67 



The Church at Home and Abroad 



APRIL, 1897. 



Contents. 

Current Events and the Kingdom, 237 

Mutual Forbearance, 240 

Our Magnanimous Heavenly Father, 240 

Divers Temptations, Rev. J. A. JEakin, 241 

Rev. Isaac Anderson, D.D., Rev. Calvin A. Duncan, 243 

Presb} terianism in California, Rev. Henry Collin Minion, D.D., 246 

FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

Notes.— Social Prayer in the Board— Measures Adopted by Board— Conference in Mexico- 
Student Volunteer Movement— Same Movement in China -Li Hung Chang — Work in 
Venezuela— China Awakening— Conference of F. M. Boards— Mr. Houston, of Nanking 
—Rev. D. L. Gifford, Korea— Mr. Moffett, Concerning Native Christians— Kon Bong 
Church. Seoul— Bonfire of Ido^s, Korea— Korean Girl's Just Estimate of Scripture — 
Thanksgiving on Sixtieth Birthday— Missionary Spirit of Chinese Converts— Fresh Facts 
—The Missionary Calendar, 251-255 

Mr. Brown's Letter— Sanitarium in China, 256-258 

Concert of Prayer.— Native Christians— Appeals from Foreign Churches— Foreign Students 

in America— Native Christians of Persia, Rev. L. F. Esselstyn—hettev from Secretary — ■** 
Speer, 259-266 

Letters.— India, Miss Jennie Sherman, Rev. G. W. Siler— China, Mrs. J. A. Laughlin—The 

Dwarfs of Africa, Rev. F. D. Hickman, 207, 2G8 



EDUCATION.— Philip Melanchthon— Medical Missionaries 269-271 

CHURCH ERECTION.— When Does the Year End ?— Building Within Means, . . . 272, 273 
PUBLICATION AND SABBATH-SCHOOL WORK.— Claims of the Day-Children's Day 

and Sabbath-school Anniversary— One Week's Work for the Master, Clark A. Mack— 

More About Rib Hill, 274-276 

COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES.— Pendleton Academy, Rev. O. A. McKinlay— The Christian 

College— The Small College, 277-279 

FREEDMEN.— Board's Work in Richmond, Va., 280-282 

MINISTERIAL RELIEF.— Order of Iron Cross-God's Workmen, A. E. A.—" The Secret 

of a Happy Day," 282-284 

HOME MISSIONS. 

Notes.— Treasurer's Request— nis Statement— Rev. J. G. Klene in a New Charge— End of 
Century— Retrenchment Damaging— Year of Blessing— "A Mother in Israel "—Fiscal 
Year Almost Gone— The Interior's Brave Words— Miami City, Florida— Generous Offers 
for Paying Debt— Rev. E. M. Ellis' Pioneer Work— The Gospel for the Destitute, Rev. 

W. T. Elsing, 285-287 

Lend to the Lord, Rev. John Hall, D.D., 288 

Concert of Prayer.— The Cities, 289 

Letters.— Nebraska, Rev. V. Lasa—N. Dakota, Rev. H. W. Harbaugh—'Sew Mexico, Rev. 8. 
W. Curtis— Utah, Rev. F. W. Blohm -Washington, Rev. B. Pa rsons— Alaska, Rev. J. H. 
Condit, Alonzo E. Austin— Montana, Rev. Qeorge Edwards— Appointments, . . . 291-294 
YOUNG PEOPLE'S CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR.— Notes— For Example, Rev. J A. Eakin— 
1 1 uguenot Seminary, Miss Anna M. Cummings— Christian Training Course— Presbyterian 
Endeavorers— Adoniram Judson, Mrs. Albert B. Robinson— Questions for the April Mis- 
sionary Meeting— Twenty Questions on Native Christians— Suggestions for Study, . . 295-307 

Book Notices, 307 Summary of Receipts, .... 309 

Ministerial Necrology, .... 308 Officers and Agencies, . . . . 311 

THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MISSION LIBRARY 
475 Riverside Drive, New York 27, N. Y. 



THE CHURCH 

AT HOME AND ABROAD, 



April, 1897 



CURRENT EVENTS AND THE KINGDOM. 



President McKinley. — Since our last 
issue, the powers and responsibilities of 
supreme magistracy in this Republic have 
been transferred from one to another of its 
citizens successively chosen to that high 
office by the free suffrage of their fellow- 
citizens. The public ceremonies which 
signalize this transfer, sufficiently imposing, 
are also, in their essential features, charac- 
terized by noble simplicity and impressive 
solemnity. 

In the presence of a vast assemblage of 
the people, the Chief Justice of the United 
States administered the constitutional oath 
to the elected President, whose hand rested 
upon the Holy Bible. 

Of the inaugural address then delivered 
we here record the opening and closing 
sentences : 

Fellow-Citizens : — In obedience to 
the will of the people and in their pres- 
ence, by the authority vested in me by 
this oath, I assume the arduous and re- 
sponsible duties of the President of the 
United States, relying on the support of 
my countrymen and invoking the guid- 
ance of Almighty God. Our faith 
teaches that there is no safer reliance 
than upon the God of our fathers, who 
has so singularly favored the American 
people in every national trial and who will 
not forsake us so long as we obey his 
commandments and walk humbly in his 
footsteps. 

Thus seriously and devoutly beginning, the 
President, after frankly setting forth the 
views and purposes which are to guide his 
administration, as seriously and reverently 
closed his discourse in the following words : 



Let me again repeat the words of the 
oath administered by the Chief Justice, 
which, in their respective spheres, so far 
as applicable, I would have all my coun- 
trymen observe : "I will faithfully exe- 
cute the office of President of the United 
States, and will, to the best of my ability, 
preserve, protect and defend the Constitu- 
tion of the United States." 

This is the obligation I have reverently 
taken before the Lord Most High. To 
keep it will be my single purpose, my 
constant prayer, and I shall confidently 
rely upon the forbearance and assistance 
of all the people in the discharge of my 
solemn responsibilities. 

Can any loyal American, who prays at 
all, fail constantly to unite with our Presi- 
dent in that " constant prayer," or deny 
him "the forbearance and assistance" 
which he so touchingly invokes ? 

Ex=President Cleveland. — Retiring 
now the second time from the presidency to 
which he has twice been called by the voice 
of the people, he may reasonably think 
himself exempt, for the remainder of his 
life, from the cares and labors of " public 
office," which he has so justly and so earn- 
estly exhorted his countrymen to regard as 
" a public trust." That he has conscien- 
tiously so regarded it we sincerely believe, 
and we confidently expect this to become 
more evident as the history of his two 
administrations shall be studied, however 
meu may differ concerning the wisdom and 
correctness of some of his acts and decisions. 
That which men will most cordially " agree 
to praise" in coming ages will, we believe, 
be the noble contribution which his admin- 

287 



238 



CURRENT EVENTS AND THE KINGDOM. 



[April, 



istration has made to the cause of universal 
peace. Having calmly and firmly advised 
all European powers that they must not by 
force take anything from any neighbor 
nation of ours, without the verdict of some 
impartial tribunal, he leaves upon the table 
of the Senate a treaty with the foremost of 
those powers, our nearest neighbor and our 
" next of kin," providing for the reference 
to such reasonable arbitrament of all ques- 
tions that may arise in the next five years — 
a treaty which his successor, in his inaugural 
address, exhorts the Senate to ratify. 
"And let all the people say, Amen." 

Our New Senate. — It is not wholly 
new. Only one- third of its ninety members 
completed their term of service on March 
4, and some of those were reelected. The 
body being thus continued is in session, 
while the other House of Congress is 
having a brief vacation until March 15, 
when the Fifty-fifth Congress is called to 
meet in special session. Going to press be- 
fore that date, we probably cannot record in 
this number the Senate's final action on the 
treaty of arbitration. That that body should 
deliberate upon so grave a question is not 
only proper but necessary to any worthy ful- 
fillment of its constitutional responsibility. 
We believe that the Senators generally have 
a serious regard to their responsibility, and 
will be more attentive to respectful petition 
than to clamorous demands or rude denun- 
ciation. The principle and purpose of the 
treaty, we cannot doubt, commend them- 
selves to all good men and women. Our 
hope is that the Senate will find nothing in 
its details which will prevent its adoption, 
with any necessary amendments to guard 
against abuse and perversion. If, on delib- 
eration, they shall find any such amendments 
necessary, all citizens ought to unite in 
commending the Senate for securing them. 

Persian Politics. — Close observers of 
political movements in the East have been 
much interested in the changes which have 
recently occurred at Teheran. The very 
able Prime Minister, who had such influence 
with the late Shah, and who was regarded 
by European ministers as by all odds the 
most intelligent and capable Persian states- 
man now living, has been removed by the 
new Shah, evidently with the conviction 
that it is necessary for him to assert his 
independence of so powerful a man. A new 



cabinet system has been introduced, and yet 
not new, for the same attempt was made in 
the earlier days of the old Shah's adminis- 
tration. It did not then succeed and it is 
not likely to do so now. Such a scheme is 
ill adapted to the Persian mind and meth- 
ods. We recall a statement of a prominent 
Persian ecclesiastic, whose picture appeared 
in a number of The Church at Home 
and Abroad last year, to the effect that 
Persia would never accept reforms so long 
as its name remains ' ' Iran. ' ' Only as it 
shall pass from under the rule of Islam can 
any genuine reformation of its political 
methods be expected. Meanwhile there 
is neither much of hope nor fear for the 
missionary work there from these make- 
shifts in the political administration of the 
kingdom. The kingdom of our Lord Jesus 
Christ will advance in either case, slowly 
but surely, for such is the immutable 
promise of God. 

Dr. Barrows in Calcutta. — A most 
cordial reception was extended to this emi- 
nent Christian preacher immediately upon 
his arrival in Calcutta. Numerous repre- 
sentatives of India's manifold religions 
united in the welcome ; for his fame in con- 
nection with the Parliament of Religions, 
and his special purpose in visiting the coun- 
try, had been widely heralded in advance. 
His course of lectures, upon which he 
entered at once, and which are to be re- 
peated in various parts of India, has 
attracted the most interested attention. It 
is gratifying to the friends of missions to 
learn from the India papers of the " elo- 
quent and powerful " support Dr. Barrows 
has brought in these brilliant discourses to 
the supreme claims of the Christian religion. 
While recognizing what there is of truth in 
the sacred writings of other nations, he 
boldly argued before his Indian hearers, 
that Christianity was the only full-orbed 
system of truth and love. The way in 
which he presented Christ and his salvation 
seems to have more than met the highest 
expectations of the missionaries and must 
emphatically strengthen the position of 
Christianity before the Hindu mind. These 
lectures will go far to correct the ideas which 
have become so prevalent in India, as to the 
victories of Hindu thought at the Parlia- 
ment of Religions. May the blessing of 
God follow Dr. Barrows' labors in India. 



1897.] 



CURRENT EVENTS — NOTES. 



239 



Greece. — "Living Greece" once more? 
Surely at this distance the little kingdom 
appears to be very much alive. The powers 
of Europe that could not agree to coerce 
Turkey from policies which gave no effec- 
tive protection from massacre to her Arme- 
nian subjects — can they agree to coerce 
Greece from protecting the Greek inhabi- 
tants of Crete, and welcoming them to union 
with themselves ? 

They are said to be agreed in their de- 
mands — can they agree in enforcing them ? 
King George seems to intend to ascertain. 
The people of England are looking on with 
interest. All Christendom waits to see 
whether " the concert of Europe," power- 
less to defend the victims of tyranny on the 
one hand, will be potent to prevent a brave 
people's escape from that tyranny on the 
other. 

The Tuskegee Conference. — The sixth 
of these annual conferences was held in 
February at the Normal and Industrial In- 
stitute in Tuskegee, Ala. To consider the 
best methods of improving the industrial, 
educational and moral condition of the 
Negro is the avowed purpose. The declara- 
tions of the conference of 1897 are in sub- 
stance as follows: Ownership of the soil is 
the foundation of all progress; and since 
three-fourths of the Negro race live by 
agriculture, more attention should be given 
to improved methods. We discourage 
extravagance, and advise all to live on less 
than they earn. We urge each community 
to keep its school open six months or more 
in the year, and that our young people be 
kept busy, in school or at work, that they 
may not become loafers or criminals. We 
should make the immoral, among the leaders 
or in the ranks, feel the force of our con- 
demnation. Religion should enter into the 
smallest details of daily life. We recognize 
the mutual dependence of the white and 
black races in the South, and pledge ourselves 
to do all in our power to remove obstacles 
to our mutual progress. 

Our Contributors in this number give 
our readers plenty to think about. Rev. J. 
A. Eakin shows us some of the tests to 
which the faith of converts in Siam are sub- 
jected, and how well they generally bear 
them. Prof. Minton continues his inter- 
esting account of " Presbyterianism in Cali- 



fornia," begun in our last number, and to 
be continued, we trust, in our next. This, 
like his previous article, is illustrated by 
portraits of several of the men who " made" 
the history which he is recording. 



Woman's Work is to be the prominent 
foreign mission theme in our May number ; 
the home mission theme is The Mormons, 
among and for whom much of the best 
Woman's Work is done; and we have the 
promise of several articles written by 
women on themes a little aside from the 
ordinary, and letting our readers see, 
through the writers' eyes, scenes with which 
most of our readers are not familiar as those 
writers are. We expect our May number 
to be a very attractive one — a kind of 
" Queen of the May." 



Mrss Mary Beatty. — Of this estimable 
lady Mrs. Sarah Bancus writes: " The 
Ladies' Missionary Society of the Presbyte- 
rian Church of Johnsonville, N. Y., have 
met with an almost irreparable loss in the 
death of Miss Mary Beatty, February 2, 
1897. Miss Beatty had an exalted love for 
missions and missionary work in every form, 
and to this object her gifts were always lib- 
eral and her impression on others inspiring. 
She died, as she had lived, sweetly submissive 
to the divine will, giving testimony with 
her latest breath that ' Jesus can make 
the dying bed seem soft as downy pillows 
are.' " 



Mrs. Annie Sinclair Cunningham, 
the wife of Rev. David A. Cunningham, 
D.D., pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, of Wheeling, W. Va. , was called 
to her heavenly home on Wednesday, Feb- 
ruary 17. She was one of the most promi- 
nent women in foreign mission work. She 
had been suffering for several years from 
internal trouble. Since she returned from 
Edinburgh, Scotland, where she was one of 
the United States delegates to the Evangeli- 
cal Alliance, her condition continued to 
grow more serious, and within the last few 
weeks a surgical operation was considered 
necessary. She did not survive the opera- 
tion. 

Mrs. Cunningham was born in West 
Highland, Scotland, October 27, 1832; her 
maiden name was Annie Campbell Frazier 



240 



OUR MAGNANIMOUS HEAVENLY FATHER. 



[April, 



Sinclair; her father was Rev. John C. Sin- 
clair, who used to preach in a church in 
Charlotte, N. C. Her mother's maiden 
name was Mary Julia MacLean, she being 
a descendant of the Duart and Lochbuy 
houses. She was married to Dr. Cunning- 
ham in 1858 at Bridgewater, Pa. 

Mrs. Cunningham was one of the found- 
ers of the Woman's Foreign Missionary 



Society of the Presbyterian Church. She 
was president of the Washington Presbytery 
Mission Society for a number of years, one 
of the secretaries of the Chautauqua Mis- 
sionary Institute, and served as a leader in 
local works of charity. While in Scotland 
she was chosen president of the Missionary 
Association of the World. 

Charlotte M. Terrill. 



OUR MAGNANIMOUS HEAVENLY FATHER. 



In nothing is the character of God in 
stronger or wider contrast with that of false 
gods, as conceived and represented by their 
worshipers, than in this, that they are 
revengeful, just like bad men, who invented 
them, while he is magnanimously forgiving. 
" Who is a God like unto thee, that par- 
doneth iniquity?" well might the prophet 
Mi cah exclaim. The heathen — both the 
rude and the cultivated — have had no such 
conception of divine magnanimity. Their 
gods are conceived as revengeful beings, 
taking pleasure in the misery of those who 
have displeased them, and if ever exercis- 
ing leniency, persuaded or induced to do so 
by such considerations as influence selfish 
and unholy men. The Bible teaches us to 
conceive of Jehovah as taking no pleasure 
in the ceath or the misery of any of his 
creatures — inflicting evil only in solemn 
manifestation of his eternal principled 
opposition to all wrong. Whenever he can 
find it or make it consistent with righteous- 
ness to spare the guilty, " he delighteth in 
mercy." A parent frowning upon a dis- 
obedient child and punishing him not as 
finding pleasure in so doing, but in simple 
fidelity to parental duty and in faithful care 
for the character of the child, gladly open- 
ing his arms to the child repenting and 
confessing his fault, is the Biblical type of 
the heavenly Father. There is in him 
nothing of that weakness which belongs to 
human fathers, so liable to induce them to 
indulge their children in what is wrong and 
must be hurtful to themselves as well as to 
all the family. God is infinitely removed 
from all that. But he is just as far from 
the weakness of resentment, the meanness 
of revenge, as from all capability of being 
bribed or coaxed to acquiesce in wrong. 

The absolute freeness and fullness of God's 
forgiveness— the boundless generosity that 



characterizes it — we are quite unable to 
express. If we call it princely, we degrade 
it, for how notorious is it that " the princes 
of this world " have quite generally been 
accessible to corrupting influences and per- 
suasions, and apt to confer favors on condi- 
tions that ensnare and degrade the recipient. 
On the contrary, those princes who have 
exercised mercy with conscientious care to 
secure all the ends of justice, with absolute 
freedom from every manner of bribery, and 
with the highest degree of magnanimity — if 
upon them we bestow the epithet godlike we 
are conscious of doing them the highest 
possible honor. The human ruler who in 
dealing with wicked and rebellious subjects 
of his authority shows himself superior to 
all personal enmities, all revengeful feelings 
— who is influenced only by considerations 
of principle, of faithful regard to right and 
to the public welfare, is the most like God. 
He acts on God's principles and in God's 
way. 

Let us ever keep before us this divine 
model of generous, magnanimous forgiveness. 
The God whom we adore, and who bids us 
be imitators * of him, is gloriously incapa- 
ble of personal resentment and personal 
unkindness. He has no reasons for inflict- 
ing evil upon any creature except public 
reasons, no motives but those which arise 
from unwavering regard for right and im- 
partial benevolence toward all beings. 
Whenever the sacred ends of justice can be 
secured without punishing the guilty, then 
he delights to forgive. No influence needs 
then to be exerted to pacify him — no induce- 
ments are needed to persuade him. His 
own prompting, his own preference, is all 
that way. No persuasion and no power 
could prevent his showing mercy. 

* Eph. 5 : 1, E. V. and the Greek original, 



1897.] 



DIVERS TEMPTATIONS. 



241 



THE COMFORT OF THIS. 

You may find a believer suffering under 
severe affliction, keenly alive to all the 
natural pain of it, yet enjoying a sweet 
peace, a delightful serenity of mind, a cheer- 
ful confidence that all is well, because all is 
ordered by infinite fatherly love and wis- 
dom. How different from this the grief of 
an unbeliever! There may be a gloomy 
calmness of stoicism — a proud acceptance of 
the inevitable; but never satisfaction and 
perfect peace. The element of hope is also 
an ingredient in the comfort of the believer. 
He is sure that what he suffers will be 
transient. It will fulfill its purpose, and 
then cease. 

god's end in affliction. 

" He will subdue our iniquities." There 
is no other essential evil except sin. Noth- 
ing else can permanently hurt our imperish- 
able souls. Nothing el